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verbenas, and their cuttings require to be wintered in a light, airy window, and kept perfectly free from damp-next to frost their deadliest winter nemy
The bloom of many plants may be prolonged to very late in the season, by giving timely shelter from the first autumnal frosts. Geraniums, dahlias, helitropes, chrysanthemums, &c., may be sheltered by mats during frosty nights; and as it frequently occurs that after the first few frosty nights we have no more for a month or two, so by sheltering these plants from the first frost, we can preserve them in bloom for a considerable time longer.
The Camellia Japonica, though introduced into this country from China, is, as the name implies, a native of Japan, and of the same genus as the Camellias, bohea and viridis, which supply the well known black and green teas of commerce. It is truly a superb plant, combining the rich blossoms of the rose with the glossy foliage of the evergreen; and though sufficiently hardy to live and produce a few insignificant weather-beaten flowers out of doors in this climate, yet from some peculiarities in its constitution, and in the forma tion of its flower-buds, the camellia requires great care and attention before it deigns to expand its gorgeous petals even in a window. The principal difficulty is that the flower-buds, when formed, are exceedingly liable to drop off from the plant previous to their expansion. This unfortunate habit, when it occurs, is attributed to a too great or a too sinall supply of water, and also to a too great variation of temperature, particularly when the buds are swelling. To flower the camellia in perfection, a higher temperature than that of a green-house is requisite, during what is termed the growing season. Still, with care, it can be flowered beautifully in a window, without any artificial heat whatever, more than the average temperature of a sitting-room. The routine of window cultivation commences when the plant has done flowering, at which time, if it is a young small sized plant, it should be shifted into a pot of a size larger, but if an old large plant, it need not be repotted oftener than once in two years. The soil should be composed of equal parts of peat and loam, and as peat cannot be procured in every locality, I may observe that the next best soil is light, sandy loam, enriched with a small quantity of leaf mould. After potting, the plant should be placed in the window of a rather close warm room, where a fire is kept; and there it is to remain as long as it continues growing, and until the flower-buds for the ensuing season are perfectly developed. During this time, when the plant is growing and the flower-buds forming water should be rather liberally supplied; the leaves and branches should also be frequently sprinkled with water; and the dust which, even in the tidiest room, will adhere to the leaves, care fully washed off with a sponge. The plant should have as much light as possible, but extreme care should be taken, in all stages of the camellia's growth, never to let the sun's rays shine directly upon it. When the plant has ceased growing, it should then be put out of doors in a shaded situa tion, where, at most, it will be exposed to the early morning's sun only, and where it will be sheltered from cold winds. There it is to be kept till about this season of the year, or rather earlier for it must on no account have the slightest acquaintance with frost-when it should again be placed in the window. The plant, if in good health, and if the preceding directions have been adhered to, will be well furnished with flower buds; and now is the critical season, when all care is to these buds from off, before they expand into beauteous flowers. Water must be carefully applied, the soil in the pot must never be permitted to become dry, nor yet should it be always soaking wet. Observe that at this time, either one hour's drought, or the soil in the pots becoming soddened, will equally bring down the buds, thereby destroying your hopes, and re dering nugatory all your previous care. The tem
Walks may now be made, and edgings laid down (see vol. ii. p. 54). The dwarf Dutch box (Buxus sempervirens var.) affords the neatest edging, and if annually clipped lasts in good order for many years. The Thrift forms a very pretty edging, but it has to be renewed every few years. The Double Daisy, Stemless Gentian (Gentiana acaulis), London Pride, and Saxifraga hypnoides-all these make beautiful edgings. Other plants suitable for edgings, but not so commonly used for that purpose, are the Pansey, Dwarf Bellflower (campanula pumila), Cowlip, Polyanthus, Auricula, Hepatica, veronica fruticulosa, Culluna vulgaris flore plesso, and Erica carnea. edgings may also be formed by narrow stripes, or as they are termed, verges of grass turf.
Take care of such flowers as still retain their beauty, pick off all dead buds and leaves, and draw earth up to their stems. Keep the walks clear of weeds, and remove all decayed stems, leaves, flowers, flower-stakes, and litter of any kind out of the garden; so that a sober neatness may succeed the summer's gaiety.
Evergreen shrubs.-Now is about the best season of the year for transplanting evergreen shrubs. Have them taken up with as large a ball of earth adhering to their roots as possible. Dig the hole to receive the shrub larger than the size of the ball, but not so deep as to place the roots of the shrub lower in the soil than they were before. Loosen the earth at the bottom of the hole, and pour in water to form a puddle; put in the shrub, carefully spreading and laying out flat any straggling roots or root fibres. Then throw in a few inches in depth of earth over the roots, and pour in more water to settle the earth about them, proceeding so until the hole be filled. The shrub may then be tied to stakes, to keep it steady in high winds; and a layer of litter placed round the stem, as far as the roots diverge, will ensure success to the operation. Cuttings of Laurels, Phillyreas, Jasmine, Aucuba, Holly, Box, Honeysuckle, and other evergreen and deciduous shrubs may now be taken and planted. Choose strong shoots of last summer's growth, from nine to eighteen inches in length; strip off all the lower leaves, leaving but a few at the top, and plant the cuttings half their length deep in the soil of a shady border, pressing the earth with your about them. soon root, and be fit for transplanting in about the end
of twelve months.
ge plasti ce in t
Saing seat s time, vi er-buds t supp so be f Just wich the le The pla but extra s shine
eased good exposed where it here it is t e year, or count h when it
VEGETABLES.-Carrots and Beet should now be stored away for winter use. The best mode of
at the keeping these roots is to place them in alternate ed with layers of dry sand, either in a corner of a dry otting cellar, or in barrels, or boxes.
of a rathe
A layer of sand an inch thick should be first laid down, and upon it a layer of the roots, then another inch in depth of esger and between each alternate layer of roots, until
LAYING OUT TABLES.
all are stored away, when the heap should be No. I.—BREAKFASTS, LUNCHEONS, AND FOLDING
Parsnips may be stored in the same manner as
She Chive (Allium schoenoprasum), commonly termed by the plural chives, or lyze, from a quantity being taken for use at one time, is, though a native plant, seldom seen in English gardens, Well known and common in Scotland, where It is much used for seasoning broths, soups, omeit has a mild and agreeable flavour, and takes up salads, and other culinary preparations. As Very little room, no garden should be without it.
The ph directi shed with
3. when al from falling
Dowers in the pot or ret
ve that the d ally bring hoper Care Th
perature of the room should not be higher than
There are a great many varieties of the camellia, and its popularity is almost universal; the Italians, Germans, and Americans, vieing with John Bull in the production of new and beautiful varieties. To the window gardener, who has only room for one or two plants, I would recommend the double white, and double red kinds. The camellia is propagated by seeds, cuttings, grafting, and inarching: but as these processes are difficult, and can only be properly performed by practical gardeners, I consider that I need not further allude to them.
apart, they will soon increase into patches. When gathering the leaves for use, cut close to the ground, others will soon shoot up in their placess After the bed has lasted three or four years, it should be renewed by separating the roots, and planting them in a fresh place.
The fallen tree leaves, wherever practicable, should be carefully collected. As leaf-mould should form a part of the soil of almost all potted plants, it is peculiarly valuable to the window gardener. The leaves, when collected for this purpose, should be laid in a flat heap exposed to the rain, and turned frequently to expedite their decomposition. When thoroughly rotted, so as to crumble into powder when rubbed between the thumb and finger, the leaf mould is fit for use. Leaves are also used for supplying, by their fermentation, artificial heat in hotbeds. For this purpose the leaves should be made up in a ridge-shaped pile, to keep them from getting too wet, turned over and well mixed every three weeks. If quite dry, a little water should be thrown on the heap as it is turned over, and fresh gathered leaves added and mixed with the others. In spring the leaves will be in condition to make a hotbed of moderate, but lasting heat. Leaves also may be gathered in a heap, house-slops thrown on them, road-scrapings added if procurable, and in spring dug into the ground as manure. All vacant ground should now be trenched, and thrown up into ridges, to receive the ameliorating effects of the winter's frost.
THE HOUSEWIFE'S FRIEND.
THE art of laying out a table, whether for breakfast, luncheon, dinner, tea, or supper, consists in arranging the various dishes, plate, glass, &c., methodically, and adhering to the rules we are about to make known.
Much trouble, irregularity, and confusion, will be avoided in a house when there is company, if servants are instructed to prepare the table, sideboard, or dinner-waggon, in a similar manner and order daily.
All tables are usually laid out according to the following rules throughout the United Kingdom; yet there are local peculiarities which will neces sarily present themselves, and should be adopted or rejected as may appear proper to the good housewife:
BREAKFASTS.-The table should be covered with a clean white cloth; the cups and saucers arranged at one end, if for tea; and at both ends, if for tea and coffee; or the coffee cups and saucers may be arranged at the right-hand side of one end of the table, and the tea-cups and saucers at the left; the tea-pot and coffee-pot occupying the space between in front, and the urn that at the back, Some persons substitute cocoa or cho
is propagated by slips, or by dividing the roots colate for coffee, in which case they are to be
ing or autumn. Any one who can procure a few roots now should plant them about six inches
placed the same. The slop bason and milk-jug should be placed to the left; and the cream,
and hot milk-jugs, with the sugar bason, to the right.
The remainder of the table should be occupied in the centre by the various dishes to be partaken of; while at the sides must be ranged a large plate for meat, eggs, &c., and a small one for toast, rolls, &c., with a small knife and fork for each person; the carving knife and fork being placed point to handle; the butter and bread knives to the right of their respective dishes, which occupy the centre part, and spoons in front of the hot dishes with gravy. Salt cellars should occupy the four corners, and, if required, the cruets should be placed in the centre of the table.
Dry toast should never be prepared longer than five minutes before serving, as it becomes tough, and the buttered, soppy and greasy, if too long prepared. Hot rolls should be brought to table covered with a napkin.
Every dish should be garnished appropriately, either with sippets, ornamental butter, watereresses, parsley, or some one of the garnishes we shall point out in a future Number.
The dishes usually set upon the table are selected from hot, cold, and cured meats; hot, cold, cured, and potted fish: game; poultry, cold or devilled; fruit, ripe, preserved, or candied; dressed and undressed vegetables; meat pies and patties, cold; eggs; honey-comb; entrées; and savoury morsels-as grilled kidneys, ham-toast, devils, &c.
Déjeuners à la fourchette are laid the same as suppers, except that tea and coffee are introduced; but in sporting circles not until the solids are removed.
When laid for a marriage or christening breakfast, a bride's or christening cake should occupy the centre instead of the épergne or plateau.
LUNCHEONS, OR NOONINGS.-The luncheon is laid in two ways; one way is to bring in a butler's tray with let down sides, on which it is previously arranged upon a tray cloth, and letting down the sides and spreading the cloth upon the dining table to distribute the things as required. The other is to lay the cloth as for dinner, with the pickle-stand and cruets opposite each other; and, if in season, a small vase of flowers in the centre; if not, a water-jug and tumblers, which may be placed on a side-table at other times. The sides of the table are occupied by the requisites for each guest, viz., two plates, a large and small fork and knives, and dessert-spoon. A folded napkin, and the bread under, is placed upon the plate of each guest.
Carafes, with the tumblers belonging to and placed over them, are laid at the four corners, with the salt cellars in front of them, between two table-spoons laid bowl to handle.
If French or light wines are served, they may be placed in the original bottles in ornamental wine vases, between the top and bottom dishes and the vase of flowers, with the corks drawn and partially replaced.
The dishes generally served for luncheons are the remains of cold meat neatly trimmed and
garnished; cold game hashed or plain; hashes of all descriptions; curries; minced meats; cold pies, savoury, fruit, or plain; plainly cooked cutlets, steaks, and chops; omelettes; bacon; eggs; devils and grilled bones; potatoes; sweetmeats; butter; cheese; salad and pickles. In almost anything does for lunch, whether of fish, flesh, fowl, pastry, vegetables, or fruit.
Ale and porter are generally served, but occa sionally sherry, marsalla, port, or home-made wines, are introduced, with biscuits and ripe fruit.
A good housewife should always have something in the house ready to convert into a neat little luncheon, in case a few friends drop in, to what some are pleased to call a "tiffin" and it is astonishing how a really handsome looking affair may be made out of the remains of the dinner served the day before, some handsome glass, a sprinkle of good plate, a few flowers, some good ale, or a little wine, and above all, a hearty wel
NAPKINS.-Dinner napkins should be about twenty-eight inches broad, and thirty inches long. They may be folded in a variety of ways, which impart a style to a table, without adding much to the expense, and may be readily accomplished with a little practice and attention to the following directions and diagrams.
1. THE MITRE.-(Fig. 1.)
Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then turn down the right-hand corner, and turn up the left-hand one, as in Fig. 2, A and B. Turn back the point A towards the right, so that it shall lie behind C; and B to the left, so as to be behind D. Double the napkin back at the line E, then turn up F from before and G from behind, when they will appear as in Fig. 3. Bend the corner H towards the right, and tuck it behind I, and turn back the corner K towards the left, at the dotted line, and tuck it into a corresponding part at the back. The bread is placed under the mitre, or in the centre at the top.
2. THE EXQUISITE.-(Fig. 4.)
Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then fold down two-fifths of the length from each side, back, repeat on the other side, then turn up the as in Fig. 5, at A; roll up the part B towards the
corner towards the corner A, and it will ap The centre part E is now to be pear as D. turned up at the bottom, and down at the top, and the two rolls brought under the centre piece as in Fig. 4. The bread is placed under the centre band, K, Fig. 4.
3. THE COLLEGIAN,—(Fig. 6.) Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then turn down the two sides towards you, so that they shall appear as in Fig. 7; then roll up the part A underneath until it looks like B, Fig. 8. Now take the corner B and turn it up towards C, so that the edge of the rolled part shall be even with the central line; repeat the same on the other side, and turn the whole over, when it will ap pear as in Fig. 6. The bread is placed underneath the part K.
4. THE CINDERELLA.-(Fig. 9.) Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then turn down the two sides as in Fig. 7; turn the napkin over, and roll up the lower part as in Fig. 10, A, B. Now turn the corner B upwards towards C, so that it shall appear as in D; repeat on the other side, and then bring the two parts E together so that they shall bend at the dotted line; and the appearance will now be as Fig. 9. The bread is placed under the apron part, Fig. 9.
5. THE FLIRT.-(Fig. 11.)
Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then fold across the breadth, cominencing at one extremity and continuing to fold from and to your-with self in folds about two inches broad until the whole is done; then place in a tumbler, and it will appear as in the illustration.
6. THE NEAPOLITAN.-(Fig. 12.)
Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then fold one of the upper parts upon itself from you; turn over the cloth with the part having four folds from you, and fold down the two sides so as to appear as in Fig. 7; then roll up the part A underneath, until it appears as in the dotted lines in Fig. 15, at B. Now turn up the corner B towards C, so that the edge of the rolled part shall be even with the central line: repeat the same upon the opposite side, and turn the whole over, when it will appear as in Fig. 14; the bread being placed underneath the part K, as represented in the illus
7. THE "FAMILY FRIEND," OR OUR OWN. (Fig. 14.)
Fold the napkin into three parts longways, then turn down the two sides as in Fig. 7, and roll up the part A on both sides, until as represented on the right-hand side in Fig. 14; then turn it backwards (as A B) on both sides; now fold down the point C towards you, turn over the napkin, and fold the two other parts from you so that they shall appear as in Fig. 15. Turn the napkin over, thus folded, and raising the centre part with the two thumbs, draw the two ends (A and B) together, and pull out the parts (C and D) until they appear as in Fig. 13. The bread is to be placed as represented in K, Fig. 13.
DINNERS.-The appearance a dinner-table presents, does not depend so much upon a profuseness of viands, as upon the neatness, cleanliness, and well-studied arrangement of the whole. Taste, if well directed, may produce a handsome dinner; whereas three times the amount of money may be expended upon another, and yet not make even a respectable appearance.
We cannot too strongly urge the necessity of having things done in the same manner every day as when there is company. The servants become accustomed to waiting properly, things are always at hand, and they do not appear awkward when visitors drop in; then everything is regular, and goes on smoothly.
TO LAY THE CLOTH.-The table should be well polished, and then covered with a green baize cloth, over which a fine white damask one should be spread. If the white cloth is to be kept on after dinner, it is customary to spread a small cloth at either end of the table where the large dishes are placed, to protect the long cloth from accidental spots arising froin gravy, &c.; these slips are removed after dinner, and the cloth cleaned with crumb brushes.* In some houses an entire upper cloth is placed upon the table instead of
slips, and this being removed after dinner, does not require the tedious process of brushing the table-cloth. When the cloth has been spread, place carafes, the tumblers belonging to and placed over them, between every four persons, a salt-cellar between every third person, and a large and small knife, fork, and spoon, to each guest, with two wine-glasses, a champagne glass* and a tumbler, to the right of each, and the bread placed in or under folded napkins between the knives, forks, and spoons; and at grand entertainments or public dinners, the name and rank of each guest neatly written on a card in front of the napkin, so as to prevent confusion and jealousy, The centre ornament, usually a candelabrum, plateau, an épergne, or a vase of artificial flowers, must now be set on, and the mats for the various dishes arranged then the wine-coolers or ornamental vases placed between the centre piece and the top and bottom dishes, with the wines in the original bottles, loosely corked; the spoons for assisting the various dishes, asparagus tongs, fish knife and fork or slice, and carving knives and forks, are placed in front of the respective dishes to which they belong; and knife-rests opposite to those who have to carve; with a bill of fare, and a pile of soup-plates before those that have to assist the soup.
require particular attention, and especially the T In arranging or laying out a table, several things following:
Plate should be well cleaned, and have a
bright polish; few things look worse than to Glass should be well rubbed with a wash-leather, see a greasy looking épergne and streaky spoons. T dipped in a solution of fine whiting and stone-T polished with an old silk handkerchief. Plates and blue, and then dried; afterwards it should be dishes should be hot, otherwise the guests will be disgusted by seeing flakes of fat floating about in the gravy. Bread should be cut in pieces about an inch thick, and each round of a loaf into six parts, or if for a dinner party, dinner rolls should be ordered. The bread is placed under the napkins as directed in another part of this number, or on the left of each guest, if dinner napkins are not used, some of the bread being placed in a breadtray covered with a crochet cloth (vol. ii. p. 461, upon the sideboard. Lights, either at or after the dinner, should be subdued, and above the guests, if possible, so as to be shed upon the table without intercepting the view. Sauces, either bottle, sweet," or boat-vegetables, and sliced cucumber, or glazed onions for stubble goose, should be placed upon the sideboard; a plate basket for removing the soiled plates is usually placed under the sideboard, or some other convenient part of the room; and two knife-trays, covered with napkins, are placed upon a butler's tray; these are used for removing soiled carvers and forks, and the soiled silver. It is useful to have a large sized bradawl, a corkscrew, and funnel, with strainer; the first to break the wire of the champagne bottles, and the last to strain port wine, if required to be opened during dinner.
- (To be continued.)
* In some families the champagne glasses are handed round upon a salver, but it saves very much confusion at large dinners if they are placed upon the table. *For the Etiquette of the Dinner Table, see vol. ii. One of the wine-glasses is usually green, or some other p. 14. colour.
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