Philosophy in the Ancient World: An Introduction

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Rowman & Littlefield, 2005 - 386 من الصفحات
Philosophy in the Ancient World: An Introduction_an intellectual history of the ancient world from the eighth century B.C.E. to the fifth century C.E., from Homer to Boethius_describes and evaluates ancient thought in its cultural setting, showing how it affected and was affected by that setting. The greatest philosophers (Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, Augustine) and cultural figures (Homer, Euripides, Thucydides, Archimedes) and a number of lesser ones (Hesiod, Posidonius, Basil) receive careful description and evaluation. Philosophy in the Ancient World is ideally suited as a supplement for undergraduate courses in Ancient Philosophy and the History of Philosophy in the West.
 

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المحتويات

A World Ready for Philosophy
1
I Why Ancient Philosophy
2
II Qualities of the Greek Mind Conducive to Philosophy
6
Homer and Hesiod
12
B HESIOD
15
IV Why Homer and Hesiod Are Not Philosophy
16
V Other Conditions Affecting the Birth of Philosophy
19
B ARCHITECTURE AND ART
23
IV Aristotles Four Causes
201
V Aristotles Response to Parmenides
203
VI The Prime Mover as Aristotles Deity
204
VII Aristotles Philosophy of Science
207
B WHERE KNOWLEDGE COMES FROM
208
C MISTAKES PEOPLE MAKE ABOUT KNOWLEDGE
209
D UNQUALIFIED KNOWLEDGE
210
VIII Aristotles Ethics
212

VI How and Where Philosophy Began
29
VII The Branches of Philosophy
31
Discussion Questions
33
Notes
34
Select Bibliography
36
Philosophy Begins
39
I By What Name Shall We Call the Milesian Thinkers?
40
II How Do We Know about the Early Thinkers?
41
Thales Anaximander Anaximenes
44
B ANAXIMANDER 610546
47
C ANAXIMENES 585528
49
IV General Remarks on the Milesians
50
Discussion Questions
51
Notes
52
Select Bibliography
54
Philosophy Moves to Italy
55
I Italy
56
III Xenophanes
60
Discussion Questions
64
Notes
65
Select Bibliography
66
The Turn of the Fifth Century Heraclitus and Parmenides
67
I The Turn of the Century
68
II Heraclitus
69
A PARMENIDES
72
B ZENO AND MELISSUS
76
Discussion Questions
78
Notes
79
Select Bibliography
80
The Persian Wars and Their Aftermath Sophistry and Rhetoric
81
I The Persian Wars
82
II Rhetoric and Sophistry
87
Discussion Questions
93
Notes
94
Select Bibliography
96
Medicine Tragedy History
97
I Medicine
98
II Tragedy Marcus Aurelius writing of the origin and use of tragedy says
102
III History
109
Discussion Questions
112
Notes
113
Select Bibliography
114
Empedocles Anaxagoras and Democritus
115
I Empedocles
116
II Anaxagoras
118
III Democritus
122
IV Summing Up the Early Philosophers
125
Discussion Questions
127
Notes
128
Select Bibliography
129
The Peloponnesian War Socrates Thucydides Euripides
131
I Socrates
132
II Thucydides
138
III Euripides
145
Discussion Questions
149
Notes
150
Select Bibliography
152
Rhetoric and the Philosophers
153
I Rhetoric
154
II Extemporaneous and Prepared Speeches
155
III Isocrates 436338
159
IV Rhetoric and Philosophy
161
Discussion Questions
162
Notes
163
Select Bibliography
164
Plato
167
I Plato 428348 BCE
168
II Reading Platonic Dialogues
170
III A Compendium of Views Associated with Plato
174
A METAPHYSICS
175
B ETHICS
177
C POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
179
D EROS
181
E TELEOLOGY
182
F OTHER VIEWS
183
IV Platos Academy
184
V After Plato
186
Notes
188
Select Bibliography
189
Aristotle
191
I Introduction
192
II Logic
194
III Aristotles Ten Categories
196
B MATTER AND FORM
197
C ACTUALITY AND POTENTIALITY
199
K ADDITIONAL THOUGHTS ON ACTUALITY AND POTENTIALITY
200
B THE DOCTRINE OF THE MEAN AND THE VIRTUES
213
C FRIENDSHIP
216
D PLEASURE
217
IX Aristotles Psychology
218
X Aristotles Legacy
220
Discussion Questions
221
Notes
223
Select Bibliography
225
The World of the Third Century
227
I Alexander and His Aftermath
228
H Intellectual Developments
229
A MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY
230
B BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
234
C CITY PLANNING
235
Discussion Questions
236
Notes
238
Epicureanism
241
I Introduction
242
B PYRRHO OF ELIS C 360275
244
III Epicureanism
246
B EPICURUSS SYSTEM
249
Discussion Questions
254
Notes
255
Select Bibliography
257
Stoicism
259
I Introduction
260
II Cynics
261
III The Early Stoa
263
B ZENOS SUCCESSORS
264
C THE MIDDLE STOA
265
IV Tenets of Stoicism
266
B LOGIC
267
C STOIC PHYSICS AND ITS RELATION TO ETHICS
268
D ETHICS
270
E ASSORTED STOIC VIEWS
271
V Roman Stoicism
273
B EPICTETUS 55135
274
C MARCUS AURELIUS 121180
275
VI Concluding Remarks on Stoicism
276
Notes
278
Select Bibliography
280
Rome and Cicero
281
I Rome
282
II Cicero the Man
284
Ill Cicero the Thinker
285
IV Ciceros Legacy
291
Discussion Questions
292
Notes
293
Select Bibliography
294
Greek Philosophy Finds the Bible and the Bible Finds Greek Philosophy
295
1 The World at the Turn of the Millennium
296
II Philo of Alexandria
299
Discussion Questions
307
Notes
308
Select Bibliography
310
The War for the Ancient Soul
311
I The War of Politics and Philosophy
312
II Cultural Decline and Its Explanations
314
III The City on a Hill
317
IV Christianity and Philosophy
320
Minucius Felix and Basil of Caesarea
321
B BASIL OF CAESAREA 330379
324
Discussion Questions
326
Notes
327
Select Bibliography
329
Philosophy at the End of Antiquity
331
I Neoplatonism
332
II Plotinus 205270
333
III Christian Philosophy
337
IV Augustine 354430
338
A AUGUSTINES CONVERSION TO PHILOSOPHY
339
B AUGUSTINES MANICHAEAN PERIOD
340
C AUGUSTINES NEOPLATONIST PERIOD
341
D AUGUSTINES CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY
342
E CONCLUSIONS ABOUT AUGUSTINE
345
VI Heresy and the End of Ancient Philosophy
349
VII Concluding Remarks
353
Discussion Questions
355
Notes
356
Select Bibliography
358
GLOSSARY
359
INDEX
371
About the Author
385
About the Illustrator
386
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حول المؤلف (2005)

James A. Arieti is Graves H. Thompson Professor of Classics and chair of the department at Hampden-Sydney College in Virginia.

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