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given by Lycnrgns, and that 3000 were added by king Polydorus at the end of the First Messenian War; others supposed that the original number of 4500 was doubled by Polydorus. (Plut. L c.) From these statements attempts hare been made by modern writers to calculate the population of Laconia, and the relative numbers of the Spartans and the Perioeci; but Mr. Grote has brought forward strong reasons for believing that no such division of the landed property of Laconia was ever made by Lycurgus, and that the belief of his having dime so arose in the third century before the Christian era, when Agis attempted to make a fresh division of the land of Laconia. (Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 521.) In any case, it is impossible to determine, as some writers have attempted, the lands which belonged respectively to the Spartans and the Perioeci. All that we know is, that, in the law proposed by Agis, the land bound by the four limits of Pellene, Sellasia, Males, and Taygetus, was divided into 4500 lots, one for each Spartan; and that the remainder of Laconia was divided into 15,000 lots, one for each Perioecus (Plut. Agis, 8.)

With respect to the population of Laconia, we have a few isolated statements in the ancient writers. Of these the most important is that of Herodotus, who says that the citizens of Sparta at the time of the Persian wars was about 8000 (vii. 234). The number of the Perioeci is nowhere stated; but we know from Herodotus that there were 10,000 of them present at the battle of Platuea, 5000 heavyarmed, and 5000 light-armed (ix. 11, 29); and, as there were 5000 Spartans at this battle, that is fiveeighths of the whole number of citizens, we may venture to assume as an approximate number, that the Perioeci at the battle may have been also fireeighths of their whole number, which would give 16.000 for the males of full age. After the time of the Persian wars the number of the Spartan citizens gradually hut steadily declined; and Clinton is probably right in his supposition that at the time of the invasion of Laconia, in B. c. 369, the total number of Spartans did not exceed 2000; and that Isocrates, in describing the original Dorian conquerors of Laconia as only 2000, has probably adapted to the description the number of Spartans in his own time. (Isocr. Panath. p. 286, c.) About 50 years after that event, in the time of Aristotle, they were scarcely 1000 (Aristot. Pol ii. 6. § 11); and eighty years still later, in the reign of Agis, B. c. 244, their number was reduced to only 700 (Plut. Agis. 5.) The number of Helots was very large. At the battle of Plataea there were 35,000 light-armed Helots, that is seven for every single Spartan (Herod, ix. 28.) On the population of Laconia, see Clinton, F. II. vol. ii. p. 407, seq.

From B. c. 547 to B. c. 371, the boundaries of Laconia continued to be the same as we have mentioned above. But after the overthrow of her supremacy by the fatal battle of Leuctra, the Spartans were successively stripped of the dominions they had acquired at the expense of the Messeuians, Arcadians, and Argives. Epaminnndas, by establishing the independent state of Mcssenia, confined the Spartans to the country east of Mount Taygetus; and the Arcadian city of Megalopolis, which was founded by the same statesman, encronched upon the Spartan territory in the upper vale of the Eurotas. While the Thebans were engaged in the Sacred War, the Spartans endeavoured to recover some of their territory which they had thus lost;

but it was still further circumscribed by Philip, the futher of Alexander the Great, who deprived the Spartans of several districts, which he assigned to the Argives, Arcadians, and Messenians. (Polyb. ix. 28; Pans. iv. 28. § 2.) After the establishment of the Achaean League their influence in the Peloponnesus sank lower and lower. For a short time they showed unwonted vigour, under their king Cleomenes, whose resolution had given new life to the slate. They -defeated the Achaeans in several battles, and seemed to be regaining a portion at least of their former power, when they were checked in their progress by Antigonus Dosnn, whom the Achacans called in to their assistance, and were at length completely humbled by the fatal battle of Sellasia, B. c. 221. {Diet, of liiogr. art. Cleomenes.") Soon afterwards Sparta fell into the hands of a succession of usurpers; and of these Nabis, one of the most sanguinary, was compelled by T. Quinctius Flamininus, to surrender Gythium and the other maritime towns, which had sided with the Romans, and were now severed frura the Spartan dominion and placed under the protection of the Achaean League, B. C 195. (Strab. viii. p. 366; Thirlwall, Hist of Greece, vol. viii. p. 326.) The Spartans were thus confined almost to the valley in which their Dorian ancestors had first settled, and, like them, were surrounded by a number of hostile places. Seven years afterwards, B. C. 188, Sparta itself was taken by Philopoemen, and annexed to the Achaean League (Plut. Phil. 16; Liv. xxxviii. 32—34); but this step was displeasing to the Romans, who viewed with apprehension the further increase of the Achaean League, and accordingly encouraged the party at Sparta opposed to the interests of the Achaeans. But the Roman conquest of Greece, which soon followed, put an end to these disputes, and placed Laconia, together with the rest of Greece, under the immediate government of Rome. Whether the Lacedaemonian towns to which Flamininus had granted independence were placed again under the dominion of Sparta, is not recorded; but we know that Augustus guaranteed to them their independence, and they are henceforth mentioned nnder ths name of Eleuthero-Lacones. Pansanias says there were originally 24 towns of the Eleuthero-Lacones, and in his time there were still 18, of which the names were Gythium, Teuthrone, Las, Pyrrhicus, Caenepolis, Oetylus, Leuctra, Thalamiie, Alagonia, Gerenia, Asopus, Acriae, Bocae, Zarax, Epidaurus Limera, Brasiae, Geronthrae, Marios. (Paus. iii. 21. § 7.) Augustus showed favour to the Spartans as well as to the Lacedaemonians in general; he gave to Sparta the Messenian town of Cardanryle (Pans, iii- 26. § 7); he also annexed to Laconia the Messenian town of Pharae (Paus. iv. 30. § 2), and gave to the Lacedaemonians the island of Cythera. (Dion Cass. liv. 7.)

At the end of the fourth century of the Christian era, Laconia was devastated by the Goths under Alaric, who took Sparta (Zosim. v. 6). Subsequently Slavonians settled in the country, and retained possession of it for a long time; but towards the end of the eighth century, in the reign of the empress Irene, the Byzantine court made an effort to recover their dominions in Peloponnesus, and finally succeeded in reducing to subjection the Slavonians in the plains, while those in Laconia who would not submit were obliged to take refuge in the fastnesses of Mt. Taygetus. When the Franks became masters i of Laconia in the 13th century, they found upon Hie site of ancient Sparta a town still called Txicedaimonia; bat in A. D. 1248, William Villeliardoin built a fortress on one of the rocky hills at the foot of Mt, Taygetus, about three miles from the city of Lacedaemonia. Here he took up his residence; and on this rock, called Misithra, usually pronounced Mittrd, a new town arose, which became the capital of Laconia, and continued to be so till Sparta began to be rebuilt on its ancient site by order of the present Greek government. (Finlay, Medieval Greece, p. 230; Curtius, Pelopotmesos, vol. ii. p. 214.)

V. Towns.

1. In the Spartan Plata.—The three chief towns were Sparta, Amyclae, and Phaius, all situated near one another, and upon some of the lower heights close to the Eurotas. Their proximity would seem to show that they did not arise at the same time. Amyclae lay only 2 J miles south of Sparta, and appears to have been the chief place in the country before the Dorian invasion. South of Amyclae, and on the road from this town to the sea, was Pharis, also an Achaean town in existence before the Dorian conquest, Therapne may be regarded as almost a part of Sparta. [sparta.] On the slopes of Mt. Taygetus, above the plain, there were several places. They were visited by Pausanias (iii. 20. §§ 3—7), but it is difficult to determine the road which he took. After crossing the river Phellia, beyond Amyclae, he turned to the right towards the mountain. In the plain was a sanctuary of Zeus Messapeus, belonging, as we learn from Stephanas, to a village called Messapeae (Mt(7<rair«u), and beyond it, at the entrance into the mountains, the Homeric city of Bryseae. In the mountains was a sanctuary of Demeter Eleusinia, and 15 stadia from the latter Lapithaeuh, near which was Derrhium, where was a fountain called Anonus. Twenty stadia from Derrhium was HarPleia, which borders upon the plain. Pausanias gives no information of the direction in which he proceeded from the Eleusinium to Harpleia. Leake supposes that he turned to the south, and accordingly places Harpleia at the entrance into the plain by the bridge of Xerokampo; while Curtius, on the contrary, imagines that he turned to the north, and came into the plain at Mittrd, which he therefore identifies with Harpleia. It is impossible to determine which of these views is the more correct. The antiquities and inscriptions discovered at Mistrd prove that it was the site of an ancient town, and Leake conjectures that it represents the Homeric Messe.

2. In tite Vale of the Upper Eurotas.—The road from Sparta to Megalopolis followed the vale of the Eurotas. On this road Pausanias mentions first several monuments, the position of one of which, the tomb of Ladas, may still be identified. This tomb is described as distant 50 stadia from Sparta, and as situated above the road, which here passes very near to the river Eurotas. At about this distance from Sparta, Leake perceived a cavern in the rocks, with two openings, one of which appeared to have been fashioned by art, and a little beyond a semicircular sepulchral niche: the place is called by the peasants arovs Qovpvovs. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 13.) Further on was the Characoma (XapiHU/w.), a fortification, probably, in the narrow part of the valley; above it the town Pellana, the frontierfortress of Sparta in the vale of the Eurotas; and 100 stadia from Pellana, Belemuia. (Pans. iii. 20. § 8


—21. § 3.) In the neighbourhood of Belemina was Aeoys, originally an Arcadian town, which was conquered at an early period by the Spartans, and its territory annexed to Laconia. In the upper vale of the Eurotas was the Lacedaemonian TriPOI.IS. (Liv. xxxv. 27.) Pellana was one of the three cities (Polyb. iv. 81); Belemina was undoubtedly another; and the third was either Acgys or Carystus.

The road to Tegea and Argos ran along the vaie of the Oenus. (Paus. iii. 10. §§ 6—8.) After crossing the bridge over the Eurotas, the traveller saw on his right hand Mount Thornax, upon which stood a colossal statue of Apollo Pythaeus, guarding the city of Sparta, which lay at his feet. (Comp. Herod, i. 69; Xen. Hell vi. 5. § 27.) A little further on in the vale of the Oenus, was Set.la.sia, which was the bulwark of Sparta in the vale of the Oenus, as Pellana was in that of the Eurotas. Above Sellasia was a small plain, the only one in the vale of the Oenus, bounded on the east by Mt. Olympus and on the west by Mt Evas: a small stream, called Gorgylus, flowed through the western side of the plain into the Oenus. This was the site of the celebrated battle in which Cleomcnes was defeated by Antigonus. [sellasia.] In this plain the road divided into two, one leading to Argos and the other to Tegea. The road to Argos followed the Oenus; and to the west of the road, about an hour distant from the modern Ardkhova, lay CaKyae. From this place to the confines of the Thyreatis in Argolis, was a forest of oaks, called Scotitas (skotitos), which derived its name from a temple of Zeus Scotitas, about 10 stadia west of the road. (Paus. iii. 10. § 6; Polyb. xri. 37.) On the ridge of Mt. Parnon the boundaries of Argolis and Laconia were marked by Uermae, of which, three heaps of stones, called oi ipovtvuivot (the slain), may perhaps be the remains. (Boss, Reisen m Peloponnes, p. 173.) There was also a town Oenus, from which the river derived its name.

The road to Tegea, which is the same as the present road from Sparta to Tripolitsd, after leaving the plain of Sellasia, passes over a high and mountainous district, called Sciritis in antiquity. The territory of Laconia extended beyond the highest ridge of the mountain; and the chief source of the Alpheius, called Sarantop6tamos, formed the boundary between Laconia and the Tegeatis. Before reaching the Arcadian frontier, the road went through a narrow and rugged pass, now called Klisura. The two towns in Sciritis were SciRl'S and Oeum, called Ium by Xenophon.

3. In tlte southern part of Laconia. — On the road from Sparta to Gythium, the chief port of the country, Pausanias (iii. 21. § 4) first mentions Croceae, distant about 135 stadia from Sparta, and celebrated for its quarries. Gythium was 30 stadia beyond Croceae. Above Gythium, in the interior, was Aeoiae, to which a road also led from Croceae. Opposite Gythium was the island Cranae. After giving an account of Gythium, Pausanias divides the rest of Laconia, for the purposes of his description, into what lies left and what lies right of Gythium (ir iptaTtpif TvBtov, iii. 22. § 3 ra iv 8t£i? TvUav, iii. 24. § 6).

Following the order of Pausanias, we will first mention the towns to the left or east of Gythium. Thirty stadia above Gythium was T EOT ASUS, situated upon a promontory, which formed the NB extremity of the peninsula tenninati'ig in Caps


Taenarnm. Eighty stadia beyond Trinasns was Hei.os, also upon the coast. The road from Sparta to Helos followed the Eurotas the greater part of the way; and Leake noticed in several parts of the rock ruts of chariot wheels, evidently the vestiges of the ancient carriage-road. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 194.) Thirty stadia south of Helos on the coast was AcltlAK; and sixty stadia south of Acriae, Asopus, the later name of Cyparissia. Between Acriae and Asopus, Ptolemy mentions a town Biandina (BtavSiva, iii. 16. §9), the name of which occurs in an inscription in the form of Biadinupolis(Bio![i>']oOTroA€/Tai',Bockh, Into. No. 1336). Between Asopus and Acriae was an inland plain, called Leuce, containing in the interior a town of this name, and in the same neighbourhood was Pleiak. Eeturning to the coast, 50 stadia south of Asopus, was a temple of Asclepius, in a spot called Hyperteleatum. Two hundred stadia south of Asopus was tho promontory and peninsula OnuGnatoxs, connected with the mainland by a narrow isthmus, which is, however, generally covered with water. Between Onugnathus and Malea is a considerable bay, called Boeaticus Sinus, from the town of Boear, situated at its head. In this neighbourhood were three ancient towns, called Etis, AphkomsiAS,and Side, which were founded by the Dorians; the two former on the Boeaticus Sinus, and the other on the eastern sea north of Cape Malea. Between Boeae and Malea was Nymphaeum (Nifupatov or NvpSawv), with a cave near the sea, in which was a fountain of sweet water. Pausanias (iii. 23. § 2) calls Nymphaeum a Aijuir}, but, as there is no lake in this neighbourhood, Boblaye conjectures (Recherche*, ife. p. 99) that we should read ktufa, and places Nymphaeum at the harbour of Santa Marina, where a fountain of water issues from a grotto. The promontory Malea (Ma\«x, Stcph. B. t. v. et alii; MoAt'ou, Herod, i. 82; Strab. viii. p. 368), still called Malta, the most southerly point in Greece with the exception of Taenarum, was much dreaded by the ancient sailors on account of the winds and waves of the two seas, which here meet together. Hence arose the proverb, "after doubling Malea, forget your country" (Strab. viii. p. 378), and the epithet of Statins, "formidatum Maleae caput" (Theb. ii. 33). On the promontory there was a statue of Apollo. (Steph. B. ». v. Aiftofo-ios; 'AxiiAAtw KaKcarvs, Paus. iii. 12. § 8.) South of Malea was the island Cytheba. Following the eastern coast we first come to Side, already mentioned; then to Epidki.iuji, 100stadia from Malea; next to Epidaukus Limeba, and successively to Zarax, Cyphamta, and Prasiae or Brasiae, of which the last is near the confines of Argolis. The numbers in Pausanias, giving the distances of these places from one another, are corrupt: sec Oyphanta. In the interior, between the Eurotas and the south-western slopes of Paraon, Pausanias mentions Grromthrae, situated 120 stadia north of Acriae; Marius, 100 stadia east of Geronthrae; Glyppia, also called Glympia, north of Marius; and Set.ihus, 20 stadia from Geronthrae.

Returning now to Gythium, wo proceed to enumerate the towns to the right, that is, west and south, of this place, according to the plan of Pausanias (iii. 24. § 6, seq.); in other words, the towns in the peninsula through which Mount Taygetus runs. Forty stadia south of Gythium was Las upon the coast, which some writers call Asine. Thirty stadia from a hill near Las was Hypsi, in

the interior; and a little below Las was the river Smenus (Sju^^os), rising in Mt. Taygetus, which Pausanias praises for the excellence of its water, now the river of Patsavd. Immediately south of this river was the temple of Artemis Dictynna, on a promontory now called Agheranos ; and in the same neighbourhood was a village called by Pausanias Ameiius or Araenum, where Las, the founder of the city of Las, was said to have been buried. South of the promontory of Agheranos is a stream, now called the river of Dhikova, the Scykas (SKvpas) of Pansanias (iii. 25. § 1), beyond which were an altar and temple of Zeus: there are still some ancient remains on the right side of the river near its mouth. Further south is the peninsula of Skuidri, inclosing a bay of the same name, which is conjectured to be the Sinus Aegilodes of Pliny (iv. 5. s. 8); if so, we must place here Aegila, which is mentioned incidentally by Pausanias (iv. 17. § 1) as a town of Laconia. Inland 40 stadia from tho river Scyras lay Pyrrhichus. SE. of Pyrrhichus on the coast was Teuthrone. Between Teuthrone and the Taenarian peninsula no town is mentioned, but at a place on the coast culled Kilamia there are considerable remains of two temples. The Taenarian peninsula is connected with that of Taygetus by an isthmus hulf a mile across, and contains two harbours, named Psamathus and Achilleius Portcs [see Taenabum]: the extremity of the peninsula is C. Mataprfn. Bounding the latter point, and ascending southwards, we come to the town of TakNarum, afterwards called Caknepolis, 40 stadia above the Taenarian isthmus. Thirty stadia N. of Caenepolis was the commencement of the promontory Thyrides, nearly as large as the Taenarian peninsula, but connected with the mainland by a much wider isthmus. On this promontory were the towns of Hippola and Messa. North of Messa was Oetylus; but the distance of 150 stadia, assigned by Pausanias between the two places, is too much. [oetylus.] Eighty stadia north of Oetylus was Thaiamae, situated inland, and 20 stadia from Thalamae was Pefhnus, upon the coast. Both these towns were upon the lesser Pamisus, now called the Milea, which the Messenians said was originally the boundary of their territory. (Strab. viii. p. 361; Paus. iii. 26. § 3.) The districts north of this river were taken away from the Lacedaemonians by Philip in B.C. 338, and granted to the Messenians; but it is probable that the latter did not long retain possession of them. In the time of the Roman empire they formed part of ElentbercLaconia. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 179.) Twenty stadia north of Pephnus, upon the coast, was Leuctra or Leuctrum; and 60 stadia north of the latter, Cardamyi.e, at the distance of 8 stadia from the sea. North of Cardamyle was Geres Ia, the most northerly of the Eleuthero-Laconian towns. Thirty stadia from Gerenia, in the interior, was Alagonia.

(On the geography of Laconia, see Leake, Morea and Peloponnesiaca; Boblaye, Recherches, dfe.; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes and Wanderungen in Griechenland; Curtius, Peloponnesos.) LACO'NICUS SINUS. [lacohia.] LACONIMURGI. [celtica; Vettokks.] LACRINGI, mentioned by Capitolinus (M. Antonin. c 22), by Dion Cassius (lxxxi. 12), and by Pctrus Patricius (Excerpt. Legal, p. 124, ed. Bonn), along with the Astingi and Buri. They were either Dacian or on the Dacian frontier, and »re known only from having, in the Marcomannic war, opposed a body of invading Astings, and, having so done, contracted an alliance with Kome. [R. G. L.]

LACTA'RIUS MONS (rdAaimw Spos: Monte S. Angelo), was the name given by the Romans to a mountain in the neighbourhood of Stabiae in Campania. It was derived from the circumstance that the mountain abounded in excellent pastures, which were famous for the quality of the milk they produced; on which account the mountain was resorted to by invalids, especially in cases of consnmptiou, for which a milk diet was considered particularly beneficial. (Cassiod. Ep. xi. 10; Galen, de Meth. Med. v. 12.) It was at the foot of this mountain that Narses obtained a great victory over the Goths under Telas in A. D. 553, in which the Gothic king was slain. (Procop. B. G. iv. 35, 36.) The description of the Mons Lactarius, and its position with regard to Stabiae, leave no doubt that it was a part of the mountain range which branches off from the Apennines near jVocera (Nuceria), and separates the Bay of Xaples from that of Faestum. The Highest point of this range, the Monle S. Angelo, attains a height of above 5000 feet; the whole range is calcareous, and presents beautiful forests, as well as abundant pastures. The name of Lettere, still borne by a town on the slope of the mountain side, a little above Stabiae, is evidently a relic of the ancient name. [E. H. B.]

LACTOBA, in Gallia Aqnitania, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road between Aginnum (Agen) nndClimberrum (ytoci),and 15Gallic leagues from each. The distance and name correspond to the position and name of Lectoure. Several Roman inscriptions have been discovered with the name Lactorates, and Civitas Lactorensium; but the place is not mentioned by any extant writer. [G. L.]

LACUS FELICIS, a place in Noricum, on the south of the Danube, 25 miles west of Arelape, and 20 miles east of Laureacum (/(. Ant pp. 246, 24S). According to the Not Imper., where it is called Lacufelicis, it was the head-quarters of Norican horse archers. It is now generally identified with the town of Niederwallsee, on the Danube. [L.S.]

LACYDON. [massiua.]

LADK (A&Sn), the largest of a group of small islands in the Sinus Latmicus, close by Miletus, and opposite the mouth of the Maeander. It was a protection to the harbours of Miletus, but in Strabo's time it was one of the haunts and strongholds of pirates. Lade is celebrated in history for the naval defeat sustained there by the lonians against the Persians in B. c. 494. (Herod, vi. 8; Thncyd. viii. 17, 24; Strab. xiv. p. 635; Pans. i. 35. § 6; Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. v. 37.) That the island was not quite uninhabitel, is clear from Strabo, and from the fact of Stephanus B. mentioning the ethnic form of the name, AaZaios. [L. S-]

LADICUS, a mountain of Gallaecia, the name of which occurs in ancient inscriptions, and is still preserved in that of the Codos de Ladoco, near Montefurado on the Sil. (Florez, Esp.S. vol. xv. p. 63; L'kert, vol. ii. pt, 1. p. 278.) [P. S.]

LADOCKIA (t4 AaSoKtia), a place in Arcadia, in tlie district Maenalia, and, after the building of Megalopolis, a suburb of that city, was situated upon the road from the latter to Pallantinm and Tegea. Here a battle was fought between the Mantineians and Tegeatae, n. c. 423, and between the Achaeans and Cleomenes, B. C. 226. Thucydides calls it Laodicium (AavSiKiof) in Oresthis. (Paus. viii. 44.

§ 1 ; Time. iv. 134; Pol. ii. 51, 55.) [obkbtha


LADON (AoS«6i»). 1. A river of Elis, flowing into the Peneius. [elis, p. 817, a.]

2. A river of Arcadia, flowing into the Alpheius. [alfhkius.]

LAEAEI (Aaiaibi), a Paeonian tribe in Macedonia, included within the dominion of Sitalces, probably situated to the E. of the Strymon. (Time, ii. 96.) [E. B. J.]

LAEAETA'NI or LEETA'NI (Aaiairawf, Ptol. ii. 6. §§ 18, 74; AeirraW, Strab. iii. p. 159), a people on the N. part of the E. coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, above the Cosetani. Strabo merely speaks vaguely of the sea-coast between the Kbro and the Pyrenees as belonging to "the Lee'tuni and the Lartolaeetae, and other such tribesM (jcov Tf Ae^Tavfti*' KtjX AaproXaiTiTup feed &AA(ay TOioinuv), as far as Emporium, while Ptolemy places them about Barcino (Barcelona) and the river Rubricat us (Llobregat); whence it appears t hat t hey extended from below the Rubrioatus on the SW. up to the borders of the Indigetes, upon the bay of Emporiae, on the NE. They are undoubtedly the same people as the Laletani of Pliny (iii. 3. s. 4; comp. Inscr. dp. Gruter. p. cdxxx.), who speaks of their country (Laletania) as producing good wine in abundance. (Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8; comp. Martial, i. 27, 50, vii. 52; Sil. Ital. iii. 369, xv. 177.) Strabo describes it as a fertile country, well furnished with harbours. Besides their capital Barcino (Barcelona'), they had the following towns: (1.) On the sea coast, from SW. to NE.: Baktulo (boitou \<iv, Ptol. ii. 6. § 19: Badelona; Muratori, p. 1033, no. 3; Florez, Esp. S. voL xxiv. p. 56. vol. xxix. p. 31 ; Marca, Bisp. ii. 15, p. 159), w ith a small river of the same name (Besos: Mela, ii. 6); Iluro or Eluro, a city of the conventns of Tarraco, with the dvitas Romano, (Mela, ii. 6; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Alkovpdy, Ptol. ii. 6. § 19, where the vulgar reading is AiXovpuv; prob. Mataro, Marca, Bap. ii. 15, p. 159; Florez, Esp. S. vol. xxix. p. 34); Blanda (BAdVSa, Ptol. I c: Blanes), on a height, NE. of the mouth of the little river Larnum (Tordera: Plin. iii. 3. s. 4) : between Baetulo and Iluro Ptolemy places the Lunarium Pr. (Aovfdpiow ISutpoy; probably the headland marked by the Torre de Mongol). (2.) On the high road from Tarraco to Narbo Martins in Gaul (Itin. Ant. p. 398): Fines, 20 M. P. W. of Barcino (near Martorell, on the right bank of the Llobregat), marking doubtless tlie borders of the Laeetani and the Cosetani; then Barcino; next Praktorium, 17 M. P. (near Bostalridi or Im lioca, where are great ruins ; Marca, Bisp. ii. 20) ; Seteruak or Srcbrrae, 1ffl M. P. (prob. S. Fere de Sercada or SanSeloni); Aquae Voconiab, 15 M. P. (Caltlas de Malavella). (3.) Other inland towns: RubkiCATA (Ptol.); Eoara, a municipium, whose site is unknown (Inscr. ap. Muratori, p. 1106, no. 7. p. 1107, no. 1); Ao.uae Calidak, a ciritas stipendiaria, in the conventus of Tarraco (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4, Aquicaldenscs: Caldas de Mombuy, N. of Barcelona, Marca, Bisp. ii. 16, p. 167; Florez, Esp. S. vol. xxix. p. 37; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. pp. 423, 424.) f P. S.1

LAEDERATA (AeSfpara or Antpari, Procop. de Aed. iv. 6), a town in the north of Moesia, on the Danube, and a few miles east of Viminaciuin. In the Notilia its name is Laedenata; it must huvo been near tbe modem Ruma. f L. S.]

LAF/LIA (AaiXla, Ptol. ii. 4. § 12: Aracnea or El Berrocal), an inland city of the Turdetani, in the W. of Hispania Baetica, not far from Italica, is one of the Spanish cities of which we have several coins, belonging to the period of its independence, as well as to the early Roman empire. Their types are, an armed horseman, at full speed, with ears of com, boughs, and palm-trees. (Florez, Etp. S. vol. xii. pp. 256—258; Med. vol. ii. p. 489, vol. iii. p. 92; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 19, Suppl. vol. i. p. 35 ; Sestiui, Med. pp. 20, 65 ; Num. Goth.; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 25; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 873.) [P. S ]

LAEPA (Lepe, near Ayamonte), a city of the Turdetani, on the coast of Baetica, a little E. of the mouth of the Anas (Guadalquivir: Mela, iii. 1; comp. Plin. iii. 1. s. 3, where, however, the reading is doubtful; Bell. Alex. 57, where Laepam should probably be substituted for the MS. readings of Leptim or Leptum; Florez, Ssp. S. vol. z. p. 45, vol. xii. pp. 56, 57; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 339. This place must not be confounded with Ptolemy's Laf.pa, which is only a various reading for Ilipa). [P. S.]

LAERONFL. [gallaecia.]

LAESTRY'GONES (AaiirrpiryoVft), a fabulous people of giants, who are mentioned by Homer in the Odyssey (x. 80—132), and described as governed by a king named Lamus. They were a pastoral people, but had a city (iarv) which Homer calls Aaurrptryoi'fn, with a port, and a fountain named Artacia. It may well be doubted whether Homer meant to assign any definite locality to this people, any more than to the Cyclopes; but later Greek writers did not fail to fix the place of their abode, though opinions were much divided on the subject. The general tradition, as we learn from Thucydides (vi. 2), placed them in Sicily, though that historian wisely declares his total ignorance of everything concerning them. Other writers were less cautious; some fixed their abodes in the W. or NW. part of the island, in the country subsequently occupied by the Elymi (Lycophr. Alex. 956); but the more prevalent opinion, at least in later times, seems to have been that they dwelt in the neighbourhood of Leontini, whence the name of Laestrycosti Campi was given to the fertile plain in the neighbourhood of that city. (Strab. i. p. 20; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Tzetz. ad Lycophr. 662,956; SU. Ital. xiv. 126.) A wholly different tradition, with the origin of which we are unacquainted, but which is very generally adopted by Roman writers, represented Formiae on the coast of Italy as the abode of the Laestrygones, and the city of their king Lamus. The noble family of the Lamiae, in the days of Augustus, even pretended to derive their descent from the mythical king of the Laestrygones. (Cic. ad Alt. ii. 13; Hot. Carm. iii. 17: Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; SiL Ital. vii. 410.) [E.H.B.]

LAEVI or LAI (Adm), a tribe of Cisalpine Gauls, who dwelt near the sources of the river Padus. This is the statement of Polybius (ii. 17), who associates them with the Libicii (AceVfffo*), and says that the two tribes occupied the part of the plains of Cisalpine Gaul nearest to ihe sources of the Padus, and next to them came the Insubres. He distinctly reckons them among the Gaulish tribes who had crossed the Alps and settled in the plains of Northern Italy: on the other hand, both Livy and Pliny call them Ligurians. (Liv. v. 35; Plin. iii. 17. s. 21.) The reading in the passage of Livy is, indeed, very uncertain; but he would appear to agree with Pliny in placing them in the neighbourhood of Ticinum.

Pliny even ascribes the foundation of that city to the Laevi, in conjunction with the Marici, a name otherwise wholly unknown, but apparently also a Ligurian tribe. There can be no doubt that in this part of Italy tribes of Gaulish and Ligurian origin were very much intermixed, and probably the latter were in many cases confounded with the Gauls. [liguria.]

LAGANIA (Aayavtd), a village of the Tectosagae in Galatia, 24 miles to the east of Juliopolis. It is not mentioned by any of the classical writers, but it must afterwards have increased in importance, for during the Christian period, it was the see of a bishop, and took the name of Anastasiopolis (Citncil. Chalc. p. 662, and p. 95, where the name is misspelt Aaaavia; Iii*. Ant. p. 142, where the name is Laganeos; It. Bieros. p. 574, where we read Ayannia'). There is little doubt that the Latania in Ptolemy (v. 1. § 14) and the Rheyanayalia of Hierocles (p. 697) are the same as Lagania (conip. Theod. Syc. c 2). Kiepert, in his map of Asia Minor, identifies it with Bey Basar. [L. S.]

LAGA'RIA (Aaryapla: Eth. Aayafurav6s, Lagarinus), a small town of Lucania, situated between Thurii and the river Sybaris; which, according to the commonly received legend, was founded by a colony of Phocians under the command of Epeius, the architect of the wooden horse. (Strab. vi. p. 263; Lycophr. Alex. 930; Tzetz. ad toe.) Strabo, the only geographical writer who mentions it, calls it only a fortress (ippoupiay), and it was probably never a place of any importance; though deriving some celebrity in after times from the excellence of its wine, which was esteemed one of the best in Italy. (Strab. I c.; Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8.) The statement of Strabo, above quoted, is the only clue to its position, which cannot therefore be determined with any certainty. Cluverius placed it at Nocara, about 10 miles from the sea, and this conjecture (for it is nothing more) has been adopted by Romanelli. The wines of this neighbourhood are said still to prese: ve their ancient reputation. (Cluver. Ital. p. 1272 • Romanelli, vol. i. p. 248.) [E. H. B.]

LAGECUM. [legeoliom.]

LAGINA (t4 Ad-yiyo), a place in the territory of Stratoniceia, in Caria, contained a most splendid temple of Hecate, at which every year great festivals were celebrated. (Strab. xiv. p. 660.) Tacitus (Ann. iii. 62), when speaking of the worship of Trivia among the Stratoniceiaus, evidently means Hecate. The name of Lagina is still preserved in the village of Lakena, not far from the sources of the Tshma. Laginia, mentioned by Steph. B. as a Ttoaix^of Kaplas, seems to be the same as the Lagina of Strabo. [L. S.]

LAGNI (Ao-yrf), a town of the Arevacae, in Hispania Tarraconensis, mentioned only by Diodorus Siculus (Excerpt, vol. ii. p. 596). [P. S.]

LAGOS, a town in Phrygia, on the north-east of Mandropolis. (Liv. xxxviii. 15.) The town is mentioned only by Livy in his account of tie progress of the Roman consul Cn. Manlius in Asia Minor, when Lagos was found deserted by its inhabitants, but well provided with stores of every description, whence we may infer that it was a town of some consequence. [L. S.]

LAGU'SA (Adyovffa, Aayovtro-a), an island in the Aegaean sea, the name of which occurs in Strabo between those of Sicinus and Pholegandrus. Hence it is probably the same as Kardiotissa, a rocky islet between the two latter islands. But Kiepert

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