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141-Circulating Magazine of Manuscript Literature.You were kind enough to insert (see pars. 155 and 226 Appendix, vol. ii.) my notice respecting a "Circulating Manuscript Magazine." I have received but three letters upon the subject, from two gentlemen and one lady; but we intend to start it immediately, and shall be glad to have an addition to our Numbers. It will most likely be called "The Manuscript Bee," and its contributors hope that it will "sip from the flowers of knowledge as it wings its way through the garden of literature."Arthur Barfield, Jun., Dunmow, Esser.-We have no doubt that, now the proposal to institute a Manuscript Magazine has found a practical expression, many of our Friends will be pleased to unite in the agreeable experiment. Those wishing to do so should at once communicate with Mr. Barfield.

142-Thunderbolts." M. C.B., a friend of the Family Friend," writes-"I shall feel exceedingly obliged by your giving me an explanation of the term thunderboll. Is there such a thing, and if so, what is it? I happened to be present during an argument regarding it the other day. A friend mentioned several anecdotes of thunderbolts having fallen at different places, when a gentleman present said there was no such thing-and laughed at the thing as absurd."-When an electric discharge takes place from the clouds to the earth, or from any object to another, sparks, or apparent balls of fire, of various sizes, are seen. These sparks are not material in the usual acceptation of that term, but owe their appearance to the incandescence of the atoms of the medium through which the electric fluid passes. There are no such things as masses cf matter which can be appropriately termed thunderbolts. It is certain, however, that meteoric stones, (vide Appendix 89) supposed by Humboldt to be wandering planets, have fallen to the earth with considerable noise; this probably gave rise to the popular error with respect to thunderbolts.

143-The Washing Reform.-Having for more than twelve months used Mr. Twelvetrees' method of washing, as published in your vol. i. pp. 204, 313, I am happy to inform you that I find it not only a great saving of time, labour, and expense, but also can add that the clothes are beautifully white, and the fabric not in the least degree injured. Not being able, when I first commenced, to procure the bottle recommended by the Family Friend, I was forced to make the composition myself, and have continued to do so, as all with whom I have had any communication on the subject tell me the home-made is so superior. I adhere most strictly to Mr. Twelvetrees' instructions, as published in the Friend, with the exception that I use an additional rinsing water. To this I would request the attention of your numerous readers who may feel interested, as I find the plentiful use of water of great importance. These brief observations may encourage some timid housekeeper to adopt such an easy way of evading the horrors of a washing-day. I hear many complaints about clothes turning red, &c., but this, I can testify, is owing to the mismanagement of servants, who, in general, have a dislike to any thing in the shape of improvement.-A LOVER OF IMPROVEMENT.

144-Queen Anne's Farthings. M. M.-The erroneous supposition that only three of these coins were struck in Queen Anne's reign is founded upon the fact that there were some pattern or proof coins, which got into circulation, in addition to the coin which was really in use. Several hundreds of Queen Anne's farthings were struck, and those bearing the impression and lettering given in

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the engravings are not very rare. Mr. Till, in 1837, stated that he had from fifteen to twenty of them in his own collection. In the British Museum there are seven varieties of Queen Anne's farthings, but six of these were only pattern coins struck for approval, but from which no copies for circulation were made: these are rare. They differ from the common farthing in the reverse and legend. The common farthing of Queen Anne is worth to collectors from seven to twelve shillings; while the pattern coins fetch from one to five pounds. All the genuine farthings

are of copper; those of brass are mere tokens, and are worthless, or nearly so.

145-Elderberry Wme. J. C.-Two accepted recipes are subjoined, but as the Editor neither uses nor recommends fermented beverages, he cannot give any opinion upon their merits. 1st. Having gathered the ripe berries, boil them for three minutes, or till the fruit bursis its skin; pour the juice through a sieve, and squeeze. To each quart of juice add a pound of coarse brown sugar, and boil for forty minutes, stirring and skimming well. Pour through a cloth, and allow it to stand till it is nearly cool; then add a little yeast, and pour into the cask. After fermentation has taken place, rack off into a clean cask, in which a few chopped raisins have been thrown, and bung down. Ready to tap in a hundred days. 2nd. To four gallons of boiled water add five pounds of chopped raisins, a stick of cinnamon, half an ounce of cloves, and eight pounds of Demerara sugar (whitey-brown). Boil for an hour and a half, and add four gallons of the strained juice of the elderberries, boiling the whole for twenty minutes. When cool, add two wine-glassfuls of lemon juice, and allow to stand for three days. Strain, pour into a cask (full large), and add a little yeast. When fermentation has taken place, rack off into a clean cask, and add half a pint or pint of sherry for every gallon. After fourteen days stop down: bottle after one hundred and fifty days. 146-Artificial Incubation. P. W.-This method of hatching eggs, by the application of artificial beat, has been practised from time immemorial. The invention is not novel-only the mode of the application of the heat, The art is said to have been long practised with great success by the inhabitants of the villages in Egypt. The table of Louis XIV. was supplied with chickens raised by arti ficial incubation. The great secret of success in artificial incubation is to apply the heat steadily. The method used by M. Bonnemain is as follows:-A large box is divided by shelves in the manner of the hot closets heated by steam; each division, into which the eggs are laid in flannel, is surrounded by steam pipes, which are kept at a temperature of about 98 deg. Doors open into the cells for the eggs in all directions. The eggs require turning every twentyfour hours. On the eighteenth day the chick begins to pipe, and on the twentieth or twenty-first day it liberates itself from its prison in the shell. The little animals will run about and peck ground biscuit and chopped egg almost immediately after their exit from the shell. The chicks should be removed as soon as hatched, to a cooler case, with light. The floor of the second case should be sprinkled with fine gravel, and food scattered amongst it. After about four days, the chicks are strong enough to be removed into a room with the floor sprinkled in the same manner.

147-Barbers' Poles.-In reading the Appendix, vol. ii. 29, 112, I find your correspondent "Admirer" is interested in the subject of "Barbers' Poles." I have stumbled over a curious book, viz., Wadd's Mems., Maxims, and Memoirs, printed for circulation among private friends, and from which I have extracted the following; if you deem it worthy of notice you are at liberty to use it as you please. K. N. H.-In the reign of Henry VIII., who confirmed the charter of the College of Surgeons, there were few surgeons-in fact, only ten in number-who confined themselves entirely to the profession of surgery, and whose portraits have been handed down to us in one of the finest efforts of Holbein's pencil, where these ten worthies are represented on their knees before the king. This celebrated painting is now in the possession of the Barbers' Company. Up to this time a co-partnership existed be tween barbers and surgeons; and we find a branch of the fraternity at Newcastle, in 1742, ordaining that "no brother should shave on a Sunday;" and, moreover, that "no one should shave John Robinson till he pays what he owes to John Shafto." The sign, or signal, announcing the residence of one of this fraternity was a long pole affixed to the door-post, as may be seen in many places in the metropolis at this hour. According to the account given of this sign in the "British Apollo," folio, (London, 1708,No. 3,) it had its origin in ancient ome," where

"Twas ordered that a huge long pole,

With bason decked, should grace the hole, To guide the wounded."

"But when they ended all their wars,

And men grew out of love with scars-
Their trade decaying; to keep swimming
They joyn'd* the other trade of trimming;
And to their poles to publish either,
Thus twisted both their trades together."

* Sic. orig.

148-Medical Replies. G.-The medical remarks in our Appendices have all been written by a medical gentle


149-Ferns. A. E. Z.-A "History of British Ferns," by E. Newman, F.L.S., published by Van Voorst, Paternoster Row, London. We can recommend this work. 150-Salt. J. T.-We had previously noticed the advertisement of Dr. Howard's pamphlet upon the hurtful effects of salt. The theory is quite opposed to accepted hysiological opinions. We intend to investigate the subect without prejudice. The present volume will contain the views we may form upon the subject.

151-Etiquette. S. S.-Persons of both sexes sometimes leave their cards at our door, turned up at one corner. Will you oblige me by stating the reason of this me unaccountable circumstance -The card being turned up at one corner denotes that two persons are called upon at the same time.


152-Killing Lepidoptera.-W. M. favours us with the following directions:-Having placed your moth, or fly, under a large glass, take a small piece of German tinder, and having lighted it, place it also under. The moth will be stupified in a few seconds, and be quite in your power. Then take a needle, dipped in oxalic acid, and puncture each separately under the thorax; they die almost instantly. I found this method in the Naturalist's Library, to which it was communicated by the Rev. C. S. Bird.

153-Sale of Funcy Work. IDA. We find that the "British Needlewomen's and Female Artists' Repository," 120, New Bond Street, noticed at p. 14, Appendix, vol. ii., is closed. The projected institution never arrived at maturity. We have made various inquiries, but are quite unable to learn of any institution at which ladies' fancywork is received for sale upon commission. We think, however, that, in many cases, ladies might make private arrangements with respectable tradespeople in their own localities.

154-Newfoundland Dogs. E. W.-These fine and faithful animals are often advertised for sale in the first page of the Times newspaper-almost daily. The price varies from £3 to £20. We had a fine pup lately, whose "education" was progressing very favourably. She would even run before us and ring the bell at our door, upon our return from a walk. Sometimes, too, when rambling, she would take liberties with other people's bells, and many a bewildered servant-maid performed a fruitless Fourney at the playful call of our now departed "Juno." 155-Mourning.-Supposing a lady loses by death the gentleman to whom she was engaged to be married-is it proper to wear mourning for him?-and if so, deep with erape, as for a near relative-or without crape, as for a friend? And for what length of time should it be worn in either case?-R. D. W.-If a lady on the point of marriage loses the gentleman to whom she is engaged, she ought, undoubtedly, to put on a widow's mourning, with the exception of the cap, and to wear it for one or two years. If the engagement has been of short duration, the mourning may be slighter, and for a shorter period-crape for half a year, another six months without.

156-Mould Candles.-Having observed a "Question Requiring Answer," (24 App., vol. ii.) "How to make Mould Candles," and having seen some excellent ones made by a friend of mine, I hasten to send you the receipt:-Melt the fat (mutton suet is best) with a very slight heat, else it will be discoloured; then strain it, let it stand in a basin to cool, turn it out in a dish, and cut the soiled part off (where the sediment lies); next warm it again sufficiently to pour it out of a jug into the moulds, which ought to be previously got ready with a wick in each, held up by a wire rod at the top of the mould, as the wick is to be drawn tight by a knot at the bottom of it; then let the melted fat stand in the moulds to fix; put them in a cool place, take each candle out carefully, and keep in a box; be sure the moulds are quite clean before using. Four to the pound is a handsome-looking candle-the above give a very good light, and cost about three-pence halfpenny or four-pence halfpenny per pound.-A. N. A.

157-Importunity.-L. W. writes us an extraordinary letter. He sought our advice, some months ago, upon a question which we thought not fairly within our province, and which we therefore passed by without notice. He now importunes us thus:-"I can only infer that the expressed desire on your part of doing good, is fudge; and that the two-pence bi-monthly is more to be esteemed by you," &c. &c. He generously, however, affords us "one more trial;" and goes on to state that he is in love with a servant girl, but fearing the match would not be pleasant to his friends, is doubtful as to the propriety of making proposals to her. He therefore wants our friendly opinion. We beg to suggest to L. W. that there is a gross impro

priety in addressing such unreasonable communications to an editor, and in charging him with unworthy attributes, because he has sense enough to discriminate between the deserving and the undeserving among his correspondents. If L. W. displays no better temper and judgment in the general affairs of life, we should not like a servant of ours: to fall into an alliance with him.

158-Astrology. A. S.--The Editor has no belief in the prophecies of astrologers. The Seers, who profess prescience, employ a system of probabilities, which, in many cases becoming fulfilled, appear to claim credit for the assumed gift, or science. But the mistakes are too frequent to be overlooked. If astrology were an unfailing science, there would be an end to speculation, and the whole system of jurisprudence would be superseded, or necessarily modified. The affairs of late years have baffled the Herschels and Zadkiels most amazingly. The exit of Louis Philippe from France was an event which, if the stars were cognizant of it, they kept a secret to themselves; for astrology, through its peculating disciples, warned the late king to look well to the security of his crown long after he had, in fact, no crown to protect! Fires in Constantinople--battles-shipwrecks-pestilence. somewhere-death everywhere-thunder in autumn-snow in winter-political agitation and religious strife, somewhere, somehow, and at any place, about such and such, a time, supply a sufficient stock in trade for the genii of a gross imposition.

159 Cheap Literature.-From an article upon "The Amusements and Literature of the People of Liverpool," published in the Morning Chronicle for September 2nd, we glean the following particulars of the sales of cheap publications, as evidenced by the business of Mr. Shepherd, the most extensive dealer in these publications in the



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ODE TO Hope. Hope thou blest reviver giv'n

Sent from the balmy breath of Heav'n

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We have omitted from the list the names of various publications not belonging properly to the class of "periodicals," and circulating in much smaller proportions. Our readers will probably be gratified to observe the high position occupied by The Family Friend. The promoters of popular improvement will be glad to hear of Mr. Shepherd's opinion, that "the taste for the wild, the horrible, and the atrocious, was somewhat on the decline, and that there was not such a run as there used to be for stories of thieves and highwaymen." We rejoice to think that we have contributed to this improvement, and hope to render still greater service to the cause of human welfare when our Friend and Tutor unite their labours.

160-Lays of the Minor Poets.-Not the least difficult of an Editor's duties, is that of satisfying a host of correspondents who fancy they have struck the poetic vein, and importune him to publish the treasures of their imagination. We have never before specially referred to this numerous class of our friends, but we feel called upon now to do so. J. E. addresses the Editor thus:-"This is the third and last time of writing to you, for it is attended with trouble and expense; for I do not send my notes headless to you. I asked if you would oblige me by inserting the enclosed in the Family Friend, as I have subscribed from the first. I have now commenced with the third volume, but losing all interest in it, as I consider I am treated with contempt!" Thus called upon to "give satis faction" to a complaining supporter, the Editor publishes the hitherto rejected poem:

By it we live by it we die-
For we Hope to live above the Sky.

Where Angels ever bright and Fair Unite in Love their Praise and Prayer Where Friends can never separated be But live on to Eternity.

Dark indeed our path would be

Without this blessing that's sent so free
And I will Hope on to the last

Looking to the future and thinking on the past.
J. E.

Probably not only J. E., but the whole of our readers, will now be "satisfied." While we are upon the subject, we may as well introduce to our Friendly circle one or two more of the Minor Poets towards whom the Editor has hitherto shown the discourtesy of exclusion. Allow us to introduce "Miss Nina" as the authoress of a little poem which she has addressed to us twice:


There is a land, there is a land,

Where waves flow o'er a golden strand
Where the nightingale's song enlivens the night,
And fountains sparkle in fields of light.

There ships sail up its noble bay,
In the golden light of the orb of day
There the moon casts forth her silver beam
And the fairy landscape's like a dream.

There flowers grow both rich and rare
And gentle breezes cool the air
This is the land where care doth not dwell
Where is that land O! pray me tell.

L. G. addresses "Lines to a Friend with a Rose," which conclude in the following manner :

Thine eye so bright can nothing lose
By a comparison, and thus I muse
Thy softly-tinted, carmined cheek
Betraying thy soft looks so meek

Will put to shame this rose.
All thy virtues shine so bright,
They're plainly seen though 'tis night;
And if in hours of sadness grief or pain
It cannot be assuaged t'will, I say again,
Be softened by this rose.

J. J. M. favours us with the following sonnetic poem upon


The sun now sets, the clouds arise,
With darkened hue into the skies;
The stars shine out with lustre bright
And hail the approach of coming night,
The bird retires into his nest
And there till morn does snugly rest
And weary man his labour spurns,
And home to rest he now returns.
The frugal wife she tea prepares
And with her husband it she shares.
He now with sleep hangs down his head,
While she prepares to make the bed.

Most of our readers will now perceive why the "Lays of the Minor Poets" are so uniformly laid aside. They will be able to defend us when the propriety of our conduct is under discussion.

161-Metallic Trees. T. S. T.-The Lead Tree is produced as follows:-Put into a glass bottle about half an ounce of sugar of lead, and fill up to the neck with distilled or rain water; then fasten to the cork, or stopper, a piece of zinc wire, so that it may hang in the centre; then place the bottle where it may remain undisturbed. The wire will soon be covered with crystals of lead, precipitated from the solution, and assuming a tree-like form, very pleasing to the eye. For the Tin Tree, proceed as before, and put in three drachms of muriate of tin, and about ten drops of nitric acid. The tin tree has a more lustrous appearance than the lead tree. The Silver Tree is prepared by a solution of four drachms of nitrate of silver, in distilled or rain water, as before; to which add about an ounce of quicksilver. These experiments are very easy, and highly interesting.

162-Acridue Bingleii.-Having seen the account of this insect given at p. 23, and finding that it was supposed not to be in England until it was discovered in the New Forest, Hampshire, and at Goodwin's Croft, and named after the Rev. W. Bingley, I write to inform you that there are hundreds of them (I have enclosed two or three) on a piece of boggy land, called Little Brickhill Warren, about three miles from Woburn, Beds.-G. B. C. [The specimens reached us safely, with no other mishap than that the three living ones remaining appear to have devoured a fourth, whose mutilated carcase now lies before us.-The insects were caught by our correspondent on or about the 22nd of July.]

163-Edwin and Emma. P. D.-The touching incidents narrated in Mallett's beautiful ballad, "Edwin and Emma," are founded upon facts, as shown by the following extract of a letter from the curate of Bowes, in Yorkshire, on the subject of this poem, to Mr. Copperthwaite, at Marrick. "Worthy sir,-As to the affair mentioned in yours, it happened long before my time: I have therefore been obliged to consult my clerk, and another person in the neighbourhood, for the truth of that melancholy event. The history of it is as follows:-The family name of the young man was Wrightson, and of the maiden Railton. They were both much of the same age, that is, growing up to twenty. In their birth was no disparity; but in fortune, alas! she was his inferior. His father, a hard old man, who had by his toil acquired a handsome competency, expected and required that his son should marry suitably; but as amor vincit omnia, his heart was unalterably fixed on the pretty young creature already named. Their courtship, which was all by stealth, unknown to the family, continued about a year: when it was found out, old Wrightson, his wife, and particularly their crooked daughter Hannah, flouted at the maiden, and treated her with notable contempt; for they held it as a maxim, and a rustic one it is, that blood is nothing without groats.' The young lover sickened, and took to his bed about Shrove-Tuesday, and died the Sunday se'ennight after. On the last day of his illness he desired to see his mistress: she was civilly received by the mother, who bid her welcomewhen it was too late; but her daughter Hannah lay at his back, to cut them off from all opportunity of exchanging their thoughts. At her return home, on hearing the bell toll out for his departure, she screamed aloud that her heart was burst, and expired some moments after. The then curate of Bowes inserted it in the register that they both died of love, and were buried in the same grave, March 15, 1714."

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13-Cranberries.-What is the proper way of preserving cranberries; that is, of boiling cranberies to make cranberry jam? I have lately had some boiled, as fruit are usually, for about four hours, on a quick fire; but the result is unsatisfactory, for the berries are all hard, dry, and shrivelled. But I believe that the fruit were not of the very freshest: still the mode adopted must be wrong.-S.S. 14-Shop Tickets. The method by which the beautiful smalt-blue and emerald-green of the ticket-writers is produced? We have white letters on a coloured ground, and I am at a loss to conceive the mode by which the colour is so evenly laid over so large a surface. The writing appears to be laid on afterwards. Which is the best white for the purpose, and any peculiarity in its applica tion -B. H. B.

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164-Mignionette Trees. J. W. A.-Nip off every side bud, until it attains the height you wish.

165-Courtship. S. T. W.-It is not usual to continue corresponding with a gentleman, when his suit is refused. A young lady had better not commence an acquaintance, unless introduced.

166-Shoes. V.-The best method of preventing shoes, &c., from being spoiled by wet, is to place them upon "lasts," or "trees," while wet, and to rub and clean them well when dry, before liberating them. 167-Corpulency. P. Q.-Fat is oftener a disease, than a token of health. Moderation in carbonaceous food, the use of pure water as beverage, free exercise in the open air, and aperients at intervals, are the remedies for the malady.

168-Roses, A. C. According to your description, your roses were properly budded. By the word stock (which we used in contradistinction to the bud, or scion) we did not mean the stalk, or main stem, nor did we suppose that any one could have understood us so to do.

169-Street Etiquette.-Is it etiquette for a gentleman to open the door of the carriage to a lady unknown to him, supposing the carriage stops close by him, and there is only one servant on the same, he being the coachman? C.-It is never desirable to be officious; the service described by C. would certainly have the appearance of being so. 170-Etiquette.-Will you have the kindness to inform me, whether it is considered a correct thing for a young lady to bring down her night-caps to work in the drawingroom, in the presence of a young gentleman who is staying in the house? M. B. P.-Perhaps there is no great impropriety in the young lady's doing so; but it is not an evidence of good taste, and had better be avoided.

171-Pines. E. G.W.-Pines are grown from suckers as well as crowns. To give you the details of hot-house management you require, would fill a complete number of the Family Friend. You say you employ a gardener, why not be guided by him? For the insects on your roses, wash the parts affected with an infusion of tobacco. If the insects are in the grub state, they must be picked out by


172-Remedy for Drunkenness.-A substitute for intoxicating liquors has been recommended by a French physician, but as we are not subject to the malady, we are unable to speak of the efficacy of the remedy. The solution of acetate of ammonia, sold in the shops, is recommended to be diluted with water (half an ounce of the solution to a tumblerful of water) and sweetened to please the taste. It is not a disagreeable drink in this form, and is a very useful febrifuge.

173-Leaves. J.-The circulation in plants is established as a fact, but the mode in which it is performed is not very clearly understood. The veins of the leaf are chiefly woody tissue, not circulating vessels. The terms "ascent" and "descent" of the sap, as they are usually used, are incorrect. We beg to refer you to Grandfather Whitehead's Lecture on Leaves, vol. i. p. 184, and following pages, where many of the difficulties complained of by our correspondent, in understanding the structure of the leaf, are disposed of.

174-Courtship and Matrimony.-Is it the lady's place to write to her father or friends respecting a gentleman who has made her an offer of marriage? Should not the gentleman write first, and ask her father? The case is just this-I am in a situation in this town; none of my friends or relations live here. A gentleman has made me an offer, which of course I cannot accept without the consent of my parents. I have not said a word about it at home. He wishes me to write, but I think he ought to do so. L.The gentleman should write, and by so doing give an earnest of his honourable intentions. The lady should also address her parents about the same time.

175-Alcohol. W. W. S.-Alcohol does not exist in vegetables in their natural state, but is the result of fermentation (see Answers to the Prize Enigma, vol. ii.). Porter, ale, and beer, vary in the proportions which they contain; other intoxicating, and perhaps more pernicious drugs than alcohol, being introduced by some of the brewers. A thousand ounces of brandy contain nearly 534 ounces of pure spirit. In the same quantity of rum there are about 537 ounces of alcohol; while in whisky we find upwards of 540 ounces. Gin of ordinary quality contains less alcohol than most other spirits, having usually about 516 ounces of pure spirit in a thousand of the liquor.

176-Prussic Acid.-C. argues that our reply, (App., p. 3, 16,) is incorrect, and that prussic acid is a product of distiliation, not an educt from the fruit kernels. In the case of the bitter-almond it has been proved that prussic acid does not exist, but that it is produced by the decomposition of its amygdaline in contact with water. Pereira does not

seem to consider this the case with all the vegetable sources from which hydroaganic acid has been obtained. We should hesitate to eat many of the kernels and pippins alluded to, lest the decomposition of the amygdaline, of which C. speaks, should be composed in our stomach, which is refreshed with plentiful supplies of water, and prussic acid be thus formed.

177-Sleep of Criminals. B. P.-The soundness of sleep frequently enjoyed by criminals, even up to the hour of their execution, does not necessarily imply hardness of heart. Dr. Philip says that to attribute such an effect to this cause, is "referable to ignorance of the nature of sleep, and of the fact that all degrees of excitement in the parts of the brain and spinal marrow, associated with the nerves of the sensitive system, are followed by proportional exhaustion. The only limit to this law is the capability of bearing in those parts." Exhausted by mental excitement, the criminal is often awakened for his execution: and the soldier, both by mental and bodily excitement, sleeps by the roaring cannon.

178-Clairvoyance.-It may be of service to some of your readers to be put on their guard against a person who advertises in several weekly papers, that on the receipt of one shilling, and a lock of hair, he will answer any three questions relative to either the past, present, or future. Doubtless, thousands from curiosity, if not faith, have contributed to enrich the impostor, who quietly pockets the shillings, and of course returns no answer. Myself and several friends have to regret throwing away money (in expectation of some answer) that might have been bestowed on a more worthy object. The address given is "Henri Lamerte, 76, Lower Thames Street." I enclose my card, in confidence, and remain, your obedient servant, M. R. R.

179-Manures. G. R. G.-Not knowing the size of your garden, nor what you cultivate, it is impossible to give a definite answer. Guano may be used for both vegetables and flowers; but, unless given in homoeopathic doses, will do more harm than good. Sulphate of ammonia is an excellent manure. To prepare it :-dissolve two ounces of carbonate of ammonia (common smelling salts) in a pint of water, and then drop in sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) until all effervescence, or bubbling, ceases. An eighth part of the solution of sulphate of ammonia, thus obtained, is sufficient to mix with one gallon of water, to be applied as liquid manure Dig in all the leaves, stems, &c., the refuse of the garden; though undecomposed, they are by no means, as you suspect, "comparatively useless."

180-"Will-o'-the-Wisp.-M. J. C., a school-girl, inquires the origin and meaning of this term, as it is used in common conversation, to express the imaginary objects pursued by foolish dreamers. "Will-o'-the-wisp," and "Jack-o'-lantern," are names applied to a meteor which appears occasionally in the vicinity of bogs, and which is said to have been mistaken by benighted travellers for the light in a cottage window, or that of a lantern. From its similitude to the waving of a lighted wisp of straw, or to the moving light of a lantern, it has received the above names. As the meteors are gaseous, and exceedingly transient, they have been used metaphorically to represent the illusive visions of fanatics, &c. The real nature of the meteors is unknown, but a probable supposition is that the light is produced by bubbles of phosphuretted hydrogen, which take fire as they escape from the swamp.

181-Quantity of Food.-A. H. W. says: "Pray how many pounds of food do you think requisite for any body during a day, and how much liquid to that quantity ?" It must be evident to all our readers how impossible it is for us to give any satisfactory answer to such an indefinite question. The growing youth will require a larger quantity of carbonaceous food than the old man; the man who is actively employed in the open air, constantly consuming a large quantity of carbon in his lungs, will require more food than the sedentary student. The different temperatures of the year necessitate different quantities and kinds of food. With regard to the quantity of liquid also, it is plain that no definite answer can be given. Men employed, as some of our artisans are, in very heated rooms, where there is great evaporation from the skin, and mucous meinbrane of the lungs, require more than the average. The sedentary needlewoman, in her fireless room, requires less.

182-Refusal of Chemists to compound Recipes. T. B. complains that a chemist refuses to make up the solution of oxalic acid recommended for the removal of ink stains, vol. i. p. 281, unless the acid be more diluted with water. In all such cases we cannot condemn the caution of the druggist who, with propriety, declines to sell poisonous solutions to persons with whom he is unacquainted, and without being informed what may be the purpose to which

it is to be applied. We go so far, indeed, as to believe that poisonous compounds should never be sold to any person unless they are accompanied by a respectable witness, known to the tradesman, who can testify the purpose for which the poison is purchased, or be answerable for the cautious habits of the purchaser. If T. B. goes to the druggist thus, with a respectable person who knows him, and produces the Family Friend containing the printed recipe, we have little doubt that no further difficulty will arise. Nevertheless, we would rather hear that T. B. had been refused, than that any person had been poisoned owing to the laxity and want of caution in the chemist. The quadro-oxalate of potash, or salt of lemon, is less poisonous than oxalic acid, and is very efficacious.

186-The Water Lily. P. M.-This flower (Nymphad alba) is found in slow rivers and ponds, very generally, throughout England. Frequent in ponds about Liverpool, in Norfolk, and Suffolk; at Mere, near Scarborough Ragley, Warwickshire: Snowdon Pool, near Bridgnorth in Loch Lomond acres are covered with it.-Withering's British Plants, vol. iii. p. 652.-[We lately gathered some fine specimens at Lodden Bridge, near Reading.]

187-Family Duties, &c.- Dear Sir,-Believing your Friend to be doing an inestimable amount of good, I respectfully ask you to interpret a sentence, which I cannot understand, in article upon Etiquette, &c., p. 202, which runs thus:- Heads of families should never lose sight of the responsible position in which they are placed, nor permit any approach to familiarity on the part of their children.' In what sense am I to understand the word familiarity?' In the heading prefixed to the 7th chapter of Proverbs, I read-Solomon persuadeth to a sincere and kind familiarity, with wisdom. And I have been used to think that the filial love which children bear to parents who treat them with a kind familiarity, is a far surer pledge of affectionate obedience than is the more formal, but less powerful motive, respect. In this opinion I am supported by the poet Cowper, who, in his Sirocinium, if I remember right, reckons among the mischiefs of the school-education of his day, that a boy, on returning home, found filial affection cooled into respect. I trust, therefore, that you will favour your readers with an explanation of the term 'familiarity, as there used; and believe that it was from an affectionate respect for the good work you are engaged in, that I was induced to write thus to you. But I will not conclude without expressing my entire confidence in the soundness of the principles on which the work is conducted, and offering my sincere congratulations on its extensive circulation.-Your friend, and well-wisher, J. G."-The "familiarity" objected to by the writer upon "Etiquette," was fully illustrated by the entire paragraph, which J. G. has but partially quoted. We have re-perused that portion of our author's remarks with increased satisfaction; and we think that the best reply to J. G. is to refer his attention again to the paper. Vulgar familiarity must not be confounded with that sweet and affectionate ease and confidence which should ever subsist between parents and children.

188-The Death's-Head Moth. Mr. W. H. Sinom, draper, of Sun Street, Canterbury, had scarcely concluded reading the account of this insect, (Acherontia Atropos,) p. 146, when he observed a large object flitting about his shop. Believing it to be a bat, he sought to drive it out, but struck it down, and found it to be a fine specimen of the moth about which he had immediately before been reading. It was about ten o'clock in the evening. Mr. S. posted the moth to the Editor, and expressed his desire to have it returned, saying that he intended to take advantage of this singular incident by exhibiting the moth, and collecting alms from the spectators on behalf of the Missionary cause. To aid this laudable purpose, the Editor returned the moth, with a copy of the following verses written by himself, and also a small subscription:Behold a worm, betray'd By dazzling light; And, gazing on its form, Improve the sight: Reflect that sin's bewild'ring glare Doth wand'ring spirits oft ensnare. Mark thou its lifeless wings, And calmly meditate That Death o'ertaketh kings, And those of low estate: Nor rags, nor regal garbs, can save The worm-like mortal from the grave.


183-Transmitted Heat.-Whilst glancing over the Appendix of your first volume, my attention was called to the question by W. G. C.: Why do we feel the heat of the sun through a window, when the glass through which it passes remains cold ?" Now my object is not to explain this; for I believe no satisfactory explanation is known, the fact depending, in a great measure, I have no doubt, on the shape of the ultimate particles of matter of which the glass is composed; but the reason of my communication is merely to bring before your readers the contrast between pure crystallized rock-salt, which is perfectly transparent, and glass. If a double, or plano-convex lens, be made of both these substances, it will be found that the rock-salt will collect the rays from an artificial source of light to a focus, and that heat will be felt at that focus; while it will collect the rays of the sun to a focus without any heat being developed. Now with glass it is a well-known fact, that the heat of the sun's rays can be brought to a focus; but glass will not collect to a focus any rays of heat from an artificial source. A knowledge of this fact is applied in practice by the men who work at the glass furnaces, who, when they wish to inspect the state of "metal" in the furnace, use a glass screen to look through, and at all times courteously provide visitors with the same. Your obedient Servant, L. T., Alchemist.

184-Taking Notes.-J. Y. wishes to be informed what is the best and easiest system of short-hand for taking notes of lectures. It is quite impossible to be able to follow the exact words of a speaker without long and regular practice, no matter what is the system adopted. From experience of the efficacy of the following plan, for ordinary purposes, we can recommend the following plan:Learn thoroughly the principles of Pitman's system of Phonography, (the Manual costs about 1s. 6d.) and study the grammalogues, or signs for words, for such common expressions as "of," "for," "the," "and," &c., a list of a hundred of which are given in the book alluded to. Make use of these abbreviations in your writing, and combine with them grammalogues of your own formation, for expressions which frequently occur in the lectures to which your attention is directed. If you are a divinity student, you may with propriety form grammalogues for such terms as "the old testament," "the new testament," "the scriptures." If medical, "the anterior surface," "superior extremities," "the nervous system;" and such terms might be abbreviated and represented by single signs. While in the lecture-room, do not attempt to do more than by brief sentences to preserve notes of the lecture. These should be always written out at length afterwards with all the ideas suggested by the notes. The student will thus find the whole lecture impressed upon his mind in a manner that will be exceedingly useful to him, since he will have preserved the important part-the ideas-of the lecture, and will have taken a lesson in composition also. If the student wishes to report, that is, write down every word of the speaker, he must practice at home, and hire a person to read to him for practice. Full directions will be found in Pitman's "Reporter's Companion," price 28. 6d. 185-Ornamental Eggs. P. B.-The ornamental eggs, made and sold by the German peasantry, are manufactured as follows:-Take any large egg, and after puncturing each end, blow out the contents, until the interior is quite clean. take some rushes, and splitting open their green bark, extract the pith by running the thumb-nail along the rush: a little practice will be required. Paste circular, or sexagonal, octagonal, or oval pieces of coloured silk, velvet, or paper, upon different parts of the egg, and then work the pith of the rushes around these, in any fanciful design. All that is required to make the pith adhere, is a little gum, or thin paste. The eggs look very pretty, and supply neat household ornaments. Boxes, &c., may be covered residence at Canterbury (see above,) will be thankfully reIn the same way.

Let not a groundless dread
O'ertake thy heart;

Though stamp'd by grim "death's-head,"
A kindly part


Shall from this visitation spring,
If thou thy humble tribute bring
To aid the Gospel Mission's cause,
Which spreads the light of sacred laws.
The insect's visit-thus abrupt-
Shall unto heathen souls reveal

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The heaven "where MOTH nor rust corrupt, d Nor thieves break through and steal!" Should any of our readers feel interested in this remark able circumstance, and be willing to promote Mr. S.'s de sign, small subscriptions remitted in postage-stamps to his



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