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34.09

42.18

4.60

cal analyses of two of the baking powders in most general 12-Butter. A. C. R.-A member of our vast family, use, (I allude to those manufactured by the Messrs. who has the superintendence of a dairy, writes to comDelport and Borthwick respectively), I beg to forward plain that for two successive weeks she has been annoyed you a copy of the same, for the information of such of by churning and not getting any butter. She is quite åt a your readers as are in the habit of using the powders in loss how to account for such an occurrence, and requests question :

us to explain, believing that the same unpleasant failure (BORTHWICK's]

happens to others as well as herself. As we were not

per cent. upon the spot to superintend our fair friend's operations, Tartaric Acid

28.72

we cannot tell what detail in the care-requiring process Bicarbonate of soda

she may have omitted, or which of the numerous conAmylaceous matter, (probably arrowroot)

• 37.19

ditions under which butter is produced, she has neglected

to fulfil, We shall, therefore, briefly enumerate some of 100.00 the most important: -Cows should be milked in a cool

place, and should not be driven much before milking. [DELPORT's]

Unless a very cleanly milking-house can be used, it is per cent.

better to milk them in the pasture. The vessels for carry. Alum

ing home the milk should be made of copper, or tinBicarbonate of Soda

22.93 scrupulously clean. [Gutta percha has been recomBicarbonate of ammonia

mended.) The dairy should be a place sheltered froin tho Amylaceous matter

30.29

sun, having a draught of air completely through it. In

summer the floor should, in very warm weather, be 100.00 watered with clear spring water. The finest part of the

cream rises to the surface of the milk in about twelve The only important difference between these two powders is, that in the one case, tartaric acid, and in the other, hours, but cream will continue to form for twenty-four. A alum, is employed for the purpose of liberating the car

morning's and evening's milk should never be mired. There bonic acid gas. The amylaceous matter, which I have

are two different methods pursued in the manufacture of

butter. In the one, the cream is separated from the milk, examined both chemically and microscopically, and which

and in that state is converted into būtter by churning, as is I believe to be common arrowroot, can in each case only have been added for the purpose of increasing the bulk of the practice about Epping; in the other, the whole milk the powder. I may add that these analyses were under

is subjected to the same process, which is the method taken in consequence of a friend of mine having suffered pursued in Cheshire. The first method is believed to much from dyspepsia after partaking of bread made with give the richest

butter, and we therefore proceed to

describe some essential points to be regarded in that Delport's Powder, a fact which your readers will not be

The cream should be collected in a deep surprised at, considering the large proportion of alum procedure.

earthenware or stone jar, (glazed, but not with lead), whích this powder contains.--I am Sir, your obedient

and more may be added till there is sufficient to churn. servant, J. Leachman, 35, Basinghall Street.

The cream should be stirred with a glass rod or porcelain 11---Chemical Storin Glasses.-Sir,- 1 have read with interest your remarks upon the Chemical Storm Glass, spoon, upon the addition of each new portion of cream.

There are various kinds of churns. In any case the barand having for some time had one of the same kind here,

rel should not be more than two-thirds full. The tempewith which I also received a note with directions for ob

rature of the cream at the time of churning is important; serving it, I can add something to those you gave in par.

but the required warmth or coolness seems to differ slightly 188. The glass should hang towards the north, if possible,

at different periods of the year, and the kinds of milk or otherwise a shade of some sort must be put up to keep it from the sun, which would soon prove injurious to it, and pasturage of the

cows. We have known the scalding of the cause the liquid to become oily. If, during frost, the top assist the formation of butter. The heat of the cream must drops are seen, the frost will not last long. Should the always be at least 55 deg. When the weather is cold, the ice in the glass, on the contrary, increase, and large sharp churning

may be performed within reach of the warmth of

the kitchen fire. The great secret of good butter making feathers be seen shooting down from the top, this is a

is fastidious cleanliness. The first part of the milking proof that the frost will increase in severity. And if when

makes the best cheese, the last the best butter. With reit is already freezing hard, large bright stars are observed in different parts of the glass, this denotes that the cold gard to the taste of turnips in the butter, one of our fair of Fahrenheit. În most instances, however, it is contrast mended by Loudon) does not remove the objection. We that produces the changes in this sort of barometer, which know of no other mode of obviating it, except that recomis very sensitive : when in spring or autumn, after mild mended by the Herefordshire dairy-maids, viz., to give weather, there is a slight frost, the glass may sometimes salt to the cows. It is, however, impossible to make turbe seen almost full of ice, like during hard frost in winter. nip-fed butter lose all taste of the nutriment given to the When feathers appear below, and stand nearly erect, fine weather may be expected; but if these suddenly fall down, 13- Pigeon Houses. J. B. - Dovecots, or pigeonthe weather is likely to change. When the top of the glass

houses, are of several

kinds. If it is intended to becomes covered with an opaque cloud, this denotes rain in summer, and snow or mist, generally, in winter; and

keep a large number, the when small feathers are seen to hang down from it, the

upper floor of a stable, or rain or snow will not be long in falling, either on the spot,

other building may be fitor within a few miles' distance. As a general rule, sharp

ted up for them.' Bricks ness in the feathers and points which appear is a sign of

may be removed from the fine weather; and when these have a dull and blunt look,

walls, and stepping-tiles unsettled weather or rain may be expected. Regarding

fixed The holes should the composition of the liquid, I have only to mention that

not be too large, or too I was advised to dissolve each substance separately at

numerous, and should alfirst in spirit, and afterwards put the whole together into

ways have a southern asthe glass. The spirit I made use of is Dutch Geneva,

pect. Small dovecots may which I was told would answer the purpose as well as any

be made of a cask, or other. If the spirit used be too strong, the substances

boarded box, placed upon melt away altogether in it, and the effect is lost. Very

a pole, or against the wall, likely some of the preceding may not be new to you.

taking care to prevent the A. J., Rotterdam. --These further hints may help those

entrance, or approach of correspondents who have unsuccessfully attempted to

rats. The top should be make these glasses according to the instructions, par. 188.

covered with thatch, so The directions there given were too plain for error to be

contrived as to shelter the excusable. Yet a correspondent has written repeatedly to

sides from the heat of the say that he has failed in several successive attempts to

sun, and the coldness of make a glass, asserting, at the same time, that he rigidly the wind. On the sides and top should be resting-boards, adhered to our formula. From this, however, we find he on which the birds may bask in the sun. The rearing and employed pure alcohol instead of equal parts of alcohol training of pigeons requires great care, for the domesticated and water. By the way, we may remark that the bottles

and fancy birds are very delicate. Cleanliness, and a should be hermetically sealed, otherwise the composition plentiful supply of fresh water is, as with other tamed will soon become impaired.

animals, the first requisite.

Cows.

[graphic]

14-Morphia. T. S.-The substance so named is the tulip shades, and as a substitute for glass in workshop essential principle of opium, and should he administered windows. It is quite waterproof. only under the superintendence of a medical practitioner, 29- Mourning Etiquette. R.-Mourning for parents is

15-Rose-pink. T. H. D.-This paint is made by boil- usually worn with crape for six months, afterwards without ing logwood in water with a little alum, and pouring the crape for the same period. For a brother or sister, six fluid, after being filtered, on powdered clalk.

months; but in many cases a longer period. For an 16- Prussic Acid. W. A. U.-There is no doubt that uncle or aunt, three months; the same for a first or the kernels of nearly all stone fruits, and that pippins con- second cousin. No rule can be given with regard to retain prussic acid, but it is usually in small quantities. turning mourning visits; it is, however, proper to wait a

17-Pinchbeck. B. G.-The material of which watch- week or two after the calamity. If the affliction is deeply cases were formerly composed is an alloy of zinc and cop. felt, cards may (and in most cases, should) be sent in reper, in the proportions of one part of the former to five of turn. No difference with regard to England and Scotland. the latter.

30-- Penny Banks. C. W. S.--A very interesting pamph18-Dinner Tables, dc. D. M.-Salt should not be let has been pub ished on this subject by Messrs. Baines moved from table until all the things are being cleared & Sons, of Leeds. The movement is highly important, away. Our present volume will be found to contain full and can hardly fail to do much good. Penny banks have directions upon the art of laying out tables, with illustra- already been established in several of the large towns with ted designs of new inethods of folding dinner napkins. eminent success. To those who are anxious to save their

19-Isidore. T. F. - St. Isidore, Bishop of Seville, mites, or to those who are willing to serve their generation, lived about the beginning of the seventh century. He we earnestly commend the establishment of Penny Banks. was considered the most learned man of his age. His Mr. C. W. Sikes, of Huddersfield, will readily give inforworks were very numerous, but there are no modern mation on the subject, we helieve. editions of them.

31--Upas Tree. J. W.-The celebrated poison tree of 20-Voice.

B.-A female voice extending from A Java ( Antiaris toricaria) has been the subject of many exoelow the line, to A in alto, is termed a Mezzo-soprano. aggerations. The valley in which it was said alone to be -In Wilson's edition of the Songs of Scotland will be found, has been stated to owe its deadly effects rather to a found a good selection of Scotch songs within the extent stream of carbonic acid which tows into it, than to any veof such a voice.- Miss Dolby and Miss Birch both stand getable agency. Though the ordinary accounts of the bigla in their profession.

Upas have been proved to be fabulous, there is a tree 21-Gold. H. B.-Crystals of a salt of gold can be called the "Anchar," which grows in great abundance in obtained from the solution of the metal in aqua regia (a the island. It is described by Dr. Horsfield in the Batamixture of muriatic and nitric acids). The metal itself is vian Transactions. When the bark is wounded it yields found crystallized in the cube and its derivative forms. copiously the juice from which the poison is prepared. It occurs in nature in threads of various sizes, twisted and 32- Walking after Meals. E D. C.-The best phyinterlaced into a chain of minute octahedral crystals. siologists are of opinion that it is unwholesome to take any

22-Shoull a Gentleman return Love Letters? A. L. Q. brisk cise immediately after a meal. The principal - At the termination of a love affair," a fair daughter of part of the nervous energy seems to be required at the Erin asks, "is it not the part of a man of honour to return commencement of the process of digestion to be directed a lady's letters? If the engagement or "affair” termi- to the stomach; and the blood-vessels about that organ nates by mutual consent-certainly yes. There may be receive an increased supply of the vital fluid while the food exceptions in peculiar cases, however, but these only is being acted upon by the gastric juice and the peculiar prove the rule.

movements of the stoinach. If brisk exercise is taken at 23-ol Maids. F. A.--The age at which a lady may such a time, the nervous energy and arterial blood are dibe denominated an "old maid,” cannot well be defined verted to the muscles. Cases are recorded in which viosome persons are "older" at thirty than others are at lent exercise, after eating largely, has proved fatal. forty. The question had hetter be left an open one. Those 33-Elder Flowers. M.A.-Elder Howers are used for who surround members of the fair sex whose single blessed- making wine, and also an ointment. The former does not ness may last thus long, should display no anxiety to apply appear to be very generally relished. The ointment is to them an epithet which may be offensive.

made in various ways, but the only manner in which the 24-Water Cure. M. F.-The establishment of which peculiarly delicate smell is preserved, is by the following we have heard the most credible encomiums, is that of method: Beat four pounds of elder flowers with three Dr. Wilson at Malvern, in Worcestershire. The situation pounds of the best lard, and one pound of olive oil; having of the establishment, and the scenery of the neighbourhood, thoroughly incorporated the ingredients--which should give it great advantages. The terms are about £3 a be left untouched for four or five hours--the ointment month. A very well managed establishment also exists should be squeezed through a coarse cloth. If wax near Cheadle, at a convenient distance from one of the is used, it should be melted with the lard, and allowed to stations of the London & North Western Railway. get nearly cool before mixing with the flowers. If scent

25 - Silk Handkerchiefs. E. A. -- The hankerchiefs is reqnired, it should be added after the whole has been known under the name of Bandana are properly Indian, passed through the cloth. but the English imitations are called by the same name. 34-4 Book on Entomology.--8. J. B. wishes the The true India handkerchiefs are considered to be more Editor to recommend a work on Entomology, alphabetidurable, but are less elegant in colour and design, than cally arranged. Maunders' Treasury of Natural History those home made. India silk, however, is often imported, contains valuable information on the subject, among other and printed in England. The Barcelona kerchiefs are all interesting matter. More elaborate works are, Stephent's made in England.

Catalogue of British Insects, Curtis's Guide to the Arrange26--Coloured Waters. T. S.-The coloured waters used ment of British Insects, Kirby and Spence's Entomology, by chemists to fill the large bottles in their windows, are and Haworth's Lepidoptera Britannica.

In Patterson's made as follows:-Blue-Prussian blue dissolved in water. Zoology for Schools, (a most charming and admirable Purple-infusion of logwood, with a little hartshorn added. hook,) the young student will find much interesting Green -to three ounces of common verdigris dissolved in matter on Zoology; but as a text-book on Entomology vitriol, add water two quarts. Red-red cabbage liquor alone, we know no book deserving higher commendation with vinegar; or spirits of hartshorn, and cochineal. Yel- than Popular British Entomology, by Miss M. E. Catlow, low-dissolve iron in spirits of salts, and dilute with (with coloured plates, 108. 6d.).

35-Clairvoyance. A. B.-Without at all admitting or 27--Etiquette. T.--A lady is at perfect liberty to re- denying the various claims made by mesmerists for their cognise or avoid a gentleman to whom she has once been favourite science, and without giving any opinion as to the introduced, or with whom she may have danced. Unless powers of clairvoyants, we caution our readers against the an acquaintance is desirable, it is unadvisable for a lady to impostures which are practised by persons pretending to pass the usual courtesies of friendship merely because she be able to give information as to the localities of lost has once or twice met or danced with a gentleman in a articles, or the modes in which robberies have been compublic assembly. But if his conduct has been such as to mitted. A. B. sent inquiries upon the same circumstances entitle him to her respect, there can be no impropriety in from different localities, and received opposite answers. her doing so.

The only replies given are "yes," and "no;" and these 28--Covering for Preserves. M.A. --The material used are evidently given at random. It is a reinarkable circumby the trade for covering preserves, instead of bladder, is stance that in many instances the persons who are said to made by brushing over sheets of paper of the thickness and possess the powers of clairvoyance when asleep, become strength required, with linseed oil which has been pre- soon notorious for being clever at deception when awake. viously boiled. The sheets must be hung upon a string, We speak from personal observation. and be thorouyhly dried before using. This material is 36-Thirteen to Dinner. L. T. B.-At p. 167. voi. ii. sometimes used (a strong paper being selected) to cover the philosophy of the prejudice on this subject is given.

water.

In some parts of the country it appears that the super- thermometer, i. e. indicating the difference between the stition extends farther than noted in the paragraph. A heat of the globes A and B. friend heard a lady state that she would not sit down to 41 - Pastilles. H. G. - There are various modes of table, upon any account, with twelve others; for if thir- making pastilles. The following are approved recipes :- 18. teen were present, one of the party would die, and and an- Take of powdered gum benzoin 16 parts; balsam of tolu, other come to some harm, before they met again." Our and powdered sandal wood, of each 4 parts; linden charcorrespondent thinks it is probable that this superstition coal 48 parts: powdered tragacanth, and true labdanum, has arisen from some ideas connected with the last sup- of each'l part; powdered saltpetre, and gum Arabic, of per," at which thirteen (Jesus and his twelve disciples) each 2 parts; cinnamon water 12 parts. Beat into the were present. Before they met again, one had been cru- consistence of thick paste, and having made into shape, cified, and another (Judas) had hung himself. As several dry in the air.-2nd. Gum' benzoin, olibanum, storax, of other popular superstitions may be traced to such sources, each 12 oz.; saltpetre 9 oz.; charcoal 4 lbs.; powder of this theory of the origin of the prejudice referring to "thir- pale roses llb.; essence of roses 1 oz. Mix with 2 oz. of teen to dinner," may not be wide of the mark.

gum tragacanth dissolved in a quart of rose water. 37-Miss or Misses. H. J. B. says:-I maintain that in 3rd. The same formula may be varied, by the substitution addressing two unmarried ladies the word “Misses" of pure orange powder for the roses, and oil of neroli for should be prefixed to the name, as “The Misses Ward.” the essence of roses.-4th. By adding a few grains of camThis is not only grammatically correct, but also convey's phor to the 1st recipe, a pastille suited to an invalid's no more harshness of sound than “The Miss Wards." chamber is prepared. If the scent of the above seems too Proper nouns should have the plural form when we speak powerful, the proportions of saltpetre and charcoal may be of them as a race, as the McGregors, the Browns, or the increased. Never use musk and civet in pastilles. Wards, but in addressing, where each lady is concerned, 42--Ices. J. S.-Ices are congealed water, or cream, the Miss, and not the name, should be plural. "The combined with liqueurs, or the juices of fruits.' They can Masters Wards" is equally correct, although not in usage, generally be prepared more cheaply by the confectioner as a young gentleman can acquire the title of Mr. at a than at home, unless there is an ice-house attached to the very early age. Again, I presume that Miss cannot be- establishment. The common mode of preparing ices in come an adjective, for as adjectives for the most part are summer is by surrounding the vessel containing the cream compared, (excepting numerals, as one, first, &c., or such with a freezing mixture, and covering the whole with some as in themselves express a superlative signification, as non-conductor of heat. The best freezing mixture is that full, chief, perfect, true, &c.), but how must the adjective composed of pounded ice and common salt, in which the Miss be compared ?

affinity of the salt for the water is so great that a rapid 38-Lanyuage of Flowers. L. C.- None of the works liquefaction is produced, and consequently a quick absorpprofessing to translate the language of the beautiful deni- tion of heat. Of course the mixture only absorbs heat zens of the gardens, fields, and moss-banks, can lay any (and thus produces cold,), while the liquefaction is going claim to completeness. Nearly every meaning given to a on. The salt and water might be frozen or boiled after flower is arbitrarily imposed, whereas each significance wards. There are freezing mixtures, however, of which should be founded on some peculiarity of habit, or appear- ice forms no part. Of these the following have been found ance, or mode of growth, or upon some legend, or poetical to answer:-(1.) Muriate of ammonia, and nitrate of quotation. The best work we know is that published by potash (sal ammoniac and saltpetre), each five parts, and Messrs. Tyas & Co.; but this, though very elegant, and water, sixteen parts; mix.-(2.) Sulphate of soda, eight more comprehensive than most others we have seen, does parts; muriate of ammonia, five parts; nitrate of potash, not come up to our standard. We have so many irons in five parts; water sixteen parts; mix. the fire, however, that we cannot undertake to supply any- 43-Emigration.- A lady requests us to insert a list thing more complete at present; nevertheless, we shall of the articles, valueless in themselves, and frequently not lose sight of the hint, and we shall be glad if those of thrown away, which are most valuable as the means of our correspondents who are interested in the matter will employment in Female Emigrant Ships. Between June forward suggestions, hints, quotations, legends, &c. The 1848 and the end of that year, 15,750 emigrants sailed from communications to be headed “Language of Flowers," the port of Plymouth to the Australian colonies. Enand addressed to the Editor.

deavours are now making, under the superintendence of a 39-Botanical Correspondence.-D. H. Campbell, St. clergyman, to promote their moral and religious improveChloe, near Stroud, proposes that a Botanical Correspond-ment, and to form industrial classes, and provide them ing Society be formed for the exchange of specimens, &c., with materials for employment during their four months' with a view to lay the foundation for a complete compara- voyage; but the immense amount of materials that will be tive British Flora. He proposes that the London Cata- required is evident, when it is considered, that to provide logue of British Plants (2nd edition, price 6d.) be obtained work for fifty people for four months, is the same as proby each member, who shall mark with a X, or an O, such viding work for one person for about 17 years! and that plants as are common, or rare, in his vicinity. Each mem- fully to attain the object, materials might be needed ber to retain from three to five specimens for exchange. monthly to employ seven hundred people for four months. At the end of six months, or a year, a book (thin and The following articles will be most thankfully received at light enough for transmission by post), shall be prepared “ The British Ladies' Female Emigrant Society, 25, Red and sent to each member in rotation who shall indicate by Lion Square," and in the country by many branch asthe numbers in the London Catalogue the specimens he has. sociations: When the book returns to him he will be able to see where Worsted and yarn knitting and sewing cotton. he can obtain specimens which he does not possess, and Knitting and other needles; bags. where those plants are common. The information thus Pins, thimbles, and scissors. obtained might be embodied in papers in the Family Tapes, buttons, hooks and eyes. Friend, at intervals.

Calico, flannel, prints; clothes cut out. 40--Cryophorus. J. B.-The cryophorus, or frost- Remnants of cloth, silk, prints, &c., for patchwork. bearer, is a pleasing philosophical toy, sometimes known Six-sided pieces of paper, and designs for patchwork, as a pulse glass. This instrument consists of two small in packets of 100 or 1000. glass globes united by a tube, one of which is partly filled Pieces of card-board, and visiting cards. with water. The end of the tube is hermetically sealed while Receipt books for knitting, &c. the water is boiling, and thus it is constructed perfectly Twine for netting; list. free from air. The part of the apparatus (A) unoccupied Canvas and wools.-Unfinished pieces of needlework. by the water, though apparently empty, is, in reality, filled Cast-off clothes, clean rags, old thin shoes. with aqueous vapour, which checks evaporation from the Old buttons for rc-covering. surface of the water (B). If the pressure of this vapour Old shawls, and shawl borders.

Pieces of ribbon, and shreds of flannel, for pin

cushions.
Collars to be transferred; straw for plaiting.

Needle books, pincushions.
A

B

Sampler canvas, and marking cotton, &c.
All kinds of school materials,

Gutta percha, and common slates. be removed, by plunging the empty ball into a freezing Slate and lead pencils, pens, india-rubber. mixture (which condenses the vapour), so rapid an evapo- Portable inkstands, knives.--Paper of all kinds, string. ration takes place, that the water in B is frozen in two or Packs of envelopes tied up in hundreds. three minutes. The notion that this glass can indicate the Dark print work-pockets for the emigrants to wear, actual state of the pulse, is erroneous: it only indicates 1 foot wide by le long, with pockets inside, or a little the warmth of the hand, and then acts as a differential bag for scissors, thimble, &c.

44-Tuesday. A. R. F.-The attributes of the deity 59-Hippopotamus. S. D. H.-The pronunciation of worshipped under the name of Tuisco-after whom this words depends somewhat upon custom; but where there day is named -are not known.

is no reason to depart from the pronunciation of the 45-Shoreditch. A. W.-The legend that the place words in the language from which they are derived, it is named Shoreditch was so called from Jane Shore having well to preserve it, for the sake of etymology. Hippodied there, is a fiction. * It was so called because

potamus is derived from two Greek words signifying rivera main shore or ditch ran through that district," says horse, and the aceent falls upon the first syllable of each-Dr. Percy.

Hippo-pótamus; the a is short, 46--Po soften Bone. S. W.-Bones may hy maceration 60-- Touds. F. F.- The cases recorded of toads which in muriatic acid be rendered soft and flexible, but the had been buried in blocks of marble or limestone are not earthy particles which give the peculiar whiteness to the well authenticated. The animals can live without food material are removed in the process, and a substance and air for a very considerable time; but to no such resembling a lump of isinglass remains.

periods as those represented. Professor Buckland, the 47-America. --- Emigration. A. B. P.-One of the celebrated geologist, says:-" It seems that toads cannot most amusing and instructive little works which have live a year excluded totally from atmospheric air; and been published lately, is Prentice's Tour in America, that they cannot survive two years entirely excluded which contains also an excellent lecture on Emigration. from food, &c." It is published by Johnson, Market Street, Manchester, 61-Cotton or linen. F. D.-Upon examination by the price 18.

microscope, the fibres of cotton may be easily distinguished 48-Balm of Gilead. W. N.-The balm of Gilead, or from those of linen: the fibres of the former are flat and Balsam of Mecca, is the dried juice of a small tree or more or less shrivelled or twisted, while those of linen are shrub growing in Syria. It has a warm aromatic taste, straight, and with divisions (like the knots in cane) at and exquisitely aromatic smell. It is very scarce, and is intervals. If, moreover, cotton is digested in a strong seldom brought to this country except as a curiosity. solution of caustic potass, it is dyed a deep yellow when

49-Adam's Apple. A. A. F.- The protuberance in dry; whereas, if linen is acted upon in the same manthe fore part of the throat is caused by the larynr. The ner, a very slight change of colour only is perceptible. name originated in the tradition that a piece of the for- 62-sirength of Iron Pillars. A. W. 1. -For the same bidden fruit stuck in Adam's throat, and marked all his weight there can be no doubt that a hollow iron pillar will male descendants.

sustain greater weight than a solid one. We may learn 50-Sallet Oil. A. A.-Persons generally suppose that from the animal economy the best method of applying this term is a corruption of "salad oil," whereas, it ap- material to resistance. Now we find that the bones are plies to a different oil. The sallet was the head-piece of hollow, and that they are capable of much greater resistthe suit of armour, which was ornamented with brass, and ance than if they were solid. The reason is simply that was cleaned with a common oil--hence the term "sallet a hollow pillar presents an internal arch in every direction oil."

opposed to any crush inwards. 51--Curfew Bell. U. W. S.--The word is derived from 63-Bank of England. T. D. N.-The act for the inthe French couvre-fent. The order for the extinguishing of corporation of the Company of the Bank of England was fires and candles at the sound of the Curfew, was given passed in the fifth and sixth years of the reign of William more for the sake of public safety than any other cause. and Mary (1694, 1695) in consideration of a loan to the At a time when houses were built with a greater pro- government of £1,200,000, at an interest of nearly eight portion of wood in their construction, it was a useful per cent. The profits of the Company arise from the regulation.

interest of the government debt, their annual advances on 52-Alum Baskets.-R. S. P. P. coinplains that her exchequer bills, and many other sources. The income of baskets look dirty. This probably arises either from the the Company is about £450,000 a year. impurity of the alum, or the want of purity in the water. 64-Lanmas-day, August 1. L.-From ancient authoThe best plan is to use very clear water, and to filter the rities

we find that this was the usual nominal day of comsolution at least once. Logwood, or indigo, or turmeric, mencing harvest in England. By the 25th of Edward III., will colour the crystals.

it is provided in 1351, that no carter, ploughman, dairy53-Terra Coita. A. T. L.The words "Terra Cotta" maid, or other servant, shall take in time of weeding or mean literally “baked clay." Many remains of antiquity haymaking but a penny a day; that the mowers for the consist of a material of this kind. The modern terra cotta acre five pence, and the reapers of corn, in the first week is made by the mixture of pipe-clay, fine sand, and pow- of August, twopence a day, in the second week threedered potsherds. The clay thus produced is dried in the pence, and so on till the end of the month. The old air, and then baked in a kiin.

tax called Peter's-pence was collected on this day. 54-Electro-plating of Insecte. H. W.-The insect 65-The Passing Bell. M. S. T.-This ceremonial was must be first covered with plumbago; a layer of copper intended to call upon devout persons to pray for the soul should then be precipitated upon it, and this afterwards of a person who was departing this life. It is stated to silvered. More complete directions will be included in have been also intended to "drive away any demon that the papers entitled "The Amateur's and Mechanic's might wish to take possession of the soul of the deceased," Friend."

and hence it was called not unfrequently “soul-bell." 55-Stilton Cheese. B. E.--The origin of the name of The Venerable Bede mentions the following proverb which the peculiar cheese known under this title is not well was common in his time :understood. It was originally made in Leicestershire,

“ When the bell begins to toll, where it continues to be produced in the greatest quantity, and is believed to have derived its name from its being

Lord, have mercy on the soul!" first brought into notice at an inn on the Great North Road, 66--Reading at Dinner. M. N. W.-It is a bad habit in the parish of Stilton.

to call the brain into active exercise while the stomach 56-Whalebone. M. L.-The article known under this requires an increase of circulation, and an unusual quanname is not bone in its true sense; its correct name is tity of nervous energy. Two eyil effects are produced by baleen. It is found attached to the upper jaw and nerves, study at or immediately after dinner :- In the first place to strain the water which the whale takes into its mouth, the brain is exerted when unfit for such action, and in the and to retain the small animals upon which it subsists. It second place the nervous power necessary to complete can be softened by immersion in hot water, and perma- digestion is distracted from its appropriate purpose at the nently bent into any form.

time. Solitary dinners are not so wholesome as those 57-Liability of Drunkards. B. N.-It is a maxim in

which are eaten while lively and cheerful conversation is legal practice, that those who commit crimes when runk, going on. must submit to punishment when sober. Intoxication 67-Precocious Children. P. E.- It is a great injury to cannot be pleaded as an excuse for violence, but is held to children to force their talents early in life. There but aggravate che offence; and a bond signed by a drunken one authenticated case on record where a clever child man stands good in law, unless it can be shown that the made a talented and extraordinary man. An excellent man was inebriated by the collusion or contrivance of little work hy Dr. Brigham, explains the reason of this. The those to whom the bond was given.

brain of the child is not completely developed till about the 58-Onions and the Breath. T. P. &c.--The usual

fifth or sixth year, and no violent action should therefore mode of sweetening the breath after eating onions is by be excited on it before that age. Precocious children hiding the ammoniacal odour ot' that kind of food in some usually die early; and indeed it has been asserted, that more pleasant scent – chewing cinnamon, eating pepper- early infant tuition when carried beyond moderate limits, mint lozenges, &c. If the mouth and throat are freely is a fruitful cause of consumption and scrofula. washed out with water, and the teeth cleaned with pow- 68--Bleeding at the Nose. A. T.--When bleeding at dered charcoal, nearly the whole of the odour will be found the nose occurs otherwise than as the result of violence, to be removed.

it is usually in consequence of the over-fulness of some of

room.

the vessels about the brain, and is the consequence of an thus treated should be hung up to dry, and in a few days effort of nature to relieve the congestion. When, how- varnished. The ends where they are tied should be covered ever, it is the result of violence, or is continued beyond a with a solution of sealing-wax in spirit. If, however, in few minutes, or takes place in excessive quantity, it should this form the belt is not considered sufficiently portable, be checked as soon as possible. of the various methods, the last direction may be omitted, and the air let out the following is perhaps the most useful:-1 et the patient after each time of using. It will be liable, however, to sit and hold the head back while cold water is dashed over

get out of repair upon this plan. the face. Let him also sniff aromatic vinegar, or smelling 73-Lighining. W.F. T.-The covering of a lookingsalts. If these means do not speedily give relief, a sur- glass during a storm can add no safety to the house or geon should be sent for immediately.

It prevents it reflecting the light given out by the 69--Cups in Pies. L. B.--The cup which is placed electric discharge, but the covering can produce no other upside down in meat and fruit pies is only filled with air effect. The safest place during a storm is in bed, espewhen it is put into the pie. When the heat of the oven cially if the bedstead be of iron. Lightning can only probegins to act this air expands, and forces its way under duce an effect upon the human body when it is the object the edge of the cup at the bottom of the pie. In this through which the fluid passes to the earth. Thus it is action it produces a somewhat similar effect to stirring dangerous to sit or stand against a wall, because the with a spoon. When the whole substance of the pie has human body is a better conductor than the substance of attained the boiling heat, the air in the cup expands the wall, and the electric fluid would therefore pass from no more; or the contrary, as soon as the pie is removed the wall through the body and so to the earth. If the wall from the heat, the air in its interior begins to contract, was of iron---the iron being the better conductor--no such and the pressure of the atmosphere without drives the accident would occur. Again, it is safer to shelter under gravy into the cup. It is a mistake to suppose that the a young tree than under an old one, because the former is cup prevents the syrup or gravy boiling over while the a better conductor, and the electricity is not so likely to dish is in the oven; but it is useful in many ways-to pass from it to the human body. The middle of the room support the crust, &c.

is a safer position than near the walls; and houses with 70--Diamond. T.J.-The finest ever known, except lead coverings and metal spouts running to the earth, are the gem recently brought to England, belonged to the king less dangerous than those covered with tiles or slates with of Portugal; it weighed 1680 carats, and was valued at wooden spouts. The reason is simply that metals being £224,000,000, though it was not cut or polished. That in good conductors of electricity, the fluid would pass without the Russian sceptre weighs 779 carats, and is valued at doing injury to the inmates along the lead to the metal £4,000,000. The Pitt diamond weighed 136 carats, and spouts, and so to the earth. On a wide and open heath, cost Louis XIV. £130,000. These gems are brought from where no house shelter can be obtained, the safest plan in Borneo, Golconda, Bengal, the East Indies, West Indies, case of alarm is to lie down flat upon the earth. and Brazil. They are cut and polished with their own 74-Ants. M.S.-Several correspondents write to insubstance. The different kinds of diamonds are as follows: quire how they can destroy ants which infest their houses.

Rough diamond is the stone as it comes from the mine; One fair correspondent, however, wishes to know "how to rose diamond is one which is flat at the base, terminating keep aunts out of the pantry, and from the doors; for," in a point above; the table diamond has a square face at says she, "they are very disagreeable." We have heard the top, encompassed with four lesser facets; the brilliant of cousins of the cook or housemaid being discovered about is that which is cut into flat faces at top and bottom, and the meat-safes and pantries, but we never heard of aunts whose table, or principal face, is parallel with a line being given to predatory excursions such as those dethrough the broadest part of the stone. The diamonds scribed. However, we will prescribe for the aunts first, used by glaziers are usually only fragments of badly- and the ants afterwards. 1. To a pound of firmness add as coloured stones.

much politeness as you have to spare, taking care to strain 71---Corrosive Sublimate, or Stone Mercury. J. C. F.- off all the scum of anger. Mix, and having incorporated The bichloride of mercury (or quicksilver) is so called thoroughly, apply with a fresh-made freezing mixture. on account of its peculiarly pernicious effects upon animal Be careful, however, that your mixture has not the slightest tissues, and the masses in which it is sold. It is used, in smack of ingratitude, lest you become like the man who small quantities, in lotions for diseases of the skin, and, in killed all the sparrows, and found his gooseberry-trees de. a very diluted state, in cosmetics. Taken internally it is voured by caterpillars. 2. Ants object to strong scents, and powerfully poisonous. Our correspondent requires a test in tropical climates are prevented entering rooms by powerfor this substance. 1. If it is in a solid state it may be mixed fully-scented oils and gums. The following method is rewith potash, and heated in a test tube. If the corrosive commended for the destruction of these insects :-Dig up sublimate is present, metallic globules will be found to the nests when they are very dry, and mix quickly some condense on the upper part of the tube. 2. If it is in so- fresh-burned lime with the light earth. Then pour boiling lution, and mixed with solid matters, the solution should water over the whole, and mix into mortar. This should be be filtered before any tests are applied. If portions of the done late in the evening. Then brush all the crevices of suspected fluid be put into test tubes, they will form pre- windows and doors through which the interlopers intrude, cipitates of various colours with the re-agents indicated :- with the following :-Creosote ten drops, spirits of wine lime water, brick red; solution of caustic potass, orange; two ounces, camphor a drachm, oil of rhodium one drop, prussiate of potass, white. 3. The best and readiest test brandy or whisky half a pint. A less expensive preveitis the following, to which the engraving refers, viz:-Drop tive, which has been recommended, is tobacco water, but the suspected solution on a clean gold or copper coin, and we cannot speak of its efficacy. In the cupboards lumps apply a bright key so that it may at the same time touch of camphor should be kept; and the walls of the house the edge of the coin and the globule of fluid. A galvanic should have a line painted with tar, about six inches broad,

a few inches from the ground.

QUESTIONS REQUIRING ANSWERS.

.......... DIRITTI UMILITOITELT

current is thus produced, which decomposes the corrosive sublimate, leaving a white spot of reciuced metallic mercury on the surface of the coin.

72-Swimming-Belts. Q. E. D.-The largest portion of the entrail of the ox, when nicely cleaned, forms an excellent material out of which to form a swimming-belt. Procure two of them from the butcher, and having washed them in soap and water, turn them inside out, and soak in a strong solution of alum water. Then tie up one end tightly with waxed string, blow full of air and secure the other end in a similar manner. The two guts having been

1-Gordius Aquaticus. What is the nature and mode of growth of the gordius aquaticus ?-0. S.

2-Lightning. Why is the shape and direction of forked lightning distinctly seen by persons looking in opposite directions ?-M.

3--Antiquarian Lore.- What is the significance and history of the ancient custom of burying horses' heads at the four corners of houses, or rooms 1-E. M. N.

4-Tulips.- What is the best work on the cultivation of pansies and other florists' flowers – especially in reference to the production of new varieties froin seedlings ?--A. T.

5-Economical Living. - Some persons having tried experiments upon the most economical means of living, as to articles of food, I wish to ascertain the diet adopted by those who are able to subsist in health, with sufficient change of dishes--the week's consumption not to exceed six shillings for one person.-J. B.

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