صور الصفحة
PDF

99; Ptol. v. 2. § 30; P. Mela, ii. 7.) Modern writers derive the name of Iraria from the Ionic word xifia, a pasture (Hesych. *. r. Kip), according to which it would mean "the pasture land." In earlier times it is said to have been called Doliche (Plin. L e.\ Callim. llgmn. m Dian. 187), Macris (Plin. I c; Kustath. ad IHony.i. Per. 530; Liv. xxvii. 13), and khthyoessa (Plin. L c). Respecting the present condition of ihe island, see Touraefort, Voyage da Levant, ii. lett. 9. p. 94; and Ross, lttistn auf den Griech. Intel*, vol. ii. p. 164, fuL [L. S.]

[graphic]

com or Ornoe Or Oenae, Is Icakus.

ICARUSA. a river the embouchure of which is on the E. coast of the Euxine. mentioned only by Pliny (vi. 5). Icarnsa answers to the Ukrash river; and the town and river of Hieros is doubtless the Hikkos Poirrva (iffio! Aijw/i/) of Arrian (Peripl. p. 19), which lias beer, identified with Sunjiik-kala. (Keun-ll. Compar. Geog. vol. ii. p. 328.) [E. B. J.]

ICAUNUS or ICAUNA (Forme), in Gallia, a river which is a branch of the Sequana (Seine). Anifrjodurum or Autessiodurum (Auxerre) is on the Yonne. The name Icaunus is only known from iiwriptiuns. Danville {Notice, <fc, s. v. Icauna) Males, on the authority of the Abbe" le Bcuf, that there was found on a stone on the modern wall of Auxerre the inscription Dkae Icavni. He suppjoes that Icauni ought to be Icanniae, but without any good reason. He also adds that the name Icauna appears in a writing of the fifth century. According to Ukert (Gallien, p. 145), who also cites Le Beuf, the inscription is "Deabus Icauni." It is said that in the ninth century Auxerre was named Icauna, Hionna, Junia. (Millin, Voyage, i. p. 167, cited by Ukert, GaSien, p. 474.) icauna is as likely to be the Roman form of the original Celtic name as Icaunus. [0.1..]

ICENI, in Britain. Tacitus is the only author who gives us the exact form Iceni. He mentions them twice.

First, they are defeated by the propraetor P. Ostoriog, who, after fortifying the valleys of the Autona (Aufona) and Sabrtna, reduces the Iceni, and then marches against the Cangi, a population sufficiently distant from Norfolk or Suffolk (the area of the Iceni) to be near the Irish Sea. (Ann. xii. 31, 32.) The difficulties that attend the geography of the | campaign of 0»torius have been indicated in the article Cahuloduncm. It is not from this passage that we fix the Iceni.

The second notice gives us the acconnt of the great rebellion under Boadicea, wife of Prasutagus. From this we infer that Camnlodunum was not far from the Icenian area, and that the Trinobantes were a neighbouring population. Perhaps we are justitied in carrying the Iceni as far south as the frontiers of Essex and Herts. (Ann. xiv. 31—37.)

The real reason, however, for fixing the Iceni lies in the assumption that they are the same as the Siineni of Ptolemy, whose town was Venta (.VorvuA or Cautcrr); Hji assumption that is quite rvakouable, since the Venta of Ptolemy's Simcui is mcu

tioned in the Itinerary as the Venta Icenorum, and in contradistinction to the Venta Belgamm (IFtnchatrr). [R. G. L.]

ICH Civ), a river of Central Asia which only occurs in Menander of Byzantium (Hist. LegaL Barbarorum ml Romanot, p. 300, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1829), sumanied the " Protector,'' and contemporary with the emperor Maurice, in the 6th century after Christ, to whom comparative geography is indebted for much curious information about the basin of the Caspian and the rivers which discharge themselves into it on the E. Niebuhr has recognised, in the passage from Menander to which reference has been made, the first intimation of the knowledge of the existence of the lake of Aral, after the very vague intimations of some among the authors of the classical period. Von Humboldt (Asie Cenlrale, vol. ii. p. 186) has identified the Ich with the Emba ur Vjem, which rises in the mountain range AU ruruk, not far from the sources of the Or, and, after traversing the sandy steppes of Saghiz and Bakoumbat, fails into the Caspian at its KE. corner. (Comp. Levchine, Hordes et Stepped des KirghizKaxaks, p. 65.) [E. B. J.]

1CHANA ("ixo^o: Eth. 'Ixaiwoi), a city of Sicily, which, according to Stephanus of Byzantium, held out for a long time against the arms of the Syracusans, whence he derives its name (from the verb ixavdu, a form equivalent to itrxaviu), but gives us no indication of the period to which this statement refers. The Ichanenses, however, are mentioned by Pliny (iii. 8. s. 14) among the stipendiary towns of the interior of Sicily, though, according to Sillig (ad /oc.), the true reading is Ipanenses. [hifpaha.] In either case we have no clue to the position of the city, and it is a mere random conjecture of Cluverius to give the name of Ichana to the ruins of a city which still remain at a place called Vindicari, a few miles N. of Capo Pachyuum, and which were identified (with still less probability) by Fazello as those of Imachara. [ihaciiaba.] [E. H. B.]

ICHNAE ("Ixroi). 8 c''7 °f Bottiaca, in Macedonia, which Herodotus (vii. 123) couples with I'ella. (f.eake, Travels in Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 582.) [E.B.J.]

ICHNAE ("lx'«, laid- Char. p. 3; Steph. B. ». v), a small fortified town, or castle, in Mesopotamia, situated on the river Bilecha, which itself flowed into the Euphrates. It is said by Isidorus to have owed its origin to the Macedonians. There can be little doubt that it is the same place as is called in Dion Cassins "Ixwai (xl. 12), and in Plutarch Tex"" (Crau. c. 25). According to the former writer, it was the place where Crussus overcame Talymenns: according to the latter, that to which the younger Crassus was persuaded to Hy when wounded. Its exact position cannot be determined ; but it is clear that it was not far distant from the important town of Carrhae. [V.]

ICC1US PORTUS. [itius.]

ICHTHYO'PHAGI (1x*—&ft Died, iii. 15, seq.; Herod, iii. 19 ; Pausan. i. 33. § 4; Plin. vi. 30. s. 32), were one of the numerous tribes dwelling on each Bhore of the Red Sea which derived' their appellation from the principal article of their diet. Ftsh-euters, however, were not confined to this region: in the present day, savages, whose only diet is fish cast ashore and cooked in the sun, are found on the coasts of New Holland. The Aethiopian Ichthyophagi, who appear to have been the most numerous of these no affinity cither in language or descent, they have an old version of the Bible into their language. The structure of this language has been studied by Adelung (Mitkridat. vol. i. pp. 430, foil.) and other modern philologers, among whom may be mentioned Br onset, the author of several learned memoirs on the Georgian grammar and language: Klaproth, also, has given a long vocabulary of it, in his Asia Polyglotta.

Armenian writers have supplied historical memoirs to Georgia, though it has not been entirely wanting in domestic chronicles. These curious records, which have much the style and appearance of the half-legendary monkish histories of other countries, are supposed to be founded on substantial truth. One of the most important works on Georgian history is the memorials of the celebrated Oipelian family, which have been published by St. Martin, with a translation. Some account of these, along with a short sketch of the History of the Georgians and their literature, will be found in Prichard (Physical Hist, of Mankind, vol. iv. pp. 261—276). Dubois de Moutpe'rcux ( Voyage autour du Caucase, vol. ii. pp. 8—169) has given an outline of the history of Georgia, from native sources; and the maps in the magnificent Atlas that accompanies his work will be found of great service. [E. B. J.]

IBE'RIA INDIAE ('ISTjpfo, Peripl. M. E. p. 24, eil. Hudson), a district placed by the author of the Periplus between Larica and the Scythians. It was doubtless peopled by some of the Scythian tribes, who gradually made their descent to the S. and SE. part of Scinde, and founded the Indo-Scythic empire, on the overthrow of the Greek kings of Bactria, about n. c. 136. The name would seem to imply that the population who occupied this district had come from the Caucasus. [V.] IBE'RICUM MARE. [hispanum Mare.] IBE'RES, IBE'RI, IBE'RIA. [hispania.] 1BERINGAE (lltplyyxu, Ptol. vii. 2. § 18), a people placed by Ptolemy between the Bepyrrhus Mona (ifaralca Mts. f) and the Montes Damassi, in India extra Gangem, near the Brahmaputra. [V.] IBE'RUS ("ISnp, gen. -Tipos, and "ISnpoj; in MSS. often Hiberus: Ebro), one of the chief rivers of Spain, the basin of which includes the NE. portion of the peninsula, between the great mountain chains of the Pyrenees and Idabeda. [hispania.] It rises in the mountains of the Cantabri, not far from the middle of the chain, near the city of Juliobriga (the source lies 12 miles W. of Heynosa), and, flowing with a nearly uniform direction to the SE., after a course of 450 M. P. (340 miles), falls into the Mediterranean, in 40° 42' N. lat., and 0° 50' E. long., forming a considerable delta at its mouth. It was navigable for 260 M. P. from the town of Varia (Varea, in Burgos'). Its chief tributaries were:—on the left, the Sicoris (Segre) and the Gallicus (Gallego), and on the right the Salo (Xalon). It was long the boundary of the two Spains [hispania], whence perhaps arose the error of Appian (Hisp. 6), who makes it divide the peninsula into two equal parts. There are some other errors not worlhy of notice. The origin of the name is disputed. Dismissing derivations from the Phoenician, the question seems to depend very much on whether the Iberians derived their name from the river, as was the belief of the ancient writers, or whether the river took its name from the people, as W. vun Humboldt contends. If the former was the case, and if Nicbulir's. view is correct, that the popu

lation of NE. Spain was originally Celtic [hisPania], a natural etymology is at once found in the Celtic aber, i. e. water. (Polyb. ii. 13, iii. 34, 40, et alib.; Scyl. p. 1; Strab. iii. pp. 156, ct seq.; Steph. B. ». v.; Mela, ii. 6. § 5; Caes. B. C. i. 60; Liv. xxi. 5, 19, 22, &c.; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4, iv. 20. s. 34; Lucan. iv. 23; Cato, Orig. VII. op. Nonius, s. v. Puctdentus.) [P. S.]

IBETTES. [samos.]

IBES, a town in the SE. of Hispania Citerior, mentioned by Livy (xxviii. 21, where the MSS. vary in the reading), is perhaps the modem Ibi, NE. of Valencia. (Coins, ap. Sestini, p. 156; Laborde, Itin. vol. i. p. 293.) [P. S.]

IBIO'NES, VIBIO'NES('ISKicfS, al. OuiSitoi-fj, Ptol. iii. 5. § 23), a Slavonian people of Sannatia Europaea, whom Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 213) looks for in the neighbourhood of a river Iva-IvizaIvinka, of which there are several in Russia deriving their name from "iwa" = " Salix Alba," or the common white willow. [E. B. J.]

IBLIODURUM, in Gallia Belgica, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road between Virodunum (IVrdun) and Divodurum (Metz). The termination (durum) implies that it is on a stream. The whole distance in the Itin. between Verdun and Metz is 23 Gallic leagues, or 34 J M. P., which is less than even the direct distance between Verdun and Metz. There is, therefore, an error iu the numbers in the Itin. somewhere between Virodunum and Divodurum, which D'Anville corrects in his usual way. The site of Ibliodurum is supposed to be on the Iron, nt a place about two leagues above its junction with the Orne, a branch of the Motel, and on the line of an old road. [G. L.]

ICA'RIA. [attica, p. 328, b.]

ICA'EIUM MAKE. [icakus; Aegaeum Mare.]

I'CARUS, I'CARIA fUapos, 'lTMp''<«: NUaria), an island of the Aegean, to the west of Samos, according to Strabo (x. p. 480, xiv. 639), 80 stadia from Cape Ampelos, while Pliny (v. 23) makes the distance 35 miies. The island is in reality a continuation of the range of hills traversing Samos from east to west, whence it is long and narrow, and extends from NE. to SW. Its length, according to Pliny, is 17 miles, and its circumference, according to Strabo, 300 stadia. The island, which gave its name to the whole of the surrounding sea (Icarium Mare or Ptlagus), derived its own name, according to tradition, from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, who was believed to have fallen into the sea near this island. (Ov. Met. viii. 195, foil.) The cape forming the easternmost point of the island was called Drepantim or Dracanum ^ Strab. xiv. pp. 637. 639; Horn. Hymn, xxxiv. 1; Diod. Sic. iii. 66; Plin. iv. 23; Steph. B. s. v. Apdxoyov), and near it was a small town of the same name. Further west, on the north coast, was the small town of Isti ("I<7Toi), with a tolerably good roadstead; to the south of this was another little place, called Oenoe (oivotj, Strab. I. c.; Athen. i. p. 30.) According to some traditions, Dionysus was born on Cape Draconum (Theocrit. Idyll, xxvi. 33), and Artemis had a temple near Isti, called Tauropolion. The island had received its first colonists from Miletus (Strab. xiv, p. 635); but in the time of Strabo it belonged to the Samians: it had then but few inhabitants, and was mainly used by the Samians as pasture land for their flocks. (Strab. x. pp. 488, xiv. p. 639; Styla*, pp. 22; Aeachyl./Vrs. 887; Thucyd. iii. 92, viii. 99; Ptol v. 2. § 30; P. Mela, ii. 7.) Modem writers derive the name of Icaria from the Ionic word mloa, a pasture (Hesych. s. v. Kdp), according to which it would mean K the pasture land." In earlier times it is said to have been called Doliche (PHn. I. c.\ Callim. Hymn, in Dion. 187), Maoris (Plin. L c.j Kostath. ad Dionys. Per. 530; Liv. xxvii. 13), and lehthyoessa (Plin. L c). Respecting the present condition of the island, see Tournefort, Voyage du Letml, ii. lett. 9. p. 94; and Ross, Reisen auf den Griech. Inseht, vol. ii. p. 164, foL [L. S.]

[graphic]

COIN OF OKNOE OR OENAE, IS ICAHUS.

ICARUSA. a river the embouchure of which is on the E. coast of the Euxine, mentioned (inly by Piiny (vi. 5). Icaruaa answers to the Ukrash river; and the town and river of Hieros is doubtless the Hikkos PoKTCS (ifpbs A'M^") of Arrian (PeripL p. 19). which has beer, identified with Sunjuk-kala. (Itennell. Compar. Geog. vol. ii. p. 32S.) [E. B. J.] ICAUNUS or ICAUNA (Tonne), in Gallia, a river which is a brunch of the Sequuna (Seine'). Autesiodurum or Autessiodurum (Aitxerre) is on the Ytmne. The name Icaunus is only known from inscriptions. D'Anville (A'otfce, dr., s. v. Icauna) Males, on the authority of the AbW le Bcuf, that there was found on a stone on the modern wall of Auxerre the inscription Drae Icavni. He supplies that Icauni ought to be Icauniae, but without any good reason. He also adds that the name Icauna appears in a writing of the fifth century. According to Ukert (Gallien. p. 145), who also cites Le Beuf, the inscription is "Deabus Icauni." It is said that in the ninth century Auxerre was named Icauna, Hionna, Junia. (Millin, Voyage, i. p. 167, died by Ukert, Gallien, p. 474.) Icauna is as likely to be the Roman form of the original Celtic name as Icaunus. [G. L.]

ICENI, in Britain. Tacitus is the only author who gives us the exact form IcenL He mentions them twiceFirst, they are defeated by the propraetor P. Ostorius, who, after fortifying the valleys of the Autona (Aufona) and Sabrkia, reduces the Iceni, and then inarches against the Cangi, a population sufficiently distant from Norfolk or Suffolk (the area of the Iceni) to be near the Irish Sea. (Ami. xii. 31, 32.) The difficulties that attend the geography of the campaign of Oatorius have been indicated in the article Cami'loduhum. It is not from this passage that we fix the Iceni.

The second notice gives us the acconnt of the great rebellion under Boadicea, wife of Prasutagus. From tlii.- we infer tiiat Camulodunum was not far from the Iceniuu area, and that the Trinobantes were a neighbouring population. Perhaps we arc justified in carrying the Iceni as far south as the frontiers of Kssex and Herts. (Ann. xiv. 31—37.)

The real reason, however, for fixing the Iceni lies in the assumption that they are the same as the Sitneni of Ptolemy, whose town was Venta (ATorKiek or Caulor); an assumption that is quite natuuable, since the Venta of Ptolemy's Shncui is men

tioned in the Itinerary as the Venta Icenoram, and in contradistinction to the Venta Belgaram (IFinchester). [R. G. L.]

ICH fix), a river of Central Asia which only occurs in Menander of Byzantium (Hist. Legat. Barbarorum ad Romanos, p. 300, ed. Niebuhr, Bonn, 1829), suniamed the "Protector," and contemporary with the emperor Maurice, in the 6th century after Christ, to whom comparative geography is indebted for much curious information about the basin of the Caspian and the rivers which discharge themselves into it on the E. Niebuhr has recognised, in the passage from Menander to which reference has been made, the first intimation of the knowledge of the existence of the lake of Aral, after the very vague intimations of some among the authors of the classical period. Von Humboldt (Asie Centrale, vol. ii. p. 186) has identified the Ich with the Emba ur Djem, which rises in the mountain range Airuruk, not far from the sources of the Or, and, after traversing the sandy steppes of Saghiz and Bakoumbai, falls into the Caspian at its NE. corner. (Comp. Levchine, Hordes et Steppes da KirghizKazaks, p. 65.) [E. B. J.]

ICHANA ("Ixfya: Eth. '\xavtvoi), a city of Sicily, which, according to Stephanus of Byzantium, held out for a long time against the anna of the Syracusans, whence he derives its name (from the verb j'xwdw, a form equivalent to i£rx<wd»), but gives us no indication of the period to which this statement refers. The Ichanenses, however, are mentioned by Pliny (iii. 8. s. 14) among the stipendiary towns of the interior of Sicily, though, according to Sillig (ad loc.), the true reading is Ipanenses. [hippasa.] In either case we have no clue to the position of the city, and it is a mere random conjecture of Cluverius to give the name of Ichana to the ruins of a city which still remain at a place called Vindicari, a few miles N. of Cape Pachynum, and which were identified (with still less probability) by Fazello as those of Imachara. [imaciiara.]' [E. H. B.]

ICHNAE ("lx«<0, a city of Bottiaea, in Macedonia, which Herodotus (vii. 123) couples with Pella. (Leake, Travel* in Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 582.) [E.B.J.]

ICHNAE ("Ix"TM, Isid. Char. p. 3; Steph. B. s. v), a small fortified town, or castle, in Mesopotamia, situated on the river Bilecha, which itself flowed into the Euphrates. It is said by Isidorus to have owed its origin to the Macedonians. There can be little doubt that it is the same place as is called in Dion Cassius 'ix'hm (xl. 12), and in Plutarch "Tux"ai (Crass, c 25). According to the former writer, it was the place where Crassus overcame Taiymenus: according to the latter, that to which the younger Crassus was persuaded to fly when wounded. Its exact position cannot be determined ; but it is clear that it was not far distant from the important town of Carrhae. [V.]

ICCIUS PORTUS. [itius.]

ICHTHYOTHAGI ( Ixe«o<f>d7oi, Diod. iii. 15, seq.; Herod, iii. 19 ; Pausan. i. 33. § 4; Plin. vi. 30. s. 32), were one of the numerous tribes dwelling on each shore of the Red. Sea which derived their appellation from the principal article of their diet, Fuh-eaters, however, were not confined to this region: iu t he present clay, savages, whose only diet is fish cast ashore and cooked in the sun, are found on the coasts of New Holland. The Aethiopian Ichthyophagi, who [ appear to have been the most numerous of these tribes, dwelt to the southward of the Regio Troglodytica. Of these, mid other more inland races, concerning whose strange forms and modes of life curious tales are related by the Greek and Roman writers, a further account is given under Trooixj

UYTE8. "[W. B. D.]

ICHTHYOPHAGORUM SINUS Clxtootpttytw K6kttos, Ptol. vi. 7. § 13), was a deeply embayed portion of the Persian gulf, in lat. 25° N-, situated between the headlands of the Sun and Asabe on the eastern coast of Arabia. The inhabitants of its borders were of the same mixed race —Aethiopo-Arabian—with the Ichthyophagi of Aethiopia. The bay was studded with islands, of which the principal were Aradus, Tylos, and Tharos. [W. B. D.]

ICHTHYS. [Eus, p. 817, b.]

ICIANI, in Britain, mentioned in the Itinerary as a station on the road from London to Carlisle (Luguballium). As more than one of the stations on each side (Villa Faustini, Camboricum, &c.) are uncertain, the locality of the Iciani is uncertain also. Chesterford, Ickburg, and Thetford are suggested in the Monumenta Britaimica. [R. G. L.]

ICIDMAGUS, a town of Gallia Lugdunensis, is placed by the Table on a road between Revessium (supposed to be St. Paulian) and Aquae Segete. [aquae Segete.] Icidmagus is probably Issenyeavx or Issinhaux, which is SSW. of St. Elienne, on the west side of the mountains, and in the basin of the Upper Loire. The resemblance of name is the chief reason for fixing on this site. [G. L ]

ICO'NII ('IftoVioi), an Alpine people of Gallia. Strabo (p. 185) says: "Above the Cavares are the Vocontii, and Tricorii, and Iconii, and Peduli;" and again (p. 203): "Next to the Vocontii are the Siconii, and Tricorii, and after them the Medali (Medulli), who inhabit the highest summits." These Iconii and Siconii are evidently the same people, and the sigma in the name Siconii seems to be merely a repetition of the final sigma of the word Ovxomioij. The Peduli of the first passage, as some editions have it, is also manifestly the name Medulli. The ascertained position of the Cavares on the east side of the Rhone, between the Durance and here, and that of the Vocontii east of the Cavares, combined with Strabo's remark about the position of the Medulli, Bhow that the Tricorii and the Iconii are between the Vocontii and the Medulli, who were on the High Alps; and this is all that we know. [G. L.J

ICO'NIUM ('IffdVioK: Eth, 'Imvuvs: Cogm, Kimjuh, or Koniyeh), was regarded in the time of Xenophon (Anab. i. 2. § 19) as the easternmost town of Phrygia, while all later authorities describe it as the principal city of Lycaonia. (Cic. ad Fain. iii. 6, 8, xv. 3.) Strabo (xii. p. 568) calls it a iroMxvtov, whence we must infer that it was then still a small place; but he adds that it was well peopled, and was situated in a fertile district of Lycaonia. Pliny (v. 27), however, and the Acts of the Apostles, describe it as a very populous city, inhabited by Greeks and Jews. Hence it would appear that, within a short period, the place had greatly risen in importance. In Pliny's time the territory of Iconium formed a tetrarchy comprising 14 towns, of which Iconium was the capital On coins belonging to the reign of the emperor Gallienus, the town is called a Roman colony, which was, probably, only an assumed title, as no author speaks of it as a colony. Under the Byzantine emperors it was the metropolis of Lycaonia, aud is frequently mentioned (Uierocl. r>. 675); but it was wrested from them first by the

Saracens, and afterwards by the Turks, who made it the capital of an empire, the sovereigns of which took the title of Sultans of Iconium. Under the Turkish dominion, and during the period of the Crusades, Iconium acquired its greatest celebrity. It is still a large and populous town, and the residence of a pasha. The place contains Borne architectural remains and inscriptions, but they appear almost all to belong to the Byzantine period. (Comp. Amm. Marc xiv. 2 ; Steph. B. s. v. : Ptol. v. 6. § 16; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 48; Hamilton, Researches, vol. ii. p. 205, fol. ; Eckhel, vol. iii. p. 31; Sestini, Geo. Num. p. 48.) The name Iconium led the ancients to derive it from thtuv, which gave rise to the fable that the city derived its name from an image of Medusa, brought thither by Perseus (Eustath. ad Biongs. Per. 856) ; hence Stephanus B. maintains that the name ought to be spelt EotoVioc, a fonn actually adopted by Eustathius and the Byzantine writers, and also found on some coins. [L. S-]

ICOBIGIUM. [eqorigium.]

ICOS. [Icus.]

ICOSITA'NI. [Iuci.]

ICO'SIUM ('I/coVioy: Algier), a city on the coast of Mauretania Caesariensis, E. of Caesarea, a colony under the Roman empire, and presented by Vespasian with the jut Latinum. (Itin. Ant. p. 15; Mela, i. 6. § 1; Plin. v. 2. s. 1; Ptol. iv. 2. § 6.) Its site, already well indicated by the numbers of Ptolemy, who places it 30' W. of the mouth of the Savus, has been identified with certainty by inscriptions discovered by the French. (Pellissier, in the Exploration Scientifique de TAlg(rie, vol. vi. p. 350.) Many modern geographers, following Mannert, who was misled by a confusion in the numbers of the Itinerary, put this and all the neighbouring places too far west. [Comp. Iol.] [P. S.]

ICTIMU'LI or VICTIMU'LI Cuto6^ov\oi, Strab.), a people of Cisalpine Gaul, situated at - the foot of the Alps, in the territory of Vercellae. They are mentioned by Strabo (v. p. 218), who speaks of a village of the lctimuli, where there were gold mines, which he seems to place in the neighbourhood of Vercellae; but the passage is so confused that it would leave us in doubt. Pliny, however, who notices the gold mines of the Victimuli among the most productive in Italy, distinctly places them " in agro Verccllensi." We learn from him that they were at one time worked on so large a scale that a law was passed by the Roman censors prohibiting the employment in them of more than 51100 men at once. (Plin. xxxiii. 4. s. 21.) Their site is not more precisely indicated by either of the above authors, but the Geographer of Ravenna mentions the "civitas, quae dieitur Victimula" as situated "near Epiredia, not far from the foot of the Alps" (Geogr. Rav. iv. 30); and a modern writer has traced the existence of the " Castellum Victimula" during the middle ages, and shown that it must have been situated between Jvrea and Biella on the banks of the Elvo. Traces of the ancient gold mines, which appear to have been worked during the middle agt-s, may be still observed in the neighbouring mountains. (Durandi, Alpi Graze e Pennine, pp. 110—112; Walckcnaer, Geogr. des Gardes, vol. i. p. 168.) [E. H. B.]

ICTIS, in Britain, mentioned by Diodorus Sieulus (v. 22) as an island lying off the coast of the tin districts, and, at low tides, becoming a peninsula, whither the tin was conveyed in waggons. St. Michael's Mount is the suggested locality fui Iclig Probably, however, there is a confusion between the Isle of Wight, the Isle of Portland, the Scilly Isles, and the isle just mentioned; since the name is suspiciously like Vcctit, the physical conditions being different. This view is confirmed by the text of Pliny (it. 30), who writes, "Timaeus historicus a Britannia introrsus sex dierum navigatione abesse dicit insulam Mictim in qua candiaum plumbum provemat; ad earn Britannos ritilibus naTigiis corio cirenmsutis navigare." [R. G. L.]

ICTODURUM, in Gallia. The Antonine Itin. places Caturiges (Chorges) on the road between Ebrodunum (Embrun) and Vapincum (G«p): and the Table adds Ictodurum between Caturigomagus, which is also Chorgee, and Vapincum. We may infer from the name that Ictodurum is some stream between Charges and Gap; and the Table places it half-way. The road distance is more than the direct line. By following the road from either of these places towards the other till we come to the stream, we shall ascertain its position. D'AnTille names the small stream the Vence; and Walckenaer names the Bite of Ictodurum, La Battide VieiUe, [G. L.]

ICULISMA, a place in Gallia, mentioned by Ausonios (Ep. XT. 22) as a retired and lonely spot where his friend Tetradius, to whom he addresses this poetical epistle, was at one time engaged in teaching: —

"Quondam docendi munere adstrictum gravi
Iculisma cum te absconderet."

It is assumed to be the place called Civitas Ecolismensium in the Notitia l'rov. Gall., which is Angouleme, in the French department of Charente, on the river Charente. [G.L.]

ICUS ("ikoj: Eth, "Ixios), one of the group of islands off the coast of Magnesia in Thessaly, lay near Peporethus, and was colonised at the same time by the Cuossians of Crete. (Scymn. Chius, 582; Strab. ix. p. 436; Appian, B. C. T. 7.) The fleet of Attalus and the Khodians sailed past Seyms to Icus. (lit. xxxi. 45.) Phanodemus wrote an account of this in-significant island. (Steph. B. s. p.) It is now called SaraJano. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 312.)

IDA, 1DAEUS MONS (r, 'lin, IJo: Ida), a range of mountains of Phrygia, belonging to the system of Mount Taurus. It traverses western Mysia in many branches, whence it was compared by the ancients to the scolopendra or milliped (Strab. xiii. p. 583), its main branch extending from the southeast to the north-west; it is of considerable height, the highest point, called Gargarus or Gargaron, rising about 4650 feet above the level of the sea. The greater part is covered with wood, and contains the sources of innumerable streams and many rivers, whence Homer (II viil 47) calls the mountain woAinrlJaf. In the Homeric poems it is also described as rich in wild beasts. (Comp. Strab. xiii. pp. 602, 604; Horn. II ii. 824, vL 283, viii. 170, xi. 153, 196; Athen. xv. 8; Hor. Od. iii. 20. 15; Ptol. v. 2. § 13; Pliu. v. 32.) The highlands about Zeleia formed the northern extremity of Mount Ida, while Lectum formed its extreme point in the south-west. Two other subordinate ranges, parting from the principal summit, the one at Cape Rhoeteum. the other at Sigeum, may be said to enclose the territory of Troy in a crescent; while another rentral ridge between the two, separating the valley ot~ the Scamander from that of the Siuiois, gave to

the whole the form of the Greek letter f. (Demetr. ap. Strab. xiii. p. 597.) The principal rivers of which the sources are in Mount Ida, are the Simois, Scamander, Granieus, Aesepus, Rhodius, Caresns, and others. (Horn. //. xii. 20, foil.) The highest peak, Gargarus, affords an extensive view over the Hellespont, Propontis, and the whole surrounding country. Besides Gargarus, three other high peaks of Ida are mentioned: viz. Cotylus, about 3500 foot high, and about 150 stadia above Scepsis; Pytna; and Dicte. (Strab. xiii. p. 472.) Timosthenes («■/». Steph. B. 8. v. 'AArfaySpeia) and Strubo (xiii. p. 606) mention a mountain belonging to the range of Ida, near Antandrus, which bore the name of Alexandria, where Paris (Alexander) was believed to have pronounced his judgment as to the beauty of the three goddesses. (Comp. Clarke's Travels, ii. p. 134; Hunt's Journal in Walpoles Turkey, i. p. 120; Cramer's Alia Minor, i. 120.) [L. S.]

IDA ("IS*, Ptol. iii. 17. § 9; Pomp. Mela, ii. 7. § 12; Plin. iv. 12, xvi. 33 ; Virg. Aen. iii. 105; Solin. ii.; Avien. 676; Prise. 528), the central and loftiest point of the mountain range which traverses the island of Crete throughout the whole length from W. to E. In the middle of the island, where it is broadest (Strab. x. pp. 472, 475, 478), Mt. Ida lifts its head covered with snow. (Theophrast. H. P. iv. 1.) The lofty summits terminate in three peaks, and, like the main chain of which it is the nucleus, the offshoots to the N. slope gradually towards the sea, enclosing fertile plains and valleys, and form by their projections the numerous bays and gulfs with which the coast is indented. Mt. Ida, now called Psiloriti, sinks down rapidly towards the SE. into the extensive plain watered by the Lethaeus. This side of the mountain, which looks down upon the plain of Mejiara, is covered with cypresses (comp. Theophrast. de Vent. p. 405; Dion. Perieg. 503; Eustath. ad. loc.\ pines, and junipers. Mt. Ida was the locality assigned for the legends connected with the history of Zeus, and there was a cavern in its slopes sacred to that deity. (Diod. Sic. v. 70.)

The Cretan Ida, like its Trojan namesake, was connected with the working of iron, and the Idaeait Dactyls, the legendary discoverers of metallurgy, are assigned sometimes to the one and sometimes to the other. Wood was essentia] to the operations of smelting and forging; and the word Ida, an ap[>ellative for any wood-covered mountain, was used perhaps, like the German berg, at once for a mountain and a mining work. (Kcnrick, Aegypt of Herodotus, p. 278; Hock, Kreta, vol i. p. 4.) [E. B. J.]

I'DACUS ("ISoxos), a town of the Thracian Chersonese, mentioned by Thucydides (viii. 104) in his account of the manoeuvres before the battle of Cynossema, and not far from Arrhiana. Although nothing whatever is known of these places, yet, as the Athenians were sailing in the direction of the Propontis from the Aegaean, it would appear that Idacus was nearest the Aegaean, and Arrhiana further np the Hellespont, towards Sestus and the Propontis. (Arnold, ad foe.) [E. B. J.]

IDALIA, IDA'LIUM ('lSoA.oi': Kth. 'I8oA(ir, Steph. B.; Plin. v. 31), a town in Cyprus, adjoining to which was a forest sacred to Aphrodite; the poe a who connect this place with her worship, give no indications of the precise locality. (Theocr. Id. xv. 100; Virg. Am. i. 681, 692, x. 51; Catull. Pel. tt Thet. 96; Propert. ii. 13; Lucan, viii. 17.) Engel (Kypros, vol. i. p. 153) identifies it with Dalin. de

« السابقةمتابعة »