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to be layered, which should not be more than three or four inches from the end. A three-inch pot, filled with rich sandy loam, should be sunk rim-deep in the soil to receive each layer. Secure the layer in the pot with a hooked peg, or by tying it to a stick thrust firmly down into the soil. Cover the surface of the pot with moss, which, as well as the soil, must be kept constantly moist. About the middle or end of September, when the pot is full of roots, cut off the connexion between the layer and the parent plant, and pot the layers in pots of one size larger, keeping them shaded for a few days. Chrysanthemums are gross feeders, and flourish luxuriantly when freely supplied with liquid manure; but as your object, in making these layers, is to produce small plants-dwarfs, in fact-you should not apply any stimulating liquid until the flower-buds appear, then you may apply it as often as every two days.
Some of the more hardy kinds of annuals may be sown in the last week of the month; sow thinly, and in an open situation. Such as survive the winter will come into flower much earlier than any that you may sow in the ensuing spring. The Catchflys, Collinsias, Candytufts, Clarkias, Nemophillas, Eryssimum Peroffskianum, and Eschscholtzia, are suitable for this purpose.
WINDOW GARDENING.-The Oleander has been well described as a "gem amongst plants;" and I am not surprised at the numerous inquiries from correspondents respecting its treatment. I may observe, that limited space renders it impossible to answer all the queries on Gardening matters, but my readers may rest assured that their requests are kept in view, and as much as possible of the information generally demanded is embodied in each monthly paper. The Oleander is a native of the East, and in the sacred and romantic land of Palestine is always found wherever rivers or water-courses invite its thirsty roots. The banks of the Jordan are clothed with this beautiful plant; it flowers at the "rising" of that river, being then partly immersed in water; yet it bears the extreme heat and baked soil of an eastern summer, when the rivers have shrunk into their narrowest compass. Knowing this, we have a guide to the cultivation of the Oleander. From the end of September until March it should receive no more water than will prevent the soil from being crumbly; and during the rest of the year the pot should be kept in a saucer, pan, or tub, according to its size, immersed to nearly half its depth of water. A strong, rich, turfy loam is the most suitable soil. When the plant has made its summer growth, it should be placed out of doors in a sunny situation, sheltered from the north. It is easily propagated by cuttings. During the spring or summer months, if the young shoots are cut off close under the fourth joint from their extremities, and the three lower leaves taken off close to, but without injuring, the bark of the stem, these will make the best cuttings; and the simplest and most interesting mode of rooting them, is to put them in small bottles or phials containing rain-water, kept in the window of a warm room. The cuttings should not be immersed deeper in the water than half-way up to the next joint above its base. In a short time, tiny white roots will make their appearance, and when these are above half an inch long, remove -the cutting to a small pot filled with a light sandy soil, gently adapting the soil to the tender root
lets. Keep moist, and shade the cutting until the firmness and colour of the leaves show that the roots have taken hold of the soil. Cuttings of Fuchsias, and many other plants, may be struck in water in a similar manner. But though water produces roots rapidly, yet it cannot sustain growth; so in all cases the plants should be removed to soil when the rootlets are from half an inch to a whole one in length.
The following excellent plan-I speak from experience of obtaining dwarf Oleanders to flower in the succeeding spring, when barely a foot in height, I extract from the "Gardener and Practical Florist," pp. 291, 292, 1843.-" At any time during September and October, prepare a quantity of two or three jointed cuttings by removing the lowest leaves, and making the heel of each, immediately under the joint, perfectly smooth. Place an inch layer of broken potsherds, as drainage, at the bottom of a pot six inches broad; upon that a coating of moss, then a compost soil consisting of one part reduced turfy loam, and three or four parts of heath mould. Press this mixture firmly into the pot, water it, and make as many holes in it close round the side of the pot as there are cuttings. Into each hole pour half an inch of white writing sand, set a cutting upon the sand in the hole so deep, that it be at least midway between joint and joint, then fill the holes with sand, and cover the entire surface of the soil with a half inch layer of the same. Saturate the whole with water, and see that the cuttings are fixed and immoveable without some effort; upon this close contact of plant and soil depends much of the future success. The pot of cuttings may be kept in a heat of from fifty to fifty-five degrees during winter, and many plants, as we have proved, will be found perfectly rooted in early spring. Among the cuttings taken from a full-headed strong plant, there will, perhaps, be several which have the heads of future bloom formed among the upper leaves. We have thus obtained young and blooming plants, which have expanded perfect flowers in April and May."
Although the above is rather a long quotation, yet as it is in strict accordance with a little known, but important principle of vegetable physiology,! have no hesitation in giving it to my readers. Nature in all her aspects is essentially reproductive, and under this general law all plants provide, either by seed or otherwise, for the increase and perpetuation of their species. Most plants, excepting Annuals, which I may term the spendthrifts of the vegetable kingdom, collect a greater store of nutriment, each season, than what is required for their consumption, just as the "busy bee" lays by honey for its support during winter, and the bleak, flowerless days of early spring. Consequently if we take cuttings late in the season, we have this unexhausted store of nourishment in each cutting; besides, by giving roots to each, they will, as individuals, grow and flower better than if they were all like a poor man's large family-depending for support upon the roots or exertions of the parent. On this principle cuttings of Oleanders, Hydrangeas, Cacti, and many other plants, will flower sooner and better if made late in the season. The only difficulty is, that these late cuttings will require more care and trouble to keep them alive during the winter, than if they had been made in the
spring-but where there is no difficulty, there is no honour.
ing out. Late-raised seedlings, which spend the winter in the open border, uniformly become the largest and finest table cauliflowers during the summer, though they certainly do not come in quite so early. Cauliflower plants, it is probable. are often killed with too much attention. Seedlings raised late in autumn seem to be very tenacious of life."-Caledonian Horticultural Society's Mem. iii. 192.
VEGETABLES.-Cauliflowers, to stand through the winter under hand-glasses, or in sheltered borders, and to come in for use in spring, may be lown in the latter half of the month. Sow in a ed of rich light mellow earth; water occasionBy if the weather is dry, until and after the plants appear above ground. In September, when they lave leaves an inch, or an inch and a half broad, kick them out into an intermediate bed three or bur inches apart; water, and shade from the midday sun until they have taken root. Those that you intend to winter under hand-glasses must be finally transplanted, in October, to a rich, wellmanured spot of ground. Place your handglasses in rows three feet asunder each way. Put three or four plants under the centre of each glass; give water, and cover close, until you observe that the plants have struck root, which may be known by their showing renewed growth; then admit air by tilting up the south side of the glasses on fine days, but be careful to cover close at night. though the glasses must be kept over the plants during the winter, yet it is essentially necessary to take advantage of all temperate days by thus tilting up the south side of the glasses. Indeed, in very fine mild days, the plants will be all the better if totally uncovered until the approach of evening. If the winter should prove excessively inclement, it would be advisable to surround the glasses with litter, or cover them with mats. Conforming thus to the varying changes of the weather, you may continue to cover with the glasses till May, giving more air as the genial season of spring advances; and be sure, by uncovering, to let the plants have the beneficial influence of any warm, gentle showers, that may occur. In March, if the plants are in good health-which they ought to be if the proper care, as above described, has been taken of them-transplant into a rich soil in the Open ground, all excepting two, which you may leave under each glass. Draw some earth up round the stems of those left under the glasses, and as they advance in growth, raise the glasses On props several inches high, for the purposes of admitting air liberally, and giving room for the free growth of the plants. Continue to keep the glasses over the plants as long as the latter have room to grow in them. These plants under the glasses will be first fit for use, then those planted out in March will follow in succession.
If you do not possess glasses, you may, in October, prick out the plants three inches apart, in a warm south border, close under the wall, or fence; protecting them in rigorous weather with mats on hoops, dry litter, &c., giving air in mild weather, and finally transplanting in March. Mr. Ball finds, that if cauliflower seed is not Sown till the last week in August, and if the seedlings a are not transplanted till the middle, or near the end of November, before the hard weather sets in, no sort of covering is necessary, nor any ther protection than that of a wall having a south pect: "In such a border, and without any for many successive winters, and have always balls for use. Covering, young cauliflower plants have stood well
Dr. Johnson used to say:-"Of all the flowers in the garden, I like the cauliflower."
Dr. Neill (Encyclopædia Edinensis) observes, that the great quantities of cauliflowers fostered under glass during winter for the early supply of the London market-acres of ground being covered with such glasses-gives a stranger a forcible idea of the riches and luxury of the metropolis. W. P.
No. V.-ETCHING ON GLASS, IVORY, &c.
ETCHING is the art of engraving by corrosion, produced by means of an acid, having for its object the saving of the time and labour expended when employing the graver or tool.
The materials required consist of copper-plates, glass, stone, ivory, or other substance to be operated on; hard, and common soft etching grounds, aquafortis (nitric acid), turpentine varnish, soft wax, and resin.
The copper-plates should be of the best copper, which should be very malleable, firm, and with some degree of hardness, free from veins or specks, and of a reddish colour, though the redness of the copper is not an infallible test of its fitness for etching. They may be had, prepared, in
The hard etching ground is made by melting together, upon a moderate fire, in a well-glazed new earthen vessel, two ounces each of Burgundy pitch and resin, and then adding eight ounces of good linseed oil, incorporating the whole over the fire gradually for half an hour. The mixture must then be boiled until it ropes on touching it with the finger and thumb; the pot must then be removed from the fire, and the varnish passed through a linen cloth into a glass vessel, and finally
The soft etching ground is prepared simply by mixing common etching ground with tallow, previously dropped in boiling water, and allowed to cool; or veal suet prepared in a similar manner.
The common etching ground is made by mixing two ounces of asphaltum, one of Burgundy pitch, and a ounce and a half of virgin wax together; the asphaltum being finely powdered, and then melted over the fire before the Burgundy pitch is added; then the wax is added, and finally the whole being poured into warm water, is made into
To apply the hard etching ground. The copperplate being cleaned by rubbing it with rag, and well washed whiting, it should be heated over a chafing dish containing charcoal in a state of comPlants being thus unhealthy, are not fit for plant-bustion, by holding it in a hand-vice, and then the
roved better and sounder plants than such as ave had additional shelter. The seedlings proected with glass generally grow too gross in the tems, which become partly blackened; and the
sides, and three or four wooden pegs fixed near the bottom, to support the plate in its position when the board is placed obliquely. It should also have a bridge which can be moved at pleasure, stretching across from the ledge on either side, to enable the person etching to rest the hand upon it.
ground laid on thinly by dabbing it all over with the dabber, until the surface is perfectly smooth, the plate is then to be re-warmed, and held (face downwards) over the smoke of a wax candle, care being taken that the flame does not touch the grounding. After the plate has been moved backwards and forwards, and the whole surface uniformly blacked, it is fit for etching when set firm.
To apply the soft varnish on etching ground, as also on common ground.-The plate having been cleansed as before, it should be heated as directed above, but yet so hot that the varnish may melt when brought in contact with it. The varnish being wrapped up in taffety or Persian silk, is to be rubbed all over from side to side until the plate is well covered, it is then to be struck with the dabber until uniformly even, but if dabbed too long the dabber is apt to raise the varnish from the plate.
To blacken the etching ground.-Pass the plate (face downwards) over the flame of four or five wax candles, or a flambeau, until properly blackened.
The instruments required.-The oil-rubber is made of swan-skin flannel, and is used to rub up the plate so as to remove any slight scratches.
The dabber is made by rolling up some fine cotton wool into a ball, and tying it up in Persian silk. This is used to spread the varnish equally over the surface of the plate.
The trough should be rather longer than the board, about four inches deep, and six inches wide, with a hole in the centre of the bottom fitted with a plug, so that the aquafortis may be quickly discharged into the glass vessel placed beneath. The inside of the trough should be covered with pitch, or sealing-wax varnish, (p. 233, vol. ii.)
The oil-stone is too well known to need any description. In choosing one, it is necessary to observe that it is not too coarse, as it will wear away the needles too fast, and produce ragged points, which would hinder them etching cleanly.
The rest of the instruments comprise a graver for finishing the work, a hand-vice for holding the plates, a parallel ruler, a brush to clean the surface of the varnish after etching, pencils of camel's-hair, a brazier, a wax candle, and a glass vessel to receive the acid,
The etching board is a frame of boards provided for supporting the plate while the aquafortis is poured over it; and connected with it is also a trough for receiving the acid as it runs from the frame. The board should be larger than the plates, with a ledge at the upper end, and two
THE HOUSEWIFE'S FRIEND.
The etching needles should be of various sizes and of the best steel, so that they will bend without breaking. They should be mounted in firm, tough, wooden handles, about six inches long, and rather thicker than a goose-quill, in such a manner as to leave only three quarters of an inch projecting. The points of the needles should be oval, round, and flat, or chisel pointed.
To make the oval-pointed needles, form a blunt round point in the manner described below, and holding the needle in an oblique direction work it backwards and forwards until one side is worn down to the centre, taking care to keep the same part exposed to the friction all the time.
The round-pointed needles are made by forming a channel in the oil-stone, in which the needles are to be worked backwards and forwards with a rotary motion between the fore-finger and thumb.
The chisel-shaped needles are sharpened in the same manner as a chisel, flat on both sides. The stift is made of one of the smallest round-ting pointed needles, by blunting and polishing the point, and is used to overtrace the design on the varnish.
TRUSSING AND CARVING.*
POULTRY AND GAME.
Observations on Trussing.-Although in London the various articles are trussed by the poulterer from whom they are purchased, yet it happens that presents from the country are sometimes spoiled for want of a knowledge of the following rules, both on the part of the mistress and cook :
All poultry should be well picked, every plug, or stub, removed, and the bird carefully and nicely singed with white paper. In drawing poultry, or game, care should be taken not to break the gall-bladder-as it would spoil the flavour of the bird by imparting a bitter taste to it, that no washing or any process could removenor the gut joining the gizzard, otherwise the inside would be gritty.
Observations on Carving.-The carving-knife for poultry and game is smaller and lighter than that for meat; the point is more peaked, and the handle longer.
In cutting up wild-fowl, duck, goose, or turkey, more prime pieces may be obtained by carving slices from pinion to pinion without making wings, which is a material advantage in distributhe bird when the party is large,
Trussing.-Pick and stub it clean, cut the feet off at the joint, and the pinion off at the first join' Then cut off the neck close to the back, leaving the skin of the neck long enough to turn over the back. Pull out the throat, and tie a knot at the end. Loosen the liver and other matters at the breast end with the middle finger, and cut it open between the vent and the rump. Draw out all the entrails except the soul, wipe the body out clean with a cloth, beat the breast-bone flat with a rolling-pin, put a skewer into the wing, and draw the legs up close; put the skewer through the middle of the leg, and through the body, and the
We have combined the directions for trussing and carving, because the one immediately precedes the other, and the same illustrations will also serve for both. It is necessary however to observe, that before dishing, the skewers are to be removed from all.
Carving.-Turn the neck towards you, and cut two or three long slices on each side of the breast, in the lines 1-2, quite to the bone. Then remove the leg by turning the goose on one side, putting the fork through the small end of the leg-bone, and pressing it close to the body, which, when the knife is entered at 4, raises the joint; the knife is then to be passed under the leg, in the direction 4-5. If the leg hangs to the carcass at the joint 55, turn it back with the fork, and it will readily separate if young, but will require some strength if old. Take the wing off by putting the fork into the small end of the pinion, and press it close to the body; divide the joint at 3 with the knife, carrying it along as far as 4. When the leg and wing on one side are taken off, remove those on the other side.
same on the other side. Put another skewer in the small of the leg, tuck it close down to the sidesman, run it through, and do the same on the other side. Cut off the end of the vent, and make a hole large enongh for the passage of the rump, as by that means it will keep in the seasoning much better.
To get at the stuffing, the apron must be removed by cutting in the line 6, 5, 7, and then take off the merry-thought in the line 8, 9. The neckbones are next to be separated as in a fowl, and all other parts divided the same.
The best parts are the breast slices; the fleshy part of the wing, which may be divided from the pinion; the thigh-bone, which may be easily divided in the joint from the leg-bone; the pinion; and next, the side-bones. The rump is a nice piece to those who like it; and the carcass is preferred by some to other parts.
When assisting the stuffing, extract it with a spoon from the body through the aperture caused by removing the apron; mix it with the gravy, which should first be poured from the boat into the body of the goose, before any one is helped.
A GREEN GOOSE
Is trussed and carved in the same way, but the most delicate parts are the breast, and the gristle at the lower part of it.
Trussing. When the bird is picked carefully, break the leg bone close to the foot, hang on a hook, and draw out the strings from the thigh; put the neck close off to the back, taking care to leave the crop-skin long enough to turn over the back. Remove the crop, and loosen the liver and gut at the throat end with the middle finger. Cut off the vent, remove the gut, pull out the gizzard with a crooked wire, and the liver will soon follow; but be careful not to break the gall. Wipe the inside perfectly clean with a wet cloth,
then cut the breast-bone through on each side close to the back, and draw the legs close to the crop, then put a cloth on the breast, beat the thigh bone down with a rolling-pin till it lies flat.
If the turkey is to be trussed for boiling, cut the first joint of the legs off; pass the middle finger into the inside, raise the skin of the legs and put them under the apron of the bird. Put a skewer into the joint of the wing and the middle joint of the leg, and run it through the body and the other leg and wing. The liver and gizzard must be put in the pinions, care being taken to open and previously remove the contents of the latter; the gall bladder must also be detached from the liver. Then turn the small end of the pinion on the back, and tie a packthread over the ends of the legs to keep them in their places.
If the turkey is to be roasted, leave the legs on, put a skewer in the joint of the wing, tuck the legs close up, and put the skewer through the middle of the legs and body; on the other side put another skewer in at the small part of the leg. Put it close on the outside of the sidesman, and push the skewer through, and the same on the other side. Put the liver and gizzard between the pinions, and turn the point of the pinion on the back. Then put, close above the pinions, another skewer through the body of the bird.
Carving. The finest parts of a turkey are the
breast, neck bones, and wings; the latter will bear some delicate slices being removed. After the four quarters are severed, the thighs must be divided from the drum-sticks, which being tough, should be reserved till the last. It is customary not to cut up more than the breast, but if any more is required, to take off one of the wings; a thin slice of the force-meat, which is under the breast, should be given to each person, cutting in the direction from the rump to the neck. A turkey is generally carved the same as a pheasant; it has no merry-thought.
Trussing.-Separate the neck from the head and body, but not the neck-skin. Draw the same as a turkey. Put a skewer through the joint of the pinion, tuck the legs close up, run the skewer through the middle of the leg, through the body, and so on the other side. Cut off the under part of the bill, twist the skin of the neck round and round, and skewer the head with the bill end forward; another skewer must then be put into the sidesman, and the legs placed between the sidesman and apron on each side. through all, and cut off the toe-nails. Some lard them on the breast. It is optional whether the liver and gizzard be used or not.
Pass the skewer
Carving. They are to be carved the same as a turkey.
CUT a piece of card-board about four inches long, the shape of the diagram, and make three holes in it as represented. The puzzle is to make one piece of wood pass through, and at the same time exactly fill each of the three holes.-E. H.
(1) WHAT'S the sociable tree, (2) and the dancing tree,
And the tree that is nearest the sea; (4) The most yielding tree, (5) the busiest tree, (6) And the tree where the ships may be? (7) The languishing tree, (8) the least selfish tree, (9) And the tree that bears a curse; (10) The chronologist's tree, (11) the fisherman's tree, (12) And the tree like an Irish nurse?
(13) What's the tell-tale tree, (14) the traitor tree, (15) And the tree that is warmest clad;
(16) The hangman's tree, (17) the housewife's tree, (18) And the tree that makes one sad?
(32) The tree to be kiss'd, (33) the dandiest tree,
(37) And the tree whose wood faces the north?
(49) The treacherous tree, (50) the contemptible
(51) And that to which wives are inclined;
The tree that's part given to doctors when ill; (57) The tree that we offer to friends when we meet,
And the tree we may use as a quill? (59) The tree that's immortal, (60) and the trees that are not, [fire; (61) And the tree that must pass through the (62) The tree that in Latin can ne'er be forgot, And in English we all must admire?
(63) The Egyptian plague tree, (64) and the tree
(65) And what round itself does entwine;
1. They are two simple bodies in the chemical sense of the word, as opposed to compound ones; 2. And both members of the family of elementary substances
(19) What's the tree that with death will benight
(20) And the tree that your wants will supply;
(23) What tree to the hunters resounds to the skies,
3. Which includes about sixty-one elements, viz.: four gaseous bodies, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine; forty-eight metallic subbismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium stances: aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, cobalt, columbium, or santalium, copper, didy lanthanium +, lead, lithium, magnesium, manga mium, erbiumt, glucinium, gold, iridium, iron, nese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, nidbium, osmium, palladium, pelopium †, platinum, potassium, rhodium, ruthenium t, silver, sodium, strontium, tellurium, terbium †, thorium, tin, titanium,
And the tree that never stands still;
(30) The tree that got up, and the tree that is lazy, tungsten, vanadium, uranium, yttrium, zinc and
And the tree neither up nor down hill?
zinconium; and nine which are neither gaseous nor metallic, viz.: carbon, boron, bromine, fluo rine, iodine, silenium, silicon, sulphur, and phos phorus.
4. They are "scattered on all sides the universe o'er."
*This Enigma has repeatedly been sent to the Editor for insertion, though no one correspondent has been able to accompany it with the whole of the answers.
SOLUTION OF "GRANDFATHER'S PRIZE
By MRS. LIMMER, Brook Street, Ipswich;
5. Oxygen being essential to existence, for the purposes of respiration, may well be welcome to man and beast; and carbon equally so, for to man it offers itself in the form of the priceless diamond-the more useful, but less valuable coal, and charcoal; and to both man and beast it is stances, whether of vegetable or animal origin, available for the purposes of food; most solid sub consisting of carbon, in combination with oxygen,
*For the Editor's Solution, see p. 351, vol. ii.
Are of recent discovery; pelopium and nidbium were found in the mineral containing columbium, rutheniu ceríum, and erbium and cerbium in that of yttrium.