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141-Circulating Magazine of Manuscript Literature.- are of copper; those of brass are mere tokens, and are You were kind enough to insert (see pars. 155 and worthless, or nearly so. 226 Appendix, vol. i.) my notice respecting a "Cir- 145- Elderberry Wme. J. C.-Two accepted recipes culating Manuscript Magazine." I have received but are subjoined, but as the Editor neither uses nor recomthree letters upon the subject, from two gentlemen and one meuds fermented beverages, he cannot give any opinion lady; but we intend to start it immediately, and shall be upon their merits. Ist. Having gathered the ripe berries, glad to have an addition to our Numbers. It will most boil them for three minutes, or till the fruit bursis its skin; Akely be called “The Manuscript Bee," and its contribu- pour the juice through a sieve, and squeeze. To each tors hope that it will "sip from the flowers of knowledge quart of juice add a pound of coarse brown sugar, and boil as it wings its way through the garden of literature." for forty minutes, stirring and skimming well. Pour Arthur Barfield, Jun., Dunmow, Esser. We have no doubt through a cloth, and allow it to stand till it is nearly cool; that, now the proposal to institute a Manuscript Magazine then add a little yeast, and pour into the cask. Alter ferhas found a practical expression, many of our Friends will mentation has taken place, rack off into a clean cask, in be pleased to unite in the agreeable experiment. Those which a few chopped raisins have been thrown, and bung wishing to do so should at once communicate with Mr. down. Ready to tap in a hundred days. 2nd. To four Bartiela.
gallons of boiled water add five pounds of chopped raisins, 142--Thunderbolts.--"M. C.B., a friend of the Family a stick of cinnamon, half an ounce of cloves, and eight Friend," writes—"I shall feel exceedingly obliged by pounds of Demerara sugar (whitey-brown). Boil for an your giving me an explanation of the term thunderboll. hour and a half, and add four gallons of the strained juice Is there such a thing, and if so, what is it? I happened of the elderberries, boiling the whole for twenty minutes. to be present during an argument regarding it the other When cool, add two wine-glassfuls of lemon juice, and day. A friend mentioned several anecdotes of thunder- allow to stand for three days. Strain, pour into a cast bolts having fallen at different places, when a gentleman (full larye), and add a little yeast, When fermentation present said there was no such thing-and laughed at the has taken place, rack off into a clean cask, and add balf a thing as absurd."-When an electric discharge takes place pint or pint of sherry for every gallon. After fourteen from the clouds to the earth, or from any object to another, days stop down: bottle after one hundred and fifty days. sparks, or apparent balls of fire, of various sizes, are seen. 146-Artificial Incubation. P.W.-This method of These sparks are not material in the usual acceptation of hatching eggs, by the application of artificial beat, bas that term, but owe their appearance to the incandescence been practised from time immemorial. The invention is of the atoms of the medium through which the electric not novel-only the mode of the application of the beat. fuid passes.
There are no such things as masses of The art is said to have been long practised with great sucmatter which can be appropriately termed thunderbolts. cess by the inhabitants of the villages in Egypt. The table It is certain, however, that meteoric stones, (vide Appen- of Louis XIV. was supplied with chickens raised by arti. dix 89) supposed by Humboldt to be wandering planets, ficial incubation. The great secret of success in artificial have fallen to the earth with considerable noise; this pro- incubation is to apply the heat steadily. The method used bably gave rise to the popular error with respect thun- by M. Bonnemain is as follows:-A large box is divided derbolts.
by shelves in the manner of the hot closets heated by steam; 143-The Washing Reform.-Having for more than each division, into which the eggs are laid in flannel, is twelve
months used Mr. Twelvetrees' method of washing, surrounded by steam pipes, which are kept at a temperaas published in your vol. i. pp. 204, 313, I am happy to in- ture of about 98 deg. Doors open into the cells for the eggs form you that I find it not only a great saving of time, in all directions. The eggs require turning every twentylabour, and expense, but also can add that the clothes are four hours. On the eighteenth day the chick begins to beautifully white, and the fabric not in the least degree pipe, and on the twentieth or twenty-first day it liberates injured. Not being able, when I first commenced, to pro- itself from its prison in the shell. The little animals will cure the bottle recommended by the Family Friend, I was run about and peck ground biscuit and chopped
egg almost forced to make the composition myself, and have con- immediately after their exit from the shell. The chicks tinued to do so, as all with whom I have had any commu
should be removed as soon as hatched, to a cooler case, nication on the subject tell me the home-made is so with light. The toor of the second case should be sprinkled superior. I adhere most strictly to Mr. Twelvetrees' with fine gravel, aud food scattered amongst it. After about instructions, as published in the Friend, with the exception four days, the chicks are strong enough to be removed into that I use an additional rinsing water. To this I would re- a room with the floor sprinkled in the same manner. quest the attention of your numerous readers who may 147-Barbers' Poles.-In reading the Appendix, vol. ii. feel interested, as I find the plentiful use of water of great 29, 112, I find your correspondent "Admirer, is interested importance. These brief observations may encourage in the subject of "Barbers' Poles." I have stumbled over some timid housekeeper to adopt such an easy way of a curious book, viz., Wadd's Mems., Maxims, and Memoirs, evading the horrors of a washing-day. I hear many com- printed for circulation among private friends, and from plaints about clotl
turning red, &c., but this, I can which I have ext the foilowing; if you deem it testify, is owing to the mismanagement of servants, who, worthy of notice you are at liberty to use it as you please. in general, have a dislike to any thing in the shape of K. N. H.-In the reign of Henry VIII., who confirmed improvement.-A LOVER OF IMPROVEMENT.
the charter of the College of Surgeons, there were few 144-Queen Anne's Farthings. M. M.-The erroneous surgeons-in fact, only ten in number--who confined themsupposition that only three of these coins were struck in selves entirely to the profession of surgery, and whose Queen Anne's reign is founded upon the fact that there portraits have been handed down to us in one of the finest were some pattern or proof coins, which got into circula- efforts of Holbein's, pencil, where these ten worthies are tion, in addition to the coin which was really in use. represented on their knees before the king. This celeSeveral hundreds of Queen Anne's farthings were struck, brated painting now in the possession of the Barbers and those bearing the impression and lettering given in Company, Up to this time a co-partnership existed be
tween barbers and surgeons; and we find a branch of the
"''Twas ordered that a huge long pole,
To guide the wounded."
And men grew out of love with scarsof Queen Anne's farthings, but six of these were only pat
Their trade decaying; to keep swimming tern coins struck for approval, but from which no copies
They joyn'd* the other trade of trimming; for circulation were made : these are rare. They alffer
And to their poies to publish either, from the common farthing in the reverse and legend. The
Thus twisted both their trades together." common farthing of Queen Anne is worth to collectors from seven to twelve shillings; while the pattern coins fetch from one to five pounds. 'All the genuine farthings
# Sic. orig.
148-Medical Replies. G.-The medical remarks in priety in addressing sich unreasonable coinmunications our Appendices have all been written by a medical gentle- to an editor, and in charging him with unworthy attributes, man,
because he has sense enough to discriminate between the 149-Ferns. A. E, Z.-A" History of British Ferns," deserving and the undeserving among his correspondents, by E. Newman, F.L.S., published by Van Voorst, Pater- If L. W. displays no better temper and judgment in the noster Row, London. We can recommend this work, general affairs of life, we should not like a servant of ours 150-8alt.
J. T.-We had previously noticed the to fall into an alliance with him. advertisement of Dr. Howard's pamphlet upon the hurtful 158-Astrology. A, S.-The Editor has no belief in effects of salt. The theory is quite opposed to accepted the prophecies of astrologers. The Seers, who profess hysiological opinions. We intend to investigate the sub- prescience, employ a system of probabilities, which, in ect without prejudice. The present volume will contain many cases becoming fulfilled, appear to claim credit for the views we may form upon the subject.
the assumed gift, or science. But the mistakes are too *151-Etiquette. S. $. -Persons of both sexes some- frequent to be overlooked. If astrology were an unfailing times leave their cards at our door, turned up at one science, there would be an end to speculation, and the corner. Will you ohlige me by stating the reason of this whole system of jurisprudence would be superseded, or to me unaccountable circumstance i-The card being necessarily modified. The affairs of late years have baf. turned up at one corner denotes that two persons are fled the Herschels and Zadkiels most amazingly. The called upon at the same time.
exit of Louis Philippe from France was an event which, if 152-Killing Lepidoptera.-W. M. favours us with the the stars were cognizant of it, they kept a secret to themfollowing directions : -Having placed your moth, or fly, selves; for astrology, through its peculating disciples, under a large glass, take a small piece of German tinder, warned the late king to look well to the security of his and having lighted it, place it also under. The moth will crown long after he bad, in fact, no crown to protect ! be stupified in a few seconds, and be quite in your power. Fires in Constantinople--battles--shipwrecks--pestilence Then take a needle, dipped'in oxalic acid, and puncture somewhere--death everywhere-thunder in autumn--snow each separately under the thorax; they die almost in- in winter---political agitation and religious strife, soinestantly. I found this method in the Naturalist's Library, where, somehow, and at any place, about such and such to which it was communicated by the Rev. C. S. Bird. a time, supply a sufficient stock in trade for the genii of a
153-Sale of Funcy Work. IDA.We find that the gross imposition. “ British Needlewomen's and Female Artists' Repository," 159-Cheap Literature.-From an article upon "The 120, New Bond Street, noticed at p. 14, Appendix, vol. il., Amusements and Literature of the People of Liverpool,!! is closed. The projected institution never arrived at published in the Morning Chronicle for September 2nd, maturity. We have made various inquiries, but are quite we glean the following particulars of the sales of cheap unable to learn of any institution at which'ladies' fancy- publications, as evidenced by the business of Mr. Shepwork is received for sale upon commission. We think, herd, the most extensive dealer in these publications in the however, that, in many cases, ladies might make private town:arrangements with respectable tradespeople in their own localities.
doz. 154-Nevofoundland Dogs. E. W.-These fine and faithful animals are often advertised for sale in the first
Working Man's Friend 50
130 Reynolds's Instructor page of the Times newspaper-almost daily. The price London Journal
Reynolds's Miscellany. 50 varies from £3 to £20. We had a fine pup lately, whose
20 “education" was progressing very favourably. She would
THREE-HALFPENNY PUBLICATIONS. even run before us and ring the bell at our door, upon
doz. our return from a walk. Sometimes, too, when rambling, she would take liberties with other people's bells, and
Eliza Cook's Journal. 50 | Knight's Half Hours many a bewildered servant-maid performed a fruitless
Chambers' Papers for People's and Howitt's the People
Journal fourney at the playful call of our now departed “ Juno."
Chambers' Journal . 20 155-Mourning.-Supposing a lady loses by death the gentleman to whom she was engaged to be married-is it
doz. proper to wear mourning for him ?--and if so, deep with erape, as for a near relative-or without crape, as for a
30 friend? And for what length of time should it be worn in either case?--R. D. W.--If a lady on the point of marriage
Cottage Gardener. loses the gentleman to whom she is engaged, she ought, undoubtedly, to put on a widow's mourning, with the ex
doz. ception of the cap, and to wear it for one or two years. If
4) Ladies' Companion 2 the engagement has been of short duration, the mourning may be slighter, and for a shorter period--crape for half a We have omitted from the list the names of various pubyear, another six months without.
lications not belonging properly to the class of “period156-Mould Candles.-Having observed a "Question Requiring Answer," (24 App., vol. ii.) " How to make readers will probably be gratified to observe the high posi
icals," and circulating in much smaller proportions. Our Mould Candles," and having seen some ercellent ones tion occupied by The Family Friend. The promoters of made by a friend of mine, I hasten to send you the re-popular improvement will be glad to hear of Mr. Shepceipt:-Melt the fat (mutton suet is best) with a very slight herd's opinion, that "the taste for the wild, the horrible, heat, else it will be discoloured; then strain it, let it stand and the atrocious, was somewhat on the decline, and that in a basin to cool, turn it out in a dish, and cut the soiled there was not such a run as there used to be for stories of part off (where the sediment lies); next warm it again suf- thieves and highwaymen." We rejoice to think that we ficiently to pour it out of a jug into the moulds, which have contributed to this improvement, and hope to render ought to be previously got ready with a wick in each, held still greater service to the cause of human welfare when up by a wire rod at the top of the mould, as the wick is to our Friend and Tutor unite their labours. be drawn tight hy a knot at the bottom of it, then let the 160-Lays of the Minor Poets.-Not the least difficult melted fat stand in the moulds to fix; put them in a cool of an Editor's duties, is that of satisfying a host of correplace, take each candle out carefully, and keep in a box; be sure the moulds are quite clean before using. Four tó importune him to publish the treasures of their imagina
spondents who fancy they have struck the poetic yein, and the pound is a handsome-looking candle--the above give a tion. We have never before specially referred to this nuvery good light, and cost about three-pence halfpenny or merous class of our friends, but we feel called upon now Tour-pence halfpenny per pound.-A. N. A.
to do so. J. E. addresses the Editor thus:-"This is the 157–Importunity.-L. W. writes us an extraordinary third and last time of writing to you, for it is attended letter. He sought our advice, some months ago, upon a with trouble and expense; for I do not send my notes question which we thought not fairly within our province, headless to you. I asked if you would oblige me by insertand which we therefore passed by without notice. He now ing the enclosed in the Family Friend, as I have subscribed importunes us thus:-"I can only infer that the expressed from the first. I have now commenced with the third desire on your part of doing good, is fudge; and that the volume, but losing all interest in it, as I consider I am two-pence bi-monthly is more to be esteemed by you," treated with conteunpt!" Thus called upon to "give satis &c. &c. He generously, however, affords us "one more faction” to a complaining supporter, the Editor publishes trial;" and goes on to state that he is in love with a ser- the hitherto rejected poem :vant girl, but fearing the match would not be pleasant to
ODE TO HOPE. his friends, is doubtful as to the propriety of making proposais to her. Ile therefore wants our friendly opinion,
Hope thou blest reviver given We beg to suggest to L. W. that thero is 1 gross impro
Sent froin the balmy breath of Henvin
By it we live by it we die
162-Acridae Bingleü.-Having seen the account of For we Hope to live above the Sky.
this insect given at p. 23, and finding that it was supposed
not to be in England until it was discovered in the New Where Angels ever bright and Fair Unite in Love their Praise and Prayer
Forest, Hampshire, and at Goodwin's Croft, and named
after the Rev. W. Bingley, I write to inform you that Where Friends can never separated be
there are hundreds of them (I have enclosed two or three) But live on to Eternity,
on a piece of bogey land, called Little Brickhill Warren, Dark indeed our path would be
about three miles from Woburn, Beds.-G. B. C. [The Without this blessing that's sent so free
specimens reached us safely, with no other mishap than And I will Hope on to the last
that the three living ones remaining appear to have deLooking to the future and thinking on the past.
voured a fourth, whose mutilated carcase now lies before J. E.
us.--The insects were caught by our correspondent on or
about the 22nd of July.] Probably not only J. E., but the whole of our readers,
163-Edwin and Emma. P.D.-The touching inciwill now be "satisfied." While we are upon the subject, dents narrated in Mallett's beautiful ballad, “Edwin and we may as well introduce to our Friendly circle one or Emma," are
founded upon facts, as shown by the followtwo more of the Minor Poets towards whom the Editor ing extract of a letter from the curate of Bowes, in Yorkhas hitherto shown the discourtesy of exclusion. Allow shire, on the subject of this poem, to Mr. Copperthwaite, us to introduce “Miss Nina" as the authoress of a little at Marrick. “Worthy sir, - As to the affair mentioned in poem which she has addressed to us twice :
yours, it happened long before my time: I have therefore
been obliged to consult my clerk, and another person in HAPPY LAND.
the neighbourhood, for the truth of that melancholy event. There is a land, there is a land,
The history of it is as follows:--The family name of the Where waves flow o'er a golden strand
young man was Wrightson, and of the maiden Railton. Where the nightingale's song enlivens the night, They
were both much of the same age, that is, growing up Aud fountains sparkle in fields of light.
to twenty. In their birth was no disparity; but in fortune,
alas! she was his inferior. His father, a hard old man, There ships sail up its noble bay,
who had by his toil acquired a handsome competency, exIn the golden light of the orb of day
pected and required that his son should marry suitably There the moon casts forth her silver beam
but as amor vincit omnia, his heart was unalterably fixed And the fairy landscape's like a dream.
on the pretty young creature already named. Their courtThere flowers grow both rich and rare
ship, which was all hy stealth, unknown to the family,
continued about a year: when it was found out, old And gentle breezes cool the air This is the land whiure care doth not dwell
Wrightson, his wife, and particularly their crooked daugh
ter Hannah, Aouted at the maiden, and treated her with Where is that land o! pray me tell.
notable contempt; for they held it as a maxim, and a rustic L. G. addresses “Lines to a friend with a Rose," which one it is, that hlood is nothing without groats.' The young conclude in the following manner :
lover sickened, and took to his bed about Shrove-Tues.
day, and died the Sunday se'ennight after. On the last Thine eye so bright can nothing lose
day of his illness he desired to see his mistress: she was By a comparison, and thus I muse
civilly received by the mother, who bid her welcomeThy softly-tinted, carmined cheek
when it was too late ; but her daughter Hannah lay at his Betraying thy soft looks so meek
back, to cut them off from all opportunity of exchanging Will put to shame this rose.
their thoughts. At her return home, on hearing the hell
toll out for his departure, she screamed aloud that her All thy virtues shine so bright,
heart was burst, and expired some moments after. The They're plainly seen though ris night; And if in hours of sadness grief or pain
then curate of Bowes inserted it in the register that they
both died of love, and were buried in the same grave, It cannot be assuaged t'will, I say again, Be softened by this rose.
March 15, 1714,"
QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS.
6-Caterpillars.-What is the best method of preWith darkened hue into the skies;
serving caterpillars, in order to watch their changes ?-G. The stars shine out with lustre bright
7-Cleaning Bonnets.- The best method of cleaning And hail the approach of coming night,
rice straw bonnets !-G. M. V. The bird retires into his nest
8-Rose Leaves.—The best method of drying roseAnd there till morn does snugly rest
leaves to fill vases, together with the kinds and quantities And weary man his labour spurns,
of scents or aromatics to be mixed with them ?-A. S. And home to rest he now returns.
9- Powdered Butter.--The means to make powdered
butter! The frugal wife she tea prepares
At the late Agricultural Meeting, at Glasgow And with her husband it she shares.
it obtained a prize.-C. R. He now with sleep hangs down his head,
10-Honey.- The best method of preserving honey in While she prepares to make the bed.
the comb? Also, how to keep it from becoming watery,
when drained ?-E. Most of our readers will now perceive why the "Lays of
11-Sea Weeds.-Wanted, the addresses of persons the Minor Poets" are so uniformly laid aside. They will
who get up sea weeds for sale, either for charitable purbe able to defend us when the propriety of our conduct is
poses, or otherwise. Communicate with M. C. Pike, 18, under discussion.
Pool Valley, Brighton. 161-Metallic Trees. T. S. T-The Lead Tree is pro
12-Drayon Flies.-A good method of preserving the duced as follows:-Put into a glass bottle about half an
colour of dragon-dies, &c., without gutting and stuffing ounce of sugar of lead, and fill up to the neck with distilled
them? I use no sulphur in killing my specimens. Although or rain water; then fasten to the cork, or
an old collector, I have not yet met with a good receipt stopper, a piece of zinc wire, so that it
for this.-W. M. may hang in the centre; then place the
13-Cranberries.- What is the proper way of preserving bottle where it may remain undisturbed.
cranberries; that is, of boiling cranberwies to make cranThe wire will soon be covered with crys
berry jam? I have lately had some boiled, as fruit are tals of lead, precipitated from the solution,
usually, for about four hours, on a quick fire, but the reand assuming a tree-like form, very pleas
sult is unsatisfactory, for the berries are all hard, dry, and ing to the eye. For the Tin 1'ree, proceed
shrivelled. But I believe that the fruit were not of the as before, and put in three drachms of
very freshest : still the mode adopted must be wrong.-S.S. muriate of tin, and about ten drops of
14-Shop Tickets. The method by which the beaunitric acid. The tin tree has a more lus
tiful smalt-blue and emerald-green of the ticket-writers is trous appearance than the lead tree. The
produced? We have white letters on a coloured ground, Silver Tree is prepared by a solution of
and I am at a loss to conceive the mode hy which the four drachms of nitrate of silver, in dis
colour is so evenly laid over so large a surface. The tilled or rain water, as before; to which
writing appears to be laid on afterwards. Which is the best add about an ounce of quicksilver. These u experiments are very easy, and highly interesting.
white for the purpose, and any peculiarity in its applica tion ?-B. H. B.
164 -Mignionette Trees. J. W.A.-Nip off every side seem to consider this the case with all the vegetable bud, until it attains the height you wish.
sources from which hydroaganic acid has been obtained. 165-Courtship. S. T. W.-It is not usual to continue We should hesitate to eat many of the kernels and pipcorresponding with a gentleman, when his suit is refused. pins alluded to, lest the decomposition of the amygdaline, A young lady had better not commence an acquaintance, of which C. speaks, should be composed in our stomach, unless introduced.
which is refreshed with plentiful supplies of water, and 166-Shoes. V.- The best method of preventing shoes, prussic acid be thus formed. &c., from being spoiled by wet, is to place them upon
177-Sleep of Criminals. B. P.-The soundness of "lasts," or "trees," while wet, and to rub and clean them sleep frequently enjoyed by criminals, even up to the hour well when dry, before liberating them.
of their execution, does not necessarily imply hardness of 167-Corpulency. P. Q.--- Fat is oftener a disease, than heart. Dr. Philip says that to attribute such an effect to a token of health. Moderation in carbonaceous food, the
this cause, is "referable to ignorance of the nature of sleep, use of pure water as beverage, free exercise in the open and of the fact that all degrees of excitement in the parts air, and aperients at intervals, are the remedies for the of the brain and spinal marrow, associated with the nerves malady.
of the sensitive system, are followed by proportional ex168--Roses, A. C.--According to your description, haustion. The only limit to this law is the capability of your roses were properly budded. By the word stock (which bearing in those parts." Exhausted by mental excitement, we used in contradistinction to the bud, or scion) we did the criminal is often awakened for his execution: and the not mean the stalk, or main stem, nor did we suppose that soldier, both hy mental and bodily excitement, sleeps by any one could have understood us so to do.
the roaring cannon. 169-Street Etiquette.--Is it etiquette for a gentleman 178-lairvoyance.-It may be of service to some of to open the door of the carriage to a lady unknown to him, your readers to be put on their guard against a person who supposing the carriage stops close by bim, and there is only advertises in several weekly papers, that on the receipt of one servant on the same, he being the coachman? C.-It one shilling, and a lock of hair, he will answer any three is never desirable to be officious; the service described by questions relative to either the past, present, or future. C. would certainly have the appearance of being so. Doubtless, thousands from curiosity, if not faith, have con
170-Etiquette.---Will you have the kindness to inform tributed to enrich the impostor, who quietly pockets the me, whether it is considered a correct thing for a young shillings, and of course returns no answer. Myself and lady to bring down her night-caps to work in the drawing- several friends have to regret throwing away money (in room, in the presence of a young gentleman who is stay-expectation of some answer) that might have been being in the house? M. B. P. Perhaps there is no great stowed on a more worthy objeet. The address given is impropriety in the young lady's doing so, but it is not an "Henri Lamerte, 76, Lower Thames Street." I enclose evidence of good taste, and had better be avoided.
my card, in confidence, and remain, your obedient ser171-Pines. E.G.W.-Pines are grown from suckers as vant, M. R. R. well as crowns. To give you the details of hot-house 179-Manures. G. R. G.-Not knowing the size of your management you require, would fill a complete number of garden, nor what you cultivate, it is impossible to give a the Family Friend. You say you employ a gardener, why definite answer. Guano may be used for both vegetables not be guided by him? For the insects on your roses, wash and towers; but, unless given in homæopathic doses, will the parts affected with an infusion of tobacco. If the in- do more harm than good. Sulphate of ammonia is an excelsects are in the grub state, they must be picked out by lent manure. To prepare it :-dissolve two ounces of car
bonate of ammonia (common smelling salts) in a pint of 172--Remedy for Drinkenness.-A substitute for in- water, and then drop in sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) until toxicating liquors has been recommended by a French all effervescence, or bubbling, ceases. An eighth part of physician, but as we are not subject to the malady, we are the solution of sulphate of ammonia, thus ohtained, is unable to speak of the efficacy of the remedy. The solu- sufficient to mix with one gallon of water, to be applied as tion of acetate of ammonia, sold in the shops, is recom-liquid manure Dig in all the leaves, stems, &c., the mended to be diluted with water (half an ounce of the refuse of the garden; though undecomposed, they are by solution to a tumblerful of water) and sweetened to no means, as you suspect, comparatively useless." please the taste. It is not a disagreeable drink in this 180-Will-o'-the-Wisp.-M. J. C., a school-girl, inform, and is a very useful febrifuge.
quires the origin and meaning of this term, as it is used in 173-Leaves. J.---The circulation in plants is esta- common conversation, to express the imaginary objects blished as a fact, hut the mode in which it is performed is pursued by foolish dreamers. “ Will-o'-the-wisp," and not very clearly understood. The veins of the leaf are "Jack-o'-lantern,” are names applied to a meteor which chiefly woody tissue, not circulating vessels. The terms appears occasionally in the vicinity of bogs, and which is "ascent" and "descent” of the sap, as they are usually said to have been mistaken by benighted travellers for the used, are incorrect. We beg to refer you to Grandfather light in a cottage window, or that of a lantern. Whitehead's Lecture on Leaves, vol. i. p. 184, and follow similitude to the waving of a lighted wisp of straw, or to ing pages, where many of the difficulties complained of the moving light of a lantern, it has received the above by our correspondent, in understanding the structure of the
As the meteors are gaseous, and exceedingly leaf, are disposed of.
transient, they have been used metaphorically to represent 174-Courtship und Matrimony.-Is it the lady's place the illusive visions of fanatics, &c. The real nature of to write to her father or friends respecting a gentleman the meteors is unknown, but a probable supposition is who has made her an offer of marriage? Should not the that the light is produced by bubbles of phosphuretted gentleman write first, and ask her father? The case is just hydrogen, which take fire as they escape from the swanıp. this :- I am in a situation in this town; none of my friends 181-Quantity of Food.--A. H. W. says: "Pray how or relations live here. A gentleman has made me an offer, many pounds of food do you think requisite for any body which of course I cannot accept without the consent of my during a day, and how much liquid to that quantity?! It parents. I have not said a word about it at home. He must be evident to all our readers how impossitle it is for wishes me to write, but I think he ought to do so. L. us to give any satisfactory answer to such an indefinite The gentleman should write, and by so doing give an ear- question. The growing youth will require a larger quannest of his honourable intentions. The lady should also tity of carbonaceous food than the old man; the man who address her parents about the same time.
is actively employed in the open air, constantly consuming 175--Alcohol. W. W. S.-Alcohol does not exist in a large quantity of carbon in his lungs, will require more vegetables in their natural state, but is the result of fer- food than the sedentary student. The different temperamentation (see Answers to the Prize Enigma, vol. ii.). tures of the year necessitate different quantities and kinds Porter, ale, and beer, vary in the proportions which they of food. With regard to the quantity of liquid also, it is contain; other intoxicating, and perhaps more pernicious plain that no definite answer can be given. Men employed, drugs than alcohol, being introduced by some of the as some of our artisans are, in very heated rooms, where brewers. A thousand ounces of brandy contain nearly 534 there is great evaporation from the skin, and mucous meinounces of pure spirit. In the same quantity of rum there brane of the lungs, require more than the average. The are about 537 ounces of alcohol; while in whisky we find sedentary needlewoman, in her fireless room, requires upwards of 510 ounces. Gin of ordinary quality contains
less. less álcohol than most other spirits, having usually about 182-Refusat of Chemists to compound Recipes --T. B. 516 ounces of pure spirit in a thousand of the liquor. complains that a chemist refuses to make up the solution
176-Prussic Acid.-C. argues that our reply, (App., of oxalic acid recommended for the removal of ink stains, p. 3, 16,) is incorrect, and that prussic acid is a product of vol. i. p. 281, unless the acid he more diluted with water. distillation, not an educt from the fruit kernels. In the case In all such cases we cannot condemn the caution of the of the bitter-almond it has been proved that prussic acid druggist who, with propriety, declines to sell poisonous does not exist, but
that it is produced by the decomposition solutions to persons with whom he is unacquainted, and of its amygdaline in contact with water. Pereira does not without being informed what may be the purpose to which
it is to be applied. We go so far, indeed, as to believe that 186-The Water Lily. P.M.-This flower (Nymphed poisonous compounds should never be sold to any person alba) is found in slow
rivers and ponds, very generally, unless they are accompanied by a respectable witness, throughout England. Frequent in ponds about Liverpool, known to the tradesman, who can testify the purpose for in Norfolk, and Suffolk; at Mere, near Scarborough which the poison is purchased, or be answerable for the Ragley, Warwickshire: Snowdon Pool, near Bridgnorth; cautious habits of the purchaser. If T. B. goes to the in Loch Lomond acres are covered with it.-Withering's druggist thus, with a respectable person who knows him, British Plants, vol. iii. p. 652.-(We lately gathered some and produces the Family Friend containing the printed ine specimens at Lodden Bridge, near Reading.), recipe, we have little doubt that no further difficulty will 187
Family Duties, &c.- Dear Sir, -Believing your arise. Nevertheless, we would rather hear that T. B. had Friend to be doing an inestimable amount of good, I been refused, than that any person had been poisoned respectfully ask you to interpret a sentence, which I canowing to the laxity and want of caution in the chemist. not understand, in article upon Etiquette, &c., p. 202, The quadro-oxalate of potash, or salt of lemon, is less which runs thus:
-Heads of families should never lose poisonous than oxalic acid, and is very efficacious.
sight of the responsible position in which they are placed, 183-Transmitted Heat.-Whilst glancing over the nor permit any approach to familiarity on the part of their Appen of your first volume, my attention was called to children. In what sense am I to understand the word the question by W. G. C.:-"Why do we feel the heat of familiarity ? In the heading prefixed to the 7th chapter the sun through a window, when the glass through which of Proverbs, I read-Solomon persuadeth to a sincere it passes remains cold ?" Now my object is not to explain and kind familiarity, with wisdom.' And I have been used this; for I believe no satisfactory explanation is known, to think that the filial love which children bear to parents the fact depending, in a great measure, I have no doubt, who treat them with a kind familiarity, is a far surer on the shape of the ultimate particles of matter of which pledge of affectionate obedience than is the more formal, the glass is composed; but the reason of my communica- but less powerful motive, respect. In this opinion I am tion is merely to bring before your readers the contrast supported by the poet Cowper, who, in his Sirocinium, if between pure crystallized rock-salt, which is perfectly I remember right, reckons among the mischiefs of the transparent, and glass. If a double, or plano-convex school-education of his day, that a boy, on returning lens, be made of both these substances, it will be found home, found filial affection cooled into respect. I trust, that the rock-salt will collect the rays from an artificial therefore, that you will favour your readers with an explasource of light to a focus, and that heat will be felt at that nation of the term familiarity, as there used; and believe focus; while it will collect the rays of the sun to a focus that it was from an affectionate respect for the good work without any heat being developed. Now with glass it is a you are engaged in, that I was induced to write thus to well-known fact, that the heat of the sun's rays can be you. But I will not conclude without expressing my enbrought to a focus; but glass will not collect to a focus tire confidence in the soundness of the principles on which any rays of heat from an artificial source. A knowledge the work is conducted, and offering my sincere congratuof this fact is applied in practice by the men who work at lations on its extensive circulation. Your friend, and the glass furnaces, who, when they wish to inspect the well-wisher, J. G."- The "familiarity” objected to by state of "metal" in the furnace, use a glass screen to look the writer upon “Etiquette," was fully illustrated by the through, and at all times courteously provide visitors with entire paragraph, whích J. G. has but partially quoted. the same. Your obedient
Servant, L. T., Alchemist. We have re-perused that portion of our author's remarks 184-Taking Notes.-J. Y. wishes to be informed what with increased satisfaction; and we think that the best is the best and easiest system of short-hand for taking reply to J. G. is to refer his attention again to the paper. notes of lectures. It is quite impossible to be able to fol-Vulgar familiarity must not be confounded with that sweet low the exact words of a speaker without long and regular and affectionate ease and confidence which should ever practice, no matter what is the system adopted. From subsist between parents and children. experience of the efficacy of the following plan, for ordi- 188-The Death's-Head Moth. - Mr. W. H. Sinom, nary purposes, we can recommend the following plan :
-draper, of Sun Street, Canterbury, had scarcely concluded Learn thoroughly the principles of Pitman's system of reading the account of this insect, (Acherontia atropos! Phonography, (the Manual costs about ls. 6d.) and study p. 146, when he observed a large object fitting about his the grammalogues, or signs for words, for such common shop. Believing it to be a bat, he sought to drive it out, expressions as "of," " for," "the," "and,” &c., a list of but struck it down, and found it to be a fine specimen of a hundred of which are given in the book alluded to. the moth about which he had immediately before been Make use of these abbreviations in your writing, and com- reading. It was about ten o'clock in the evening.. Mr. S. bine with them grammalogues of your own formation, for posted the moth to the
Editor, and expressed his desire expressions which frequently occur in the lectures to to have it returned, saying that he intended to take advanwhich your attention is directed. If you are a divinity tage of this singular incident by exhibiting the moth, and student, you may with propriety form grammalogues for collecting alms from the spectators on behalf of the Missuch terms as “the old testament,” “the new testament,” sionary cause. To aid this laudable purpose, the
Editor “the scriptures." If medical, "the anterior surface, returned the moth, with a copy of the following verses "superior extremities,” “the nervous system;" and such written by himself, and also a small subscription :terms might be abbreviated and represented by single signs.
Behold a worm, betray'd While in the lecture-room, do not attempt to do more than by brief sentences to preserve notes of the lecture. These
By dazzling light;
And, gazing on its form, should be always writien out at length afterwards with all
Improve the sight: the ideas suggested by the notes. The student will thus
Reflect that sin's bewild'ring glare find the whole lecture impressed upon his mind in a man
Doth wand'ring spirits oft ensnare. ner that will be exceedingly useful to him, since he will have preserved the important part—the ideas-of the lec
Mark thou its lifeless wings, ture, and will have taken a lesson in composition also. If
And calmly meditate the student wishes to report, that is, write down every
That Death o'ertaketh kings,
And those of low estate: word of the speaker, he must practice at home, and hire A person to read to him for practice. Full directions will be
Nor rags, nor regal garbs, can save found in Pitman's "Reporter's Companion," price 28. 6d.
The worm-like mortal from the grave, 185-Ornamental Eggs. P. B.-The ornamental eggs,
Let not a groundless dread made and sold by the German peasantry, are manufactured
O'ertake thy heart; as follows:-Take any large egg, and after
Though stamp'a by grim “death's-head," puncturing each end, blow out the contents,
A kindly part until the interior is quite clean. Then
Shall from this visitation spring, take some rushes, and splitting open their
If thou thy humble tribute bring green bark, extract the pith by running the
To aid the Gospel Mission's cause, thumb-nail along the rush: a little practice
Which spreads the light of sacred laws. will be required. Paste circular, ör sexa
The insect's visit--thus abruptgonal, octagonal, or oval pieces of coloured
Shall unto heathen souls reveal silk, velvet, or paper, upon different parts
The heaven where moti nor rust corrupt, di of the egg, and then work the pith of the rushes around these, in any fanciful de
Nor thieves break through and steal!" sign. All that is required to make the
Should any of our readers feel interested in this remarkpith adhere, is a little gum, or thin paste.
able circumstance, and be willing to promote Mr. S.'s de: The eggs look very pretty, and supply
sign, small subscriptions remitted in postage-stamps to his peat household ornaments." Boxes, &c., may be covered residence at Canterbury (see above,) will be thankiully rein the same way.