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her house, 4d.; also for four boats carrying the harness from London Bridge to her house. The long journey from Goodrich Castle has brought on an indisposition, and we accordingly have an entry of 3d. paid for an electuary for the countess' use. Hay and oats were purchased against her arrival; also a pipe of wine, whilst another item shews that a garçon was put into the house for six days to guard it before Joanna de Valentia reached the metropolis.

We have now passed over twenty-two membranes of the roll containing these daily expenses, the nature of which will have been sufficiently apparent from what has been adduced. It will be needless to dwell any longer upon items which recur with the same regularity; I will therefore confine the attention to noticing the names of the personages whom she entertained, and to tracing the line of her subsequent journeys.

On the feast of the Ascension the Prior of Merton and Dominus Henry de Geldeforde dined with her at Merton. From hence she went to Ledrede and Chyngwelde; to Bosgrove, when she received Thomas de Berkeley, Roger de Inkpenne, and Master Giles. From hence to Newton, where these individuals ate at the cost of Adamar de Valentia. She passed on to Basingstoke and Benham. At this latter place the wine was furnished by Adamar. Thus she reached Schwyndon by Whit Sunday. On Trinity Sunday she shewed her customary welcome. On this day we find as her guests Domina de Longespeye, Radulphus de la Stane and his wife, and Nicolas de Carrew. We have no difficulty in making out who these individuals were. Emelina de Longespeye possessed lands in Wiltshire, where she founded a chantry in the 19th of Edward I. Radulphus de la Stane was one of those present at the king's council when judgment was given against Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester, in regard to his claim of the castle of Bristol. Nicolas de Carrew was one of those who signed the barons' letter to the pope in the parliament of Lincoln (29th Edw. I.), where he is called “ Dominus de Mulesford,” from possessing this manor in Berkshire. He died in 1312. Î'homas de Berkeley also came as a visitor on the 17th June. On the feast of St. Laurence, John Comyn, John de Tany, Thomas de Berkeley, and John de la Ryvers, arrived. On this day Dominus John de Tany was made a knight, and in consequence there were many strangers there.

Up to this date the Countess of Pembroke remained at Swindon Valence,-a manor, like Sutton Valence in Kent, that took its name from this illustrious family; and, belonging to Adamar de Valence, this prolonged residence here of his mother is thus explained.

The total expenditure from the feast of St. Michael to the same day of the fol' wing year was 413l. :3 :31.

The name of John de Hastings so often appearing on these rolls of domestic expenditure, is so well known that it seems superfluous to enter into the history of his life. His actions are chronic, id in the wars of Scotland. Peter of Langtoft and the poet who pourtrayed the siege of Carlaverock have sung his eulogy. He is celebrated as much for his bravery as his prudence, and it is difficult to say whether he was more pre-eminent for his devotion to his country or his loyalty to his sovereign. He was one of the brightest ornaments in the peerage of the time he flourished. As lord of Abergavenny he was in constant intercourse with the Countess of Pembroke whilst she resided at Goodrich Castle. He had married Isabel her daughter. He was the brotherin-law of Adamar; the friend of Edward I. A beautiful effigy of this distinguished man, sculptured in wood, still exists in the church of Abergavenny.

Joanna de Valentia was the daughter of Warine de Munchensi, and eventually the heiress of her brother William. We are at present uninformed as to the precise time of her marriage, but we know that she died in the year 1307. She was then seized of the castles of Goodrich, Pembroke, and Castle Martin; the manors of Tenbury, Coitiff, Sutton Valence, Brabourn, Shrivenham; lands in Berkshire, and castles and manors in Ireland. The castle of Hertford had been granted to her husband in the 35th of Henry III, which will explain the reason of her residence at this place, which is so frequently alluded to in the earlier roll of her domestic accounts. Goodrich Castle, where Joanna de Valentia made so long a sojourn, was granted as early as 1203 to William Mareschal, Earl of Pembroke. It continued in the hands of this family till the decease of the last heir, when it reverted to the crown. In 1247 it was granted by Henry III to William de Valence, who assigned it in dower to Joanna, together with Morton, Swindon, Brabourn, and other manors. The history of this interesting military residence will be

1862

29

given in a work expressly devoted to this branch of architecture, now nearly ready for the press.

But little more remains to be said regarding the Countess of Pembroke. That she lived according to her rank, the illustrations afforded by the extracts furnish sufficient proof. They shew that the circles from which she selected her intimate friends were either those which the Clares and the Berkeleys rendered honourable by their distinguished position, nobles who were living in her neighbourhood, or else she sought out the society of persons who had devoted themselves to a life of monastic seclusion and piety. She was constantly solaced in her widowhood by the visits of Adamar her son, and Isabella de Hastings her daughter; and she seems to have passed those days of her life which these records throw so much light upon, in the exercise of unostentatious hospitality and kindness to the poor.

ON BISHOP LEOFRIC'S LIBRARY.

BY THOMAS WRIGHT, M.A.., F.8.A., HON. SEO. FOR. CORRESP.

The library of Exeter Cathedral contains one of the most important monuments—perhaps the most important monument—of the literature of our Anglo-Saxon forefathers now existing. It is a large volume in folio, written apparently in the earlier part of the eleventh century, and containing a collection of the Anglo-Saxon national poetry. Most of the longer and complete poems are of a religious or moral character ; but there are two or three pieces which are evidently fragments of the national romances; and, which is the most curious part of the collection, though very difficult to translate, we have in it a considerable number of Anglo-Saxon metrical riddles, a class of composition which was greatly in favour with our ancestors at this early period. The whole text of this volume, which is known among scholars as the Codex Exoniensis, or the Exeter Book, has been edited, with an English translation, by one of our most distinguished Anglo-Saxon scholars, Mr. Thorpe.

It was usual, at the time when this volume came into the possession of the church of Exeter, to enter on the leaves, at the beginning and end of church books, deeds of various kinds ; such as gifts of goods or lands, manumissions of serfs, wills, etc., and a considerable number of such entries will be found on the leaves at the beginning of the Exeter Book; from one of which we learn that the book itself was a gift to the church from Bishop Leofric. Leofric was the first bishop of this diocese after the removal of the see from Crediton to Exeter. In fact, it was he who effected the removal of the see. Although the name is Anglo-Saxon, he is said to have been a native of Burgundy, and to have been descended from a noble family in that country.

Introduced, we are not told in what manner, to King Edward the Confessor, he soon became a favourite counsellor of that monarch, who made him his chaplain, and gave him the bishopric of Crediton about the year 1050. It was traditionally reported, as we learn from Godwin, that on his consecration to the new bishopric of Exeter the king took him by the right hand and the queen by the left, and that in this manner they led him to his episcopal throne or chair, and placed him in it. He laboured diligently during a tolerably long episcopacy,—for he died in 1073, after ruling the see of Exeter twenty-three years,—to enrich and improve the see, and the entry in the large book of poetry, just alluded to, is an enumeration of his gifts

. Among these were his library of books, which are enumerated as follows :"Two complete mass-books, and one Collectaneum, and two epistle-books, and two complete song-books, and one night song, and one 'Ad te levavi,' and one tropary, and two Psalters, and a third as they sing it at Rome, and two hymn-books, and a valuable blessingbook, and the English Christ's book, and two summer reading-books, and one winter reading-book, and Regula Canonicorum, and Martyrologium, and one Canon in Latin, and a shrift-book in English, and one complete sermon book for winter and summer, and Boethius' book in English, and a great English book on all things composed in verses ; and on his accession, he found in the church no more but one capitulary, one old worn night-song, one epistle-book, and two old worn reading books in very bad condition, and one worn priest's garment.

“And thus many Latin books he procured for the church: Liber Pastoralis, and Liber Dialogorum, and Libri Quatuor Prophetarum, and Liber Boethii de Consolatione, and Liber Officialis Amalarii

, and Isagoge Porphyrii de Dialectica, and one Passionalis, and Liber Prosperi, and Liber Prudentii Psychomachiæ, and Liber Prudentii Hymnorum, and Prudentii de Martyribus in one book, and Liber Ezechielis Prophetæ, and Cantica Canticorum, and Liber Isaiæ Prophetæ, separately, and Liber Isidori Etymologiarum, and Liber Isidori de Novo et Veteri Testamento, and Liber Isidori de Miraculis Christi and Passione Apostolorum, and Expositio Bedæ super Evangelium Lucæ, and Expositio Bedæ super Apocalypsim, and Expositio Bedæ super septem Epistolas Canonicas and Liber Orosii, and Liber Machabæorum, and Liber Persii, and Sedulius's book, and Liber Aratoris, Liber de Sanctis Patribus, and Glosae Statii.”

My information relating to Leofric is derived chiefly from Godwin de Episcopis Angliæ. If Leofric was really a foreigner, it is very remarkable that he should have collected together so large a proportion of Anglo-Saxon books, and that instead of being, as one of Edward the Confessor's foreign friends, an introducer of foreign manners and principles, we should find him adopting an Anglo-Saxon name, and displaying a taste for Anglo-Saxon literature, and evidently joining in that movement of substituting among the clergy the Anglo-Saxon language for the Latin, which had been going on since the time of the great King Alfred.

The catalogue given above may be considered as that of the private library of an individual of the eleventh century, who was at the same time a scholar and an ecclesiastic, and the number of church service books of different kinds-no less than twenty-four out of fifty-two—is perhaps less the consequence of his latter character, than a proof of his anxiety to supply in his church that want of service books of which he complains so much.

These church books were evidently in Anglo-Saxon, because he contrasts them with the subsequent list of books in Latin. These Latin books consist of theology, of what we may, perhaps, term philosophy, of poetry, and of history.

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