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النشر الإلكتروني
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Heads of families should never lose sight of the responsible position in which they are placed, nor

ETIQUETTE, POLITENESS, AND permit any approach to familiarity on the part of their children. GOOD BREEDING. We are often pained with hearing the half-joking way in which some parents, mothers No. X. especially, allow themselves to be addressed by their grown-up sons and daughters, who do not scruple, on other occasions, to contradict them, and to set up their own opinions with the utmost pertinacity. This ought not to be; and if the first approach to such an undesirable habit was decidedly checked, much after inconvenience would be spared. Why, for instance, should young people be allowed to find in the words and actions of their mother a constant subject for giggling? why, if the horses start, when driving out, or if, in walking through a field, a fierce animal looks defiance, or a savage dog rushes with loud barks from the farmer's yard, and the mother is naturally alarmed-are these incidents to be repeated with peals of laughter, and "good stories," made out of them? Why, also, should boys, when grown up to manhood, lay aside the honoured name of "Father," and substitute in its place that of "Governor." Everything is undesirable which tends to lessen filial respect; and though some persons may incline to say-"What signifies a name? surely it is of no consequence whether a youth calls his father governor,' or whether he uses the common term, we incline to take a different view of the matter. "Father" is a sacred name, it is given by God himself; and he who rises into its fulness, and stands as a father to his children, occupies a place of the highest moment. His children ought, consequently, to give him the name that is assigned to him, and to recognise in his sacred standing an office which must not be lightly spoken of. How ridiculous and irreverent would it sound, if a daughter chose to call her mother "Governess;' no one, we believe, ever thought of doing this, and yet an equally incongruous appellation is very frequently given by sons to their father.

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FAMILY DUTIES.-RECOGNITIONS, ETC. A FEW unseemly habits, and strange "household words," still linger beside our hearths, and these we desire to point out, that our readers may remember to avoid them.

We refer, in the first place, to a custom which some married ladies unthinkingly adopt, of calling their husbands simply by their surnames. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the mind, that mutual respect is the basis of true affection; and although it may seem a light matter in the domestic circle whether this or that mode of speech is adopted, it is not so in reality: children and servants are greatly influenced by outward demeanour; and the wife who allows herself to address her husband in a manner derogatory to his high standing as the head of his house, goes far towards lessening him in the opinion of the family.

The husband, on his part, is equally bound to show all due respect to his wife. Nothing can be more inconsistent with true politeness, or more injurious, than the habit of finding fault with trifles, and that in the hearing of others. Every human being has an innate perception of what is right; and the man, therefore, who speaks unadvisedly to his wife, lowers himself more than he is aware; in many cases, unhappily, a feeling of dislike springs up, which no after circumstance can eradicate a feeling very near akin to contempt, also; for who can feel much respect for an individual who knows not how to govern himself? Often, in our young days, have we heard a generous-minded boy strongly animadvert on unkind or taunting words addressed by an irritable father to his meek and tearful mother. In the nursery, too, similar remarks have been made, most unfitting, and, doubtless, very wrong, yet such as the unguarded conduct of which we speak has elicited from those who heard them, when waiting, perhaps, at table, and which have been repeated by one servant to another.

Equally undesirable is a habit adopted by some married people, of bantering one another before their children; they do not consider the effect which such trifling produces, but the consequences are often serious. The husband who gives a ridiculous name to his wife, and raises a laugh at her expense, is not aware that he lowers himself by so doing, but such is invariably the case. An instance occurs to us, in which the father of a large family seldom spoke to his wife without a joke: If one of the children was indisposed, and the mother prepared a required medicine, "Oh, there is Mrs. Physicus," said the husband, "with her dose; now, my boy, gape and swallow." And thus in almost every instance. Happily the young people were well-disposed, and the ill effect of such foolish conduct was counteracted as much as possible by the judicious mother, who carefully sought to uphold the authority of her thoughtless husband. Still, an effect was imperceptibly produced, and though both the parents are now in their graves, the father is not remembered with that respect and affection which hallows the memory of an excellent mother.

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In speaking to a lady respecting the gentleman to whom she is married, it is not consistent with the rules of etiquette to say "your husband.” Politeness requires the substitution of "Mr.—;” and in this respect the mode of inquiry when speaking of a married lady, is the same. Neither is it proper to say to an acquaintance-"How is your father, or mother?"

Young persons fall into erroneous habits from the want of thought; it is therefore needful to remind our friends of certain small discrepancies, as regards good breeding, which they should carefully avoid. Amongst these is an affectation of passing for geniuses and originals, which, however, rather implies a foolish desire of being noticed, than actual thoughtlessness, and which often leads to negligence in dress and manners. Such vain people think it extremely interesting to appear absent in company; if any one speaks to them, they abruptly say yes, or no: they are very fond of appearing as if absorbed in meditation, and are delighted beyond measure, if any one observes their eccentricity.

With reference to conversation, it is also necessary to point out some improprieties and omissions, totally at variance with good breeding,

Let a person speak to you ever so stupidly or frivolously, it is the height of ill manners not to pay attention to what he says: nay, if he even

force his conversation upon you, do not look out of the window, or assume the appearance of being perfectly indifferent; such kind of demeanour is telling him, in express terms, that you think him not worth listening to. Besides, you cannot pay any one more flattering attention than by that delicate deference which possibly involves somewhat of a sacrifice, but which is worth making.

Carefully avoid the habit of sauntering into a room without attending to any thing that passes, thinking, it may be, of a trifling matter that ought not to occupy the attention, or, most probably, not thinking at all. In this manner hours are often spent that might, otherwise, be employed to advantage; and those rules of politeness which enjoin that every one should bear a part in society, are entirely put aside. Wherever you are, take an interest in all that passes, observe the character of the persons you are with, and listen to the subjects of their conversation.

Habitual inattention is characteristic of a weak mind; the man who gives way to it is little else than a trifler-a mere blank in society. When we hear any one say, in reply to a question concerning what was said or done in his presence, that, truly, he did not mind it, we are ready to ask him what else he had to do.

Bad habits are easily acquired; young people, therefore, when going into the world, must take care especially to avoid them. And among such as are utterly subversive of all politeness, is a peculiarity of manner which may best be understood by negatives; it is neither inattention, nor affectation, nor moroseness, but a shutting up of a man within himself, scarcely listening when addressed, and taking not the slightest interest in whatever conversation is going on.

Avoid speaking of your acquaintance with great persons, and concerning the price which you give for every thing you purchase; some vain persons do this to be thought of consequence, but in general they will, sooner or later, contradict themselves, and be subjected to the greatest derision.

Boastful people, and such as disregard truth, are generally shunned; their offences, in the lowest point of view, are against the etiquette of society; for who will tolerate having his name brought forward, as if on terms of intimacy, by any one whom he may chance to have once invited to his table. Be careful, further, of intruding upon great persons, and never allow yourself to be regarded as a hanger-on, who may be had at any time to fill up a vacant place. Pay to those who are placed in superior stations, all proper respect, but remember what is due to yourself.

An anecdote which bears expressly on the subject of Intrusion, has been related as of somewhat recent occurrence: it may not, perhaps, be known to many of our readers, and we shall, therefore, venture to introduce it:

An individual who filled a gentlemanly position in the world, and derived an excellent income from a place in some public office, dined one day at the Beefsteak Club, where he sat next to a man of the highest rank-a noble duke-who conversed most affably with him on the general topics of the day. A short time after, the same individual chancing to meet His Grace in the street, and encouraged by his previous condescension, accosted him most familiarly, by saying-"Ah, my lord, how d'ye do?" The duke, who was not a little surprised, answered by saying-"May I know, sir,

to whom I have the honour of speaking," drawing himself up at the same time. "Oh! why-don't you know?-we dined together at the Beefsteak Club, the other evening! I'm Mr. Salcombe, of the Treasury." "Then," said the duke, turning away, "Mr. Salcombe, of the Treasury, I wish you a good morning."

Be careful, therefore, with regard to claiming acquaintance. If introduced to a nobleman, and even invited to his table, should you meet him again elsewhere, leave him to make the first recognition; if you act otherwise, and he does not chance to be in a kindly mood, he may possibly behave as if he thought that you took too great a liberty; and this should be carefully avoided. Do not imagine that because people are of high rank, they cannot do an uncourteous action, nor yet that persons in humble stations cannot be well bred. If such is your opinion, an extensive acquaintance with the world will soon undeceive you; true politeness does not exclusively pertain to birth and station, it is found equally in small dwellings as in palaces. A high sense of honour, a love of truth, delicacy of manner, and strict adherence to right principles, are the essential characteristics of a gentleman.


When conversing with titled persons you must not address them as My lord," or "My lady," neither ought you to use the phrase at all; but you may show that you are aware of their claim to the distinction, by saying incidentally, " your ladyship." And here it may not be irrelevant to mention, that lord and lady are words of Saxon origin, the first is derived from laford, signifying loaf-giver, and was assigned to men of rank in consequence of their maintaining a number of retainers, or dependants, at their own expense; the second, laf-dian, in like manner implies loafserver, because the lady of the mansion generally cut, and often served round the bread to her guests. Both also accustomed themselves to give away pieces of bread, and cold meat, to the aged and destitute, for which purpose a kind of shed, with a table resembling a shop-counter, stood in the court-yard, and from this the laford, and laf-dian, distributed their daily doles. The scruples, therefore, which some well-meaning persons express with regard to using the term lord, result from not being acquainted with its origin.

Etiquette, as before remarked, is a comprehensive term, it embraces not only all observances connected with social intercourse, but such as belong especially to the domestic circle. We have had much experience in this matter, and seen the sad effects that result from negligence. Be very careful, therefore, how you behave to your brothers and sisters, my young friends. Be as thoughtful to please them, and as watchful to avoid whatever annoys or perplexes them, as you would with regard to a guest whom you especially desired to honour. Is it consistent with home etiquette, do you think, for a brother, when walking with his sisters, slily to throw a stone into the water, and encourage at the same time a large shaggy Newfoundland dog to jump in after it, that he may have the pleasure of seeing the animal shake his dripping coat against their white dresses! Assuredly this would not be done if some lady Mary was with them. Strong and robust boys, just come from school, occasionally accustom themselves to speak slightingly to their sisters, "the girls;" and suiting their actions to

their words, give them not a little annoyance, merely because "the girls" cannot run races, and share in their boisterous amusements. We deem such behaviour extremely reprehensible, utterly at variance with good-breeding; and while it is delightful to witness the cheerfulness of youth, and merry freaks between the children of one family, we remind our younger brethren that noble-minded boys will ever act with gentlemanly bearing towards their sisters.

Please every one as far as possible, in accordance with sincerity. When you go into company, let it be with a full determination to shed a halo of gladness around you; when you receive your friends, let it be the same. If, when at a friend's house, the master or mistress offers you some par. ticular choice fruit or flowers, to pass them to another would be indirectly charging the profferer with a want of due regard for them; neither must you make a point of refusing with the customary apology "I cannot think of taking it from you,' or "I am sorry to deprive you of it;" this also would be extremely incorrect; it is implying that he has no right to make any present of the kind; and if his rank is superior, or you are younger, it is putting yourself too much on an equality with him. In like manner, it is rude to draw back, when requested by a superior to pass a door first, or to step into a carriage before him. In short, it would be endless to particularise all the instances in which otherwise well-bred people occasionally fall short. In this age, however, free and easy manners too much prevail; but we shall briefly observe, that nothing can be more adverse to good breeding than yawning in company, lounging, putting the legs upon chairs or sofas, taking possession of the best seats, or that most ridiculous, as well as ungentlemanly habit of standing with the back to a good fire, when every one else is shivering. We have seen this done in circles where it might have been least expected; it is, we believe, a practice almost peculiar to this country; and while many of our travellers are extremely quick-sighted as regards the peculiarities and failings of people in foreign parts, we recommend "a looking at home" in this instance, at least, as especially desirable.

But good breeding consists in much more than in merely not being ill-bred. To return a bow gracefully, to conform to the rules of etiquette, to speak when you are spoken to, and to say nothing displeasing, are merely negative acts. If you desire to obtain the good will and esteem of your acquaintance, you must seek to render yourself actively agreeable.

For example, if a friend is coming to see you, recollect whether you ever observed him to prefer one thing more than another, and endeavour to procure it. You can then mention incidentally, "At such a time, I think you seemed to give this dish a preference, I therefore ordered it." Or else, if your friend is fond of any particular flower, let it grace your drawing-room; if desirous to see any recently published book, or poem, be at some pains to procure it.

We need only refer our readers to their own memories. How have such little acts of kindness, when shown by others, soothed and delighted them; how cheerfully have they gone to their homes, filled with pleasant thoughts; and how warmly have they felt towards the friend who has thus sought to make them happy!


"Come, stand with me, beside the silver stream,

That sweeps in silent beauty through the fields; Most wondrous creatures haunt its stilly depth." NUMEROUS insect habitations, as yet unvisited, diversify this pleasant field of rustling corn, some beneath the grain, others along the banks; others, again, overshadowed by autumnal flowers, which still linger in their beauty and their fragrance. Homes are they of busy creatures; whether celllike, or made of leaves; whether the work of tiny masons, or fairy-formed carpenters, they are each adapted to the exigencies, or the social comforts of those who dwell within them. We might examine many such, and delight ourselves with the wonders which they contain, still find something new, and something to instruct us, in exploring the recesses of the field; but time would not suffice, and yonder streamlet has its occupants which, like the "sea-girt sisters,' "have their crystal palaces beneath the water, more beauteous than such as rose on the astonished sight of Aristæus, when, seeking his mother Cyrene amid the waves of the Peneus, he bore the tale

"Of his lost bees to her maternal ear."

The habitation of the aquatic spiders, (Aranea aquatica,) is singularly elegant; it is reared as if by the fabled wand of an enchanter, in the midst of an aqueous element, and is formed, in fact, of air. Spiders are mostly terrestrial, but this is aquatic, or rather amphibious; for although residing in streams or brooks, swimming with great celerity, and that generally on her back; being also an excellent diver, and liking to float in the beams of an October sun, while the waters gently heave and ripple, she not unfrequently hunts on shore, and having secured her game, readily plunges with it to the bottom of the water. Availing herself, as it would seem, of certain well known philosophical principles, to avoid being always wet, she prepares a singular abode, and dwells within it in comfort and security. This is her method:

Stationing herself on the leaf of a submerged plant, the sagacious creature spins loose threads in all directions, which she fixes according to her inclination, for the frame-work of her dwelling. She next covers them with a transparent varnish resembling liquid glass, elastic, and capable of such expansion and contraction that if a hole be made therein it immediately closes; after which she attaches to her small person a pellet of the same material, and ascends to the surface, where she transfers a bubble of air beneath the pellet, by means of curious and appropriate machinery, answering a twofold purpose the one that of absorbing atmospheric air, the other of pumping it forth through an orifice adapted to the purpose, and which is surrounded with bristles, serving to uphold and keep the pellet distended. The pellet, therefore, presently assumes the appear ance of an aërial mantle, comparable in its texture to resplendent quicksilver; and the spider, thus beauteously attired, plunges to the bottom of the water, and introduces her bubble of air beneath the roof prepared for its reception, with as much dexterity as a chemist transfers gas with a gasblower. This done, she again rapidly ascends to the surface, and as rapidly revisits the lear

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which she selected for her abode, till having, in
the course of ten or twelve such trips, transported
sufficient air for the full expanding of the glass-
like covering that forms her palace, she content-
edly takes possession, and dwells safely and un-
disturbed. Storms may agitate the surface, but
she does not heed them. A bird of prey may
hawk for insects, and seize the industrious bee
while gathering a honey harvest amid the lilies;
or the magnificent dragon-fly, despite his burnished
coat of mail, and wings of gauze, may become his
victim; but it matters not to the aquatic spider-the
she dwells secure, surrounded by the little aërial
edifices of her brethren and sisters. When about
to become a mother, her partner, who most pro-
bably occupies some near dwelling, enlarges her
abode by the bubble of air which he carries about
with him, and thus renders it sufficiently commo-
dious for the reception of a family.

The aquatic spider that forms this singular habitation, is one of the largest European species, and in some parts of England is not uncommon in stagnant pools.

You may not, perhaps, be able to discover the quicksilver-looking edifice of this strange creature; but if you watch carefully in parts where the stream is shallow, you cannot fail to observe, on its gravelly bed, little oblong moving masses, resembling pieces of straw, or wood, or even stone. These masses contain the larvæ of various Phrygane, a tribe of four-winged insects, which a casual observer might regard as moths, but which pertain to a distinct order, not having their wings covered with scales, that serve to beautify the lepidopterous race. They are well known to fishermen by the name of caddis-worms, and when taken from the water they are found to inhabit cases of the most singular formation.

Here is one of them; it bears a close resemblance to a caterpillar, but no part is visible excepting the head and six legs, by which the creature readily progresses, and bears about the enclosing ease, which serves both as a garment and a citadel: the first whereby to protect his slender form, the second as a place of refuge in time of need, for the larva well knows how to draw himself within his barriers. Observe also, that the seeming piece of wood is internally cylindrical, and well lined with silk; and that though apparently only large enough to admit the body of the insect, he can readily turn round in his domicile and look out at both ends.

The aqueous palaces of water spiders are all nearly similar; but the dwellings constructed by caddis-worms are singularly varied. Some species obtain four or five pieces, taken from the blades of grass, which they ingeniously glue together into angular cases; others employ portions of the stems of rushes, placed side by side, so as to form elegant fluted cylinders; others again enwrap themselves in strips of aquatic leaves, so tastefully arranged as to resemble a spirally rolled riband. This appropriate vest closely fits the body of the insect, and may with more propriety be termed a coat than a habitation; it resembles the primitive garment used by uncivilized people, and which is generally made of leaves and grasses plaited together. Like us, these watery occupants come unclothed into the world, but are not, as infants, incapable of helping themselves; for scarcely have they drawn breath before they begin to form distinctive coverings, thus contradicting

the assertion of Paley, who remarks that "a human being is the only one which is naked, and the only one which can clothe itself." Unlike, however, the lords and ladies of the creation, they care nought for change, one fashion suffices them, and the vestment of the young caddis remains unaltered to old age. Smile not at the mention of youth, or age, as connected with these feeble creatures. Naturalists who amuse themselves in watching their movements, notice as much difference among them as among ourselves: young sport joyously in all directions, running hither and thither-now scampering up the stems of a water plant, and now doubling among the pebbles of their native streams; the old, on the contrary, move leisurely, stopping at intervals, as if to take breath, or, perhaps, to moralize on the giddiness of the rising generation!

Another species, careless as regards the decoration of their persons, merely becomes enclosed in a mass of leaves, united without any regularity; and a considerable number form their abodes from minute particles of wood, either decayed, or fresh. Such, however, as are most indifferent about the materials of their clothing, or habitation, are extremely solicitous with regard to their being rightly poised. Not having the power of swimming, and being restricted by the pebbly or muddy beds of streams, over which they progress by aid of six legs, attached to the fore-front of their bodies, which usually project out of the case, and the larvæ themselves being heavier than water, a necessity exists that their houses should be of a specific gravity so nearly that of the element in which they reside, as, while moving from place to place, neither to incommode them by their weight, nor by too great buoyancy; it is also essential that each dwelling, however varying in form and in material, should be equally ballasted in every part, and readily moveable in any required position. Thus circumstanced, our caddisworms, as if proficient in hydrostatics, select the most appropriate materials. Nor is this all: should the case, when finished, prove too heavy, they render it buoyant by glueing to it a bit of leaf or straw; or if too light, a shell, or piece of gravel. The finest specimens, and such as are finished with the greatest regularity, have, in consequence, most generally an apparently superfluous piece of wood, or leaf, or straw, attached to


The Sabella constructs an horn-shaped dwelling, composed of grains of sand, so equal in size, and neatly gummed together, the sides throughout being merely about the thickness of one grain, that the entomologist finds it difficult to believe that such an ingenious piece of workmanship can be formed by an homely-looking larva. The case of the P. miculata, though less artificially constructed with a mixture of mud and sand, is ingeniously closed at the end with a kind of plate having a central aperture. Other species intrude themselves into the shells of water-snails, which they unceremoniously appropriate, making the occupants find room for their unwelcome guests, and directing their movements at their will.


Happy is the dweller among rural scenes who acquaints himself with the objects by which he is surrounded! A clear stream, with its pebbly bed and bordering flowers, is to him as a small world, replete with interest-the haunt of wondrously

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