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For warldly honour lestisbut a cry.

For trouble in earth take no melancholy;
Be rich in patience, if thou in goods be poor.

Who livís merry he lives mightily;
Without gladness availís no treasure.

EARTHLY JOY RETURNS IN PAIN.

HAVE mind that eilda ay follows youth;
Death follows life with gaping mouth,
Devouring fruit and flowering grain :
All earthly joy returns in pain.

Wealth, warldly gloir, and rich array,
Are all but thorns laid in thy way,
O'er cowered with flowers laid in a train :
All earthly joy returns in pain.

Freedom returns in wretchedness,
And truth returns in doubleness,
With feignéd words to make men fain:
All earthly joy returns in pain.

Virtue returns into vice,
And honour into avarice;
With covetyce is conscience slain :
All earthly joy returns in pain.

Since earthly joy abideth never,
Work for the joy that lestís ever ;
For other joy is all but vain ;
All earthly joy returns in pain.

GAWAIN DOUGLAS, BISHOP OF DUNKELD.

(1474-1522.) This amiable prelate was the son of Archibald, the fifth Earl of Angus, surnamed Bell-the-cat, from his share in the conspiracy against James Third's ministers at Lauder. Destined for the church, Gawain was liberally educated. The stormy factions that ensued in Scotland after the defeat of James IV. at Flodden, and his relationship to the house of Angus, involved him in the political movements of the period. During these troubles the influence of the queen mother, Margaret, and her husband, Angus, Gawain's nephew, raised him to the see of Dunkeld in 1516. He seems to have de

1 Endurcs.

2 Eld-old age.

FROM THE PALACE OF HONOUR.

35

voted himself with great earnestness, while the turbulence of the times permitted, to the temporal and spiritual interests of his bishopric. Five or six years after, the power of the Regent Albany expelled the Douglases from Scotland, and the Bishop of Dunkeld died in London of the plague in 1522.

The largest work of Douglas is his translation of Virgil's Eneid into Scottish heroic verse. It is said to be executed with great spirit and fidelity ; and, with his earlier translation of Ovid's “Remedy of Love,” forms the first instance of the rendering of a classic into any of the British tongues. The several books are prefaced by prologues, some of which are remarkably beautiful. His “ Palace of Honour” is an allegory constructed somewhat on the plan of Dunbar's " Golden Targe.” As appropriate to the instruction of a king, he dedicates it to James IV. “King Hart” (i.e. Heart, the sovereign of the body,) is another allegorical poem illustrative of the accidents, temptations, and decline of human life. Douglas, as a writer, is inferior to Dunbar in nerve and in naturalness of conception. In many passages of the “ Palace of Honour" his language is more obsolete and obscure. His descriptions are often magnificent, though too much overlaid by the Latinised phraseology which overspread our literature after the “ revival of learning."

FROM " THE PALACE OF HONOUR." THE Poet, in a dream, had joined a procession of allegorical per. Bonages in a pilgrimage to the Palace of Honour; he was committed by the muse Calliope to the charge of a nymph, who performs for him the part of the Sybil to Eneas, or of Virgil to Dante. From the hill of the Palace he sees among other things the following vision.]

THE SHIPWRECK OF THE CARAVEL OF GRACE.

PART III. STANZA VII.
As we bene on the high hill situate,
" Look down," quoth she, "conceive in what estate
Thy wretched world thou may consider now !"
At her command, with meikle dread, God wait,1
Out oure the hill sae hideous, high, and strait
I blenta adown, and felt my body grow ::-
This brukilt earth, sae little till allow,5
Methought I saw burn in a fiery rage
Of stormy sea whilk might nae manner 'suage.

VIII.
That terrible tempest's hideous wallís6 huge

Were maist grislie? for to behald or judge, 1 Or wat, knows.

: Contr. for blenkit, the past tense and particip. of blenk or Blink, to look: used by Chaucer.

3 Shudder; commonly written grew or grue; hence gruesome, causing shuddering; dreadful.

4 Fragile, from break * To praise; hence to permit; from Fr. allouer , Lat. adlaudare. o Waves.

* 1 Terrible ; Ang.-Sax. grislic ; verb agrisan, to be horrified. To agrise is used by Chaucer, Spencer, and Drayton : grisly is a favourite adjective with the poets. -"So spake the grisly terror."-Milton, Par. Lost, li. 704.

Where neither rest nor quiet might appear ;
There was a perilous place folk for to lodge,
There was nae help, support, nor yet refuge.
Innumerable folk I saw flotterandi in fear,
Whilk perished on the weltering wallis weir."
And secondly I saw a lustie barge
Oureset: with seas and niany a stormy charge.

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This goodly Carwell,- taiklit traist on raw,5
With blanchéd sail, milk-white as ony snaw,
Right souer,6 tight, and wonder strangly beildit,?
Was on the bairdin wallis quite o'erthraw.
Contrariously the blusterous winds did blaw
In bubbís' thick, that nae ship's sail might wield it.
Now sank she low, now high to heaven upheildit;
At every part sae (the) sea windis draif, 10
While on ane sand the ship did burst and claif, 11

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It was a piteous thing,—alaik, alaik!
To hear the doleful cry when that she straik;
Maist lamentable the perished folk to see!
Sae famist, drowkit, mait, 12 forwrought, and waik;
Some on ane plank of fir-tree, and some of aik;
Some hang upon a takill, 13 some on ane tree ;14
Some frae their grip soon washen by the sea;
Part drownit, part to the rock fleit15 or swam
On raips or buirds, syne up the hill they clam.

XI.
Thol6 at my nymph briefly I did enquire,
What signified that fearful wonders seir ;17
“Yon multitude," said she, “ of people drownit,
Are faithless folk, whilkis, 18 while they are here,
Misknawis God, and follows their pleseir,
Wherefore they shall in endless fire be brint.
Yon lusty ship thou sees perished and tint, 19

1 Pluttering

3 War.

3 Severely beset. 4 Or caravel, a Spanish or Portuguese merchant-ship. Another form is carack ; both probably connected with the word cargo. “He hath boarded a land-carack."-Shakesp. alluding to Othello's having carried off Desdemona.

5 Tackled trustily all along. Traist (trust) is a verb, noun, and adjective. The adjes tive has also the sense of bold, secure, safe.

" We gave him ansuere not traist ynouch,

Aston yst with the word he backward dreuch."-Doug. Virg. Traist, (Ft. Cresteau, a three-legged stool,) is the frame of a table; hence tresile ; tress in Scotch. 6 Sure.

1 Protected. * Scolding, insolent, impetuous; probably froin the idea attached to the verb to beard. • Blasts. 10 Drave. 11 Clave.

12 Wearied. 13 Tackling. 14 Beam.

15 Fled, escaped. Fley, in Scotch also means to affright. 16 Then.

11 Several. 16 This relative often adus the plural sign in agreeing in number with the antecedent. v Lost.

PROLOGUE TO THE TWELFTE BOOK OF THE ENEID.

In whom yon people made ane perilous race,
She hechti the Carwell of the state of Grace.”

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Ye bene all born the sons of ire, I guess,
Syne through baptism gets grace and faithfulness;
Then in yon carwell surely ye remain,
Oft stormésted with this warld's bruckleness,
While that ye fall in sin and wretchedness.
Then ship-broke shall ye drown in endless pain,
Except by faith ye find the plank again,
By Christ working good works, I understand ;
Remain therewith ; thir shall you bring to land.

FROM THE PROLOGUE TO THE TWELFTH BOOK OF THE ENEID.

Diònea, 3 night-herd and watch of day,
The sternis chacit of the heaven away,
Dame Cynthia* down rolling in the sea;
And Venus lost the beauty of her ee,
Fleeing ashamed within Cyllenius' cave.5
Mars umbedrew for all his grundin glaive;
Nor froward Saturn, from his mortal sphere,
Durst longer in the firmament appear;
But stood aback, 'yond in his region far,
Behind the circulates world of Jupiter.
Nyctimene, affrayit of the light,
Went under covert, for gone was the night;
As fresh Aurore, of mighty Tithonelo spouse,
Issued of her saffron bed and ivor house,
In crammesyll clad and grained violet,
With sanguine cape, 12 the selvage1purpurate;

I was called. Term in English, hight ; past tense and participle of Ang.-Sax. haetan, to say, to name; behight, to promise ; " And behighten to give him money."-Mark xiv. 11, Wyclif. Hence hest and behest, a command. Hecht in Scotch is used in the sense of promised. “They hecht him some fine braw ane."--Burns, Hallowe'en. 2 Till.

3 The planet Venus, the morning and evening star. The goddess was said to be the daughter of Jupiter and the nymph Dione.

• See note 8, p. 25. 5 This is a singular use of the care of Maia on Mount Cyllene in Arcadia, where Mer. cury was born, and from which he derives the name Cyllenius.

G'Withdrew. Um is here an intensive prefix, as un in unloose ; um in various forms in northern languages, means around, sometimes back.-See Jamieson's Scot. Dict.

7 Saturn, in the judicial astrology, is an ill omened planet.

& If this be an acknowledgment of the Copernican astronomy it is singular in a churchman of the sixteenth century.

The owl-Ovid. Met. ii. 590-595. 19 The legend of Tithonus, the son of Laomedon of Troy, and Aurora, is well known. These thirteen lines contain a singular confusion of astronomy and mythology. 11 Crimson.

12 The minutiæ of the tailor's art seem to have been somewhat favourite pieces of sce nery with our earlier poets. Our ancestors were curious in the elaborateness of their apparel. Were the poets in this particular “ abstract and brief chroniclers of the time?" " That turned your wit the seamy side without."

Shakesp. Othello, Act iv. Sc. 11.

" There does a sable cloud Turn forth her silver lining to the night."

Milton, Comus, 223

Unshut the windows of her largé hall,
Spread all with roses full of balm royal ;
And eke the heavenly portis chrystalline
Upwarpisbraid, the world till illumine.
The twinkling streamers of the orient
Shed purpour spraings, with gold and azure ment ;:
Piercing the sable barmkin' nocturnal,
Beat down the skyés cloudy mantles wall.

Forth of his palace royal issued Phæbùs,
With golden crown and visage glorious,
Crisp hairs, bright as chrysolite or topaz,
For whase hue might nane behold his face,
The fiery sparkis brasting from his een
To purge the air and gilt the tender green.
The auriate phanis, 8 of his throne sovràn,
With glitterand glance o'erspread the ocëan,
The largé floodis, leamand' all of light,
But with ane blink of his supernal sight.
For to behald it was ane glore to see
The stabled windís and the calméd sea,
The soft season, the firmament serene,
The lownes illuminate air and firtho amene.

Welcome, the lord of light, and lamp of day!
Welcome, fosterer of tender herbis green!
Welcome, quickener of flurist flowers sheen!
Welcome, support of every root and vane !10
Welcome, comfort of all kind fruit and grain !
Welcome, the birdis bieldii upon the brier !
Welcome, master and ruler of the year!
Welcome, welfare of husbands 12 at the plews !19
Welcome, reparer of woods, trees, and bews !13
Welcome, depainter14 of the bloomit meads!
Welcome, the life of every thing that spreads !

1 Uprarps is a metaphor from a portcullis. The confused yet vigorous splendour of this passage is very characteristic of a period when the poetical art was struggling into cb vilization.

2 Purple streaks: Ang. Sax. spraengan, to sprinkle. 3 Mingled. • Barbican, fortification, outer wall.

5 See note 3, p. ll. 6 Warton has " phanis, fans or vanes of gold."

1 Gleaming. . Calmed: gentle.

9 Sen. (Fretum, Lat.) 10 Sprout, from being fed by vein-like organs.--Jamieson. 11 Shelter.

12 Husbandınen-ploughs. 13 Boughs. The English poets have been fond of the use of the verb repair, as found in the Latin poetry. See Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 2. Odes iv, 7, 13. “And yet anon repairs his drooping head."-Milton : Lycidas. « Now heaven repairs thy rural seat."-Logan.

14 De is used intensively; so that depaint is perfectly distinct from the modern verb de. pict; depaint is used by James I., see p. 27. This passage of Douglas forms a good illus tration of the flood of Latinised terms that overflowed the language after the “revival of learning."

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