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leaves nearly touch, they should be again transplanted into other pots, or boxes, the plants at this time being placed four inches asunder; in these last they are to remain until they flower in the following spring, when the best flowers should be marked for cultivating in pots, and the inferior ones for growing in the borders. As soon as they have done flowering, the best should be potted separately, and treated in every respect as before mentioned for the old auriculas; the inferior ones may be planted at once in the borders.

Note well-if any weakly young plants do not flower the first year, nurse them carefully till the next, if they do not flower then give them a third trial, and your care and perseverance may very probably be richly rewarded; as it frequently happens-in strict accordance with vegetable physiology-that from such plants the finest blooming varieties are obtained.

The Polyanthus is quite hardy, and seldom perishes in the coldest or wettest seasons, indeed it is less able to bear the heat of summer than the cold of winter-it should, therefore, always be planted in a shady border. Fine show varieties should be cultivated in pots. Their whole culture is so similar to that of the auricula, that I need not dwell upon it.

Carnations and Picotees, (the latter a variety of the former,) are well-known favourites. Hogg, in his "Treatise," observes, that "Of all the flowers that adorn the garden, whether they charm the eye by their beauty, or regale the sense of smelling by their fragrance, the carnation may be justly held to take first rank." The carnation is propagated by seed and layers. The seed should be sown in May, in pots filled with compost, and a little fine mould, barely sufficient to cover it, sprinkled over the seed. As soon as the young plants are three inches high they ought to be planted out a foot apart, in a bed of rich gardenmould, and defended from heavy rains and frost by hoops and mats: they will in general blow the following summer. Layers should be made when the plant is in full bloom. All the lower leaves on the stem intended to be layered should be cut off, so that none of the leaves may be buried in the soil when the shoot is fastened down. Enter a sharp knife a quarter of an inch below the joint to be layered, pass the blade upwards, precisely through the centre of the stem, to half an inch above the joint; withdraw your knife, and cut off smoothly the tip or end of the tongue thus formed. Then carefully bending down the shoot so as not to break it, fasten down the joint with a small hooked peg, and cover with not more than three quarters of an inch of fine mould. Keep the layers moist, and shaded from the sun, and in about three or four weeks they will have taken root; they may then be cut away from the parent plant with about half an inch of the stem which connects them, and potted-off into small pots, three or four plants being placed round the margin of each. The soil should be composed of three parts turfy loam, two parts well rotted manure, and one part of river sand; a little lime is also a useful ingredient, it being so destructive to insects. This compost should be well incorporated by frequent turnings, and exposed to at least one winter's frost.

The fine show varieties are cultivated in pots. The plants should be potted in March, and kept in an open, airy part of the garden, under an

arch of hoops, so that, in frost, heavy rains, or
cold easterly winds, mats can be laid over for their
protection; but in favourable weather, the plants
must always be open to the air. When the flower
stems are eight or nine inches high, it will be re-
quisite to support them with sticks forced into
the soil in the centre of the pot to which the
stems are to be loosely tied as they continue to
advance in height. Amateurs flower their choice
carnations on stages, as they show to the best ad-
vantage thereon. The supporters of these stages
should stand in pans filled with water, to prevent
the access of that most destructive insect, the ear-
wig. In winter, potted carnations require the
same treatment as auriculas. They ought never
to be shut up close when wet, as in this state they
are liable to be destroyed by mildew.
weather they should be allowed air and light as
frequently as possible. If the surface of the soil
in the pots becomes green, or seems to be too
compact and adhesive, it must be carefully
stirred to the depth of half an inch, and a little
dry sand sprinkled over it. In March the plants
should be repotted, and the same routine of cul-
ture continued throughout the year.

In fine

Pinks are much hardier than carnations, as they can endure the winter of this climate out of doors. Though potting is necessary to cultivate to perfection the fine show varieties, yet the pink is generally considered to thrive best in the open air. They are propagated by pipings and seed. The pipings, or young shoots, should be taken off immediately previous to, or during the time the plant is in flower, or, indeed, as soon as the young shoots are of sufficient length. Take the pipings off just below the second or third joint: cut the end smooth, and take off the lower circle of leaves; plant them about half an inch deep, in a wellwatered and shady border; cover them with a bell or hand-glass, and do not permit the sun to shine upon them. The pipings should be placed firm in the soil, and watered when necessary. After ten days, admit air to them, by tilting up the front of the glass with a brick or stone. As soon as they appear to have struck root, they should be gradually exposed to light and air, and then removed to the bed, border, or pots, in which they are intended to flower. The compost, and the mode of raising from seed, are the same as for the carnation.

WINDOW GARDENING.-At this sultry period of the year, all potted plants require to be carefully, and liberally supplied with water. Always apply the water to the surface of the soil, not permitting any to remain in the saucer underneath the pot. When window plants are carelessly allowed to become too dry, the earth separates from the sides of the pot, and all the water you may then give escapes through the vacuity thus formed, without being of any benefit to the roots of the plants. The best plan you can adopt under such circumstances, is to immerse the pot up to the rim in water for a few minutes, then take it out and let the superfluous moisture drain off before placing it again in your window. The continental gardeners knead in a little tough plastic clay, impervious to water, all round the inside rim of the pot, forming a bason-shaped cavity in the centre. This is a most excellent plan, especially with large plants; and I am surprised that it is not more generally adopted in this country. If possible, at this season of the year, do not have the plants directly

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and before and after the plants appear.
the young plants have two or three leaves, if they
are too thick in the seed-bed, thin out, trans-
planting the thinnings into an intermediate bed.
When these and the others in the seed-bed have
several leaves two or three inches broad, trans-
plant finally into rows a foot apart-the plants six
inches apart in the row; and when you take for use,
pull the alternate ones, leaving those a foot apart
that have to grow the longest and the largest. In
every spare spot in your garden you should dibble
in one of these useful plants. Exterminate weeds;
and give water when requisite. Always water
after sunset, or very early in the morning. Ex-
cept where there are seeds or tender young plants,
it is the much better plan to give the soil a good
drenching at once, than tantalize it with frequent
sprinklings.
W. P

if

facing the south, as the heat of a July sun will, in spite of water, injure the tender rootlets or spongioles of your plants. Plants will also keep longer in bloom when shaded, than if they are exposed to the sun. Therefore a south-west aspect during the heat of summer is the best. Never water plants when the sun is shining warm upon them, you do they will very soon show the effects of such treatment; becoming what gardeners term korched, though the word frozen would be more suitable, as is the intense cold caused by the tapid evaporation of the water that injures plants injudiciously treated-just on the same prinple as ice is formed in a red-hot crucible. Hyrangeas and Fuchsias, at this season, require ater twice a-day. Although the fuchsia, on its frst introduction to this country, fifty-two years go, was treated as a stove plant, it now scarcely comes under the department of window gardening; as many of the species, in sheltered gardens, live throughout the winter in the open air. Fuchsias delight in a rich loamy soil, mixed with sand, leafmould, and rotten manure. They are easily propagated by cuttings, and the very leaf, if properly managed, will grow, forming a new plant. Their winter treatment is very simple, as they may be put away dry in any out of the way place where frost cannot reach them; some persons even burying them in the ground. About February, or March, they should be taken from their winter quarters and potted, trimming back their roots

and branches; about May they should be repotted in larger pots, (fuchsias thrive best in comparatively small pots,) or else turned out of their pots into the open ground. They show to great advantage as standards. This form is obtained by shortening the side-shoots of a young plant, and training the stem up a straight stick, gradually

Vegetables.-Artichoke, asparagus, balm, beans, (French, kidney, scarlet, and Windsor), carrots, cauliflowers, celery, chervil, cucumbers, endive, finochia, herbs of all sorts, lettuces, mint, mushrooms, peas, potatoes, purslane, radishes, rocombole, salads of all sorts, salsify, scorzonera, sorrel, spinach, turnips.

removing the side-shoots- commencing at the
base-as the plant advances in height. They
may also be trained up to a wall, or planted in
beds. Fuchsias left in the open ground during
winter, should be cut down when their branches
are killed by the frost, and some litter, or coal
ashes, laid round them.
If you cover the soil
about their roots with tan, ashes, leaves, &c., for
about six inches deep, and tie up together the
branches, thatching them over with fern leaves,
straw, or mats, so as to keep out frost and wet,
you may carry them through the winter without
losing a single shoot.
VEGETABLES.-Cabbage Coleworts are valuable
family plants, as they can be used in their different
stages of growth, all through the autumn, winter

For Drying.-Knotted marjoram, mushrooms, winter-savory.

For Pickling.-French beans, red-cabbage, cauliflowers, garlic, gherkins, nasturtiums, onions. Fruit.-Apples :-codlin, jennetting, margaret, Apricots; summer pearmain, summer pippin. cherries; currants; damsons; gooseberries; melons; nectarines; peaches. Pears:-Catherine, and spring. Procure seed of the early, quick-green-chisel, jargonelle, musque. Oranges, pinehearting, middle-sized kinds of cabbage, as the apples, plums, raspberries, strawberries. York, Battersea, Sugar-loaf, or Antwerp; for any of these sorts, that may not be used as colewortsif they do not run to seed-will form cabbages early in the spring; and to prevent them running to seed, you should not sow previous to the last week of this month, or the first week of August. However, if you have room, and wish for a constant succession, you should make two or three Sowings-say one in the first fortnight, another towards the end of the month, and the last in the first week of August. Coleworts may be used as greens when their leaves are as broad as a man's hand; when further advanced, as greens with closing hearts; and, lastly, when assuming the cabbage form. Sow in well-dug beds; if the weather be very dry, water previous to sowing,

THE HOUSEWIFE'S FRIEND.

FOOD FOR JULY. Those Fish, Poultry, &c. distinguished by Italics are to be had in greater perfection.

Meat.-Beef, grass-lamb, mutton, veal, buck.

venison.

Fish.-Barbel, brill, carp, cod, conger-eels, crabs, cray-fish, dabbs, dace, dory, eels, flounders, gurmullet, perch, pike, plaice, prawns, salmon, skate, nets, haddocks, herrings, ling, lobsters, mackerel, soles, tench, thornback, trout.

Poultry and Game. Chickens, ducks, fowls, green-geese, leverets, pigeons, plovers, rabbits, turkey-poults, wheat-ears, wild pigeons, wild

rabbits.

COOKERY FOR JULY.

SOUPS.

Almond.-Take a quart of almonds, scald, remove the skins, and pound in a mortar with the hard yolks of six eggs, until they become a fine paste. Mix with them gradually two quarts of new milk, a quart of cream, and a quarter of a pound of double refined sugar; beat the whole very fine, and stir it well together. When properly mixed, set it over a slow fire, and stir quickly till it becomes pretty thick, then remove, and pour into the tureen.

Calf's Head.-Scald, and wash the head clean with salt and water, then place in a stewpan with sufficient water to cover it; add a faggot of sweet herbs, an onion stuck with cloves, six blades of mace, and a table-spoonful and a half of pearl barley. Stew till tender, and add a head of stewed celery. Season with pepper, pour the soup into the tureen, place the head in the centre, and

serve.

Fish Stock. Take a pound of skate, five flounders, and two pounds of eels, clean them well, cut into small pieces, cover with water when placed in a stewpan, and season with mace, pepper, salt, an onion stuck with cloves, a head of celery, a faggot of sweet herbs, and a tea-spoonful of parsleyseed. Simmer for an hour and a half, closely covered, then strain off for use. As this stock will not keep more than two days, it should only be made as required.

Prawn. Boil a hundred prawns in a little water, vinegar, salt, and a few sweet herbs, and save the liquor. Pick the prawns, and pound the shells and a small roll. Pour the liquor over the shells in a sieve, and then pour two quarts of fish stock over them. Tear a lobster into small pieces, and add this with a quart of good beef stock (p. 86, vol. ii.) to the whole. Simmer gently, season with pepper and salt, and thicken with floured butter, then serve.

FISH.

Lobster, to pot cold.-Choose a hen lobster. Remove the spawn, coral, flesh, and pickings about the head, and mix with the meat from the claws; pound well in a mortar, seasoning with white pepper, cayenne, and pounded mace; then add some thick melted butter, until it forms a good thick paste. Remove the meat from the tail, pound and season the same, then put half of it in the bottom of the pot, and cover with the other paste. Pour clarified butter over the top of each pot, and keep in a cool place.

Prawns, to pot.-Boil, and pick a sufficient quantity of prawns, then pound them in a mortar, and mix them up into a paste with a little butter; season with white pepper, salt, and a little allspice, then press into the pots, and cover with clarified

butter.

Mackerel, to broil.-Clean, split down the belly, spread open, cut off the heads, and pepper well inside: then flour them lightly to prevent their sticking to the bars of the gridiron, and put over a clear fire, until done a light brown, then serve, spread open with the insides uppermost, with a lump of butter the size of a walnut rubbed over each, or with plain melted butter.

Mackerel, to marinade.-Prepare the same as dace, p. 26, vol. ii.

Salmon, to pickle cold.-Boil some of the liquor in which the fish was dressed with an equal part of vinegar, and add some whole pepper-corns; when it bubbles, remove from the fire, and pour over any cold salmon you have at hand. If the salmon is not well done, boil it up in the pickle until well dressed.

Salmon, to pickle undressed.-Scale the fish, rub well with a cloth, and scrape away all the blood about the back-bone, but do not wash it; cut off the head, and divide the fish into pieces about six inches long, then boil the pieces in a pickle made of equal parts of vinegar and water, with a few cloves, and two or three blades of mace, until

done; skim carefully all the time the fish is boiling, and when done remove the fish, and pour the liquor into a jar or tub, so that both may become cold; when cold, put the fish into the liquor, with one-third more vinegar, and some whole pepper.

Trout, to pickle.-Prepare the same as salmon.

POULTRY, ETC.

Chicken, roasted.-Clean, singe, and truss them, then put down before a good fire. Dust well with flour, and baste well. Make a gravy of the necks and gizzards, which should be strained and poured into the dish.

Plovers, roasted.-They are trussed, dressed, and sent to table in the same way as snipes, p. 143, vol. ii.

Rabbits, mumbled.-Boil well, but not too much, remove the flesh and chop fine, then add nutmeg, salt, lemon peel, and the juice of a lemon. Put it into a stewpan with twelve eggs, and three quarters of a pound of butter; stir well, and serve in a dish with carved sippets.

VEGETABLES.

Green Peas, stewed.-Put a quart of good peas into a stewpan, with a lettuce and small onion sliced small, but not any water; add a piece of butter the size of an orange, pepper and salt to taste, and stew gently for two hours. Beat up an egg, and stir into them, (or a lump of butter will do as well.) Mint should be stewed (if it can be procured) with them, and ought to be chopped fine, and stirred in with some good gravy.

Herb Pie.-Pick two handfuls of parsley from the stems, half the quantity of spinach, two lettuces, some mustard and cress, a few leaves of borage, and a little mint. Wash and boil them a little, then drain, press out the water and chop small; mix a batter of flour, two eggs well beaten, half a pint of milk and a pint of cream, and pour it upon the herbs. Cover in with a good crust, and bake.

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Damascus Biscuits.-Take the whites of three eggs beaten to a froth, a quarter of a pound of good beef suet chopped very fine, and half an ounce of bitter almonds blanched, chopped fine, and beaten well with the froth of the eggs. Then take the yolks of the eggs, and mix with six ounces of sifted loaf sugar; beat well, pour into the mixture of almonds and whites of egg; mix well, and shake in two ounces of flour, with sufficient lemon to flavour them. Pour into small tins, or moulded papers, and bake in a quick oven.

Derbyshire Bread.-Rub four ounces of butter into four pounds of flour, add four eggs well beaten, a pint of milk, and a table-spoonful of yeast. Mix them into a paste, make into rolls, and let them stand half an hour before the fire to rise; then put them into the oven to bake. Dip them in milk the next day, and let them stand before the fire in a Dutch-oven for about twenty minutes.

Devonshire Syllabub.-Make the same as London syllabub, and then put clouted cream on the top, with powdered cinnamon, and sugar.

Housewife's Cream.-Take half a pint of good cream, a quarter of a pint of white wine, a teacupful of powdered white sugar, and the rind and juice of one lemon. Put all into a large basin, and whisk till it becomes quite thick, then put into glasses, and let them remain in a cool place till required. [This cream is better if made the day before it is wanted, and it will keep good for several days, if the weather is not too warm.]

London Syllabub.-Put a pint and a half of white wine into a bowl, sweeten with sugar, and add grated nutmeg to taste. Then milk into it about two quarts of milk, frothed up, but the quantity must depend upon the taste, for it will require more milk if too acid.

Newcastle Pudding.-Butter a basin or mould, stick it all round with sultanas or dried cherries, then put in a slice of bread crumb soaked in milk, and over that layers of thin bread crumb buttered, until three parts filled; fill up with custard, and boil for an hour and a half.

Nourmahal Cake.-Cut four slices of sponge cake about an inch thick and of an oval shape, but each slice smaller than the others. Spread a thick layer of apricot jam upon the first and largest slice, and then lay the next sized slice upon it; spread the second slice with apple marmalade, and cover with the third size, which is to be spread in like manner with strawberry jam, and covered with the smallest size. Press the top lightly with the hand, and with a sharp knife cut away the

central part, so as to leave a wall about two inches and a half thick, which is to be trimmed outside. Mash up the part removed from the centre, with equal parts of white wine and brandy, sufficient to flavour, and stir in some good thick custard, then pour into the centre of the cake. Whip the whites of two eggs into a stiff froth, pour over the whole, heaping it well up in the centre, and shake sifted sugar thickly on, then place in a quick oven until the frosting is set. A few pieces of strawberry jam or any other preserve placed round the bottom of the dish, gives a finish to the whole.

This cake may be iced plainly, and then ornamented outside with coloured icing, finishing the top with a looped edging, and covering the centre part with crossed icing to resemble basket-work, which adds much to the beauty, and of course to the expense.

Orange Jelly-mould.-Squeeze the juice of a dozen oranges and two lemons to sufficient sugar to sweeten; put an ounce and a half of isinglass in half a pint of water, and boil it gently with the peel of an orange. Strain the syrup, and add the dissolved isinglass to it while hot, pouring it through a sieve; mix; pour into a mould previously dipped into cold fresh water, and set in a cool place.

Puits d'Amour.-Make a rich puff paste, roll it out thin and cut into pieces, each one less than the other, and of a square, oval, or round shape; lay them upon each other so as to form a pyramid, then bake in a moderate oven until done, and lay sweetmeats of various colours on the edges.

Vanilla Charlotte.-Butter a plain mould, split some sponge biscuits and pack them close, the brown outside; pour vanilla cream into the centre, then set in a cool place all night, and turn out when required.

Vanilla Cream.-Boil half a stick of vanilla in a quarter of a pint of new milk until highly flavoured, and sweeten with sugar. Dissolve an ounce of isinglass in a pint of water, mix with the vanilla milk, and add a pint or rather more of good thick cream; stir until nearly cold, and pour into a mould previously dipped in cold water.

Vanilla Drops.-Take the whites of four eggs, beat them up well, and add three quarters of a pound of finely powdered white sugar; flavour with vanilla, beat up well, and drop it on buttered paper. Bake in a cool oven.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Icing for Cakes.-Take the whites of three newlaid eggs, add to them one pound of sifted white sugar. Beat the eggs well to a stiff froth before adding the sugar. Flour the cake, &c., and then wipe it off; apply the icing by means of a knife smoothly, then bake in a slow oven.

Pink icing should be made by adding cochineal syrup; blue, indigo; yellow, saffron or gamboge; green, spinach syrup, or sap green; and brown, chocolate.

Family Cullis.-Take a piece of butter rolled in flour, stir it in your stewpan till the flour is of a fine yellow colour; then add some common stock, a table-spoonful of good gravy, a wine-glassful of white wine, a bundle of parsley, thyme, two cloves, a bay leaf, a blade of mace, six mushrooms, white pepper and salt. Stew for an hour over a slow fire, skim off the fat, and strain through a pery fine sieve.

FAMILY PASTIME.

PRACTICAL PUZZLE.-No. XI.

CUT a piece of thin wood about four inches long and three-quarters broad. Perforate it with three holes. Cut pieces of bone, cork, or wood, in the shape of two hearts, and then arrange the whole upon strings, as in the diagram. The puzzle is, to get the two hearts upon the same loop. It is a good puzzle for lovers, and suggests the idea of the "union of hearts," of which, when solved, it may be considered a prognostic.

LOVE'S OPUZZLED

GRANDFATHER'S DREAM;

AN ENIGMA.

By the side of a lake, bound by clustering trees, Whose branches were stirr'd by a health-giving breeze,

An old man, whose locks as the snow were as white, [delight,

And a youth, whose fair face wore the smile of Were walking and talking.

The lad bore a ship of diminutive size,-
From a toy-shop his Grandpa' had brought him
the prize;-
And he came to the lake on its bosom to sail
The barque which had never yet tempted the gale.
With talking and walking,
The old man had tired; so he spoke to the lad,
And warn'd him 'gainst accidents sudden and sad;
Then said he would rest 'neath the shade of the
trees,
While George might his nautical tendencies please.
Soon the ship was afloat, with its light canvas
spread,
[head.
Whilst Grandfather, dozing, kept nodding his
Ere long, half affrighted, the old man awoke,
And thus of his nap, to his grandson he spoke :-
"I have had a remarkable DREAM,

And its fancies are really so droll,
A perfect Enigma 'twill seem,

Which Georgie may try to unrol.
"Methought there was a great commotion

'Midst tribes whose tongues to us are strange; (But stranger still the dreamy notion

Which took so odd and wide a range!) "It seemed a mighty gathering took placeA 'monster meeting' of the working classes (1),

Masons and miners, standing face to face (2)

Rustics, and gipsies from the green morasses (3), Butchers, upholsterers, and sweeps were there (4), And negroes, clad in tints that liveries wear (5);

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"Just like a press-gang, prowling for the queen, A gallant barque they seized, and then to screen The robbery committed by their hands,

Produced a diadem, and said, 'The queen com.
mands (14)!'
[board (15),
Now diamonds and pearls were placed on
And emeralds made up a queenly hoard (16).
Oh few the royal corteges that wear
Such priceless gems as now were gathered here!
The boatmen had full many a job to do (17),
In which a lively skipper help'd them through (18).
What food they had, 'tis difficult to say-
Though known that bacon sides were stowed

away (19)!

"At length the ship prepared to leave the strand;
There stood the admirals, both ready to command;
And there a telescope whose lenses might defy (20)
A Dolland's skill their excellence to vie.
"Soon the white sails were spread unto the wind,
The ship a snow-white track-way left behind;
And proudly did she on her voyage plough
The crested waves that rose before her prow.

"But soon the increasing winds impetuous blew,
The skies turn'd dark, and rude the waters grew;
The sails were rent, the yielding barque heel'd o'er,
And drove before the wind unto the shore.
The carpenter through such a gale had never
passed (21),
And when 'twas needed he should hew away the
[mast,
Even the saw seemed terror struck, and 'twas most
vain (22)

To strive to make a cut against the grain!
"Thus wreck'd upon the unrelenting deep,
Provisions swamped, no order could they keep;
Soldiers and sailors in gory deeds imbrued,
And cut their fellow creatures up for food.
Even a doctor lent his dissecting skill (23),
And like a cannibal partook unto his fill!
And Grandpapa, amid the dreadful strife,
Saw the poor emigrants struggling for their life.
"At length a point of seeming land appeared,
Which looked the fairer as the vessel neared:
By Sol's returning rays its slopes were seen
With verdure clad, a rural-looking green.
There is a point on Britain's rocky shores,
Where the proud sea in wrath majestic roars,
Which bears the name of that which Grandpa

saw, Dangerous, too, to ships that near it draw.

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