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in his map, identifies it with Polyaegus. (Strab. x. p. +84: Steph. fl. ». v.; Eustath. ad II ii. 625, p 306.)

LAGU'SA (Aa-youo-a), one of a group of small i- Un.ls in the bay of Tel missus in Lycia, 5 stadia from Telmissus, and 80 from Cissidae. (Plin. v. 85 j Steph. B. s. r.; Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. § 226, foil.) This island is generally considered to be the same as the modern Panagia di Cordialissa. [L. S.]

LAGUSSAK, a group of small islands off the coast of Troy, to the north of Tenerlos (Plin. v. 38; coinp. Eustath. ad Horn. II ii. p. 306). Their modern name is Taockan Adassi. [L. S."|

LAISH, the more ancient name of Dan. [das.]

LALASIS (haHaols, Ptol. v. 8. § 6, where some MSS. hare AaAao-fs), a district in Cilicia, extending along Mount Taurus, above the district called Selentis. Pliny (v. 23) also mentions a town Lalasis in Isauria, and this town accordingly seems to have been the capital of the district Lalasis, which may hare extended to the north of Mount Taurus. It is probable, moreover, that the Isaurian town of Lalisanda, mentioned by Stephanas B., and which, he says, was in his day called Dalisanda, is the same as Lalasis; and if so, it is identical with the Dalisanda of Hierocles (p. 710). Basilins of Selcucia informs us that the town stood on a lofty height, but was well provided with water, and not destitute of other advantages. (Wesseling, ad Hierocl. L c). From all these circumstances, we might be inclined to consider the reading AaAatrfr in Ptolemy the correct one. were it not that the coins of the place all bear the inscription Aa^aeratuv. (Sestini, p. 96.) [L. S.]

LALENESIS {AaKrjvetrtt or AaoWepfc, Ptol. v. 7. § 6), a small town in the district of Melitene in Armenia Minor, on the east of Zoropassus. Its site is unknown, and no ancient writer besides Ptolemy mentions it [L. S.1

LALETA'NI. [laeetam.]

LAMA. [vet-tones.]

LAMASBA (/tin. Ant. pp. 35, ter, 40: Laviasbua, Tab. Pent.), a city of the Maasylii, in the interior of Numidia, near the confines of Mauretania, 62 M. P. from Sitifi, and 62 from Tamuqadi. La pie and D'Avezac identify it with Ain-Hazel, at the N. foot of the mountains of the Wdled-Abd-enA'our; but its site seems to agree better with the considerable ruins at JBaitna, on the S. of those mountains, and W. of the M. Aurasius (JebeU Anress: Shaw, Travels, <fc. p. 52; Pellissier, Exploration Sdentijique de lAUjerie, vol. vi. p. 389). [P. S.]

LAMBER or LAMBRUS, a river of Northern Italy, in Gallia Transpadana, noticed by Pliny among the affluents of the Pad us which join that river on its left or northern bank. (Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) It is still called the Lambro, and rises in a small lake called the Logo di Pusiano (the Eupilis Lacus of Pliny), from whence it flows within 3 miles of Si Hon, and enters the Po about midway between the Ticino and the Adda. Sidonius Apollinaris cont rants its stagnant and weedy stream (ulvosutn Lambrum) with the blue waters of the Addna. (Ep. i. 5.) The Tabula as well as the Geographer of Ravenna give a town of the name of Lambrum, of which no trace is found elsewhere. Tt is probably a corruption of a station, Ad Lambrum, at the passage of the river of that name, though the Tabula erroneously transfers it to the S. side of the Padus. {Tab. Pent.; Geogr. Rav. iv. 30.) [E. H. B.j

1 LAMBE'SE (//in. Ant. pp. 32,33,34,40: Tub Peut.; hiiiSauxa, Ptol. iv. 3. § 29; Lambaesa, Inscr.; Lambaese, Augnstin. adv. Donat. vi. 13; Lambesitana Colonia, Cyprian. Epist. 55: Lemba or Tezzout, large Ru.), one of the most important cities in the interior of Numidia, belonging to the Massylii. It lay near the confines of Mauretania, at the W. foot of M. Aurasius (Jebel A west), 102 M. P. from Sitifi, 118 from Thevkstk, and 84 from Cirta. It was the station of an entire legion, the Legio III. Augusta (AeyfiW Tptrn 0-e6Wn7, Ptol. L c.; and Inscr.). Its importance is attested by its magnificent ruins, among which are seen the remains of an amphitheatre, a temple of Aesculapius, a triumphal arch, and other buildings, enclosed by a wall, in the circuit of which 40 gates have been traced, 15 of them still in a good state of preservation. The silence of Procopius respecting such a city Beams to imply that it had been destroyed before the age of Justinian. (Shaw, Travels, p. 57; Bruce; Peysonnel; PeWwsier, ExiytoratimScientijujue de TAlgerie, vol. vi. pp. 388,389.) [P. S.]

LAMBRI'ACA or LAMBRI'CA, a town of the Callaici Lucenses in Gallaecia, near the confluence of the rivers Laeron and Ulla, not far from ElPadron. (Mela, iii. 1. §8; Ukert, vol ii. pt. 1. p. 439.) [P. S.]

LAMETI'NI (Ao^irriTOi), a city of Bruttium, mentioned only by Stephanus of Byzarttium (». ».), on the authority of Hecataeus, who added that there was a river also of the name of Lametus (Adurrros). We find this again alluded to by Lycophron. {Alex. 1085.) There can be no doubt that this is the stream still called Lamato, which flows into the gulf of Sta. Eufemia; and this is confirmed by the authority of Aristotle, who gives to that gulf, otherwise known as the Sinus Terinaeus or HipPoniates, the name of the Lameiine Gulp (4 Ao^rrro-os Ka\itos, Arist, Pol. vii. 10). Hence there can be little doubt that the city of Lametini also was situated on the shores of the same bay, though Stephanus vaguely calls it " near Crotona." (Steph. B. I. c.) No other writer mentions the.name (which is evidently an ethnic form like Leontinj), and it is probable that the town was destroyed or sunk into a dependent condition at an early period. An inscription, which records it as an existing municipal town in the time of Trajan, is almost certainly spurious. (Mommsen, Inscr. Regit. Neap. App. No. 936.) It is generally supposed to have been situated either at or near the modern village of Sta.Eufemia, but this is mere conjecture. [E.H.B ]

LA'MIA (Aa/zfa: Eth. Aafxitvs : Zituni), a town of the Malicnses, though afterwards separated from them, situated hi the district Phthiotis in Thessaly. Strabo describes Lamia as situated above the plain which lies at the foot of the Matiac gulf, at I ho distance of 30 stadia from the Spercheius, and 50 stadia from the sea (ix. pp. 433, 435). Livy says that it was placed on a height distant seven miles from Heracleia, of which it commanded the prospect (xxxvi. 25), and on the route which led from Thermopylae through the passes of Phthiotis to Thaumaci (xxxii. 4). Strabo further relates that it was subject to earthquakes (i. p. 60). Lamia is celebrated in history on account of the war which the Athenians and the confederate Greeks carried on against Antipater in B.C. 323. Antipater was at first unsuccessful, and took refuge in Lamia, where he was besieged for some time by the allies. From this circumstance this contest is usually called tlie Lainian war. Having afterwards receive! succours from Craterus, Antipater retreated northwards, »nd defeated the allies at the battle of Cranium in the following year. (Diod. xviii. 9, seq.; Polyb. ix. 'J9.) In B. v. 208 Philip, son of Demetrius, defeated the Aetolians near Lamia. (Liv. xxvii. 30.) In 192 Lamia opened its gates to Antinchus (Liv. xxxv. 43), and was in consequence besieged in the following year by Philip, who was then acting in conjunction with the Komans. (Liv. xxxvi. 25.) On I his occasion Livy mentions the difficulty which the Macedonians experienced in mining the rock, which was siliceous (" in asperis locis silex saepe impenetrabilis ferrooccurrebat"). In 190 the town was taken by the Romans. (Liv. xxxvii. 4, 5.) Lamia is mentioned by Pliny (iv. 7. s. 14), and was also in existence in the sixth century. (Hierocl. p. 642, ed. Wesseling.) The site of Lamia is fixed at Zituni, both by the description of the ancient writers of the position of Lamia, and by an inscription which Paul Lucas copied at this place. Zituni is situated on a hill, and is by nature a strongly fortified position.

The only remains of the ancient city which Leake discovered were some pieces of the walls of the Acropolis, foiming a part of those of the modern castle, and some small remains of the town walls at [lie loot of the hill, beyond the extreme modern houses to the eastward. On the opposite side of the town Leake noticed a small river, which, we learn from Strabo (ix. p. 434, 450), was called Achelous.

The port of Malia was named Phalaba (to *o\aoa, Strab. ix. p. 435; Polyb. xx. 11; Liv. xxvii. 30. xxxv. 43 i Plin. iv. 7. a. 12), now Stylidha. Zituni has been compared to Athens, with ita old castle, or acropolis, above, and ita Peiraeeus at Styliiltta, on the shore below. There is a fine view from the castle, commanding the whole country adjacent to the head of the Maliac gulf. (Lucas, Voyage dam la Grece, vol. i. p. 405; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 2 j Stephani, Reite, <fc p. 39.)



LAMIACUS SINUS (4 Aapiwcot KoKnos), a name given by Pausaniaa to the Maliac gulf, from the important town of Lamia. (Paus. i. 4. § 3, vii. 15. § 2, x. I. § 2.) In the same way the gulf is now called Zituni, which is the modern name of Lamia.

LAMl'NIUM (Aapfnw: Eth. Laminitani: near Fuenllana, between Montiel and Alcaraz), a town of the Carpetani (according to Ptolemy, though home suppose it to have belonged rather to the Oretani), in Hispania Tarraconensis. It was a stipendiary town of the conventus of New Carthage, and stood on the lugk road from Kmerita to Caesaraugusta. The river Anas (Gnadiaiut) rose in the lands of Laininium, 7 M. P. E. of the town. (Plin. iii. I. s. 2,3. s. 4; /(». Ant. pp. 445. 446; Ptol. ii. 6. § 57; Inscr. op. Florez, Esp. S. vol. iv. p. 38, vol. v. pp. 22, 12J, vol. vii. p. 140. Ukcr1. vol. ii. pi. 1. p. 411: in Plin. xxxvi. 21. s. 47, where Pliny *pcaks of the whetstoneb found in Hither Spain as Ciitet Flammitanae, Ukert supposes we ouuht to read Cotct LaminUanac.) [P. S.]

LAMOTIS (AuotWTir). a district on the eastern coast of Cilicia Aspera, between the rivers Calycadnns and Lamus. Ita capital bore tbe name of Lamus, from which that of the district was derived. (Ptol. v. 8. § 6; comp. Lamus.) [L. S.]

LAMPAS (Aaiiird*), a harbour on the K. coast of the Tauric Chersonese, 800 stadia from Thoodosia, and 220 stadia from Criu-Metopon. (Arrian, PeripL p. 20; Anon. Peripl. p. 6.) Arrian uses the two names Lampas and Hahnitis as if they belonged to the same place, but the Anonymous Coast-describer speaks of Lampas alone. Hahnitis probably took its name from being a place for salting fish. The name is preserved in the places now called BiuukI-ambat and Koutchouk-Lambat, Tartar villages at the end of a bay defended by the promontory of Plaka, near which ancient ruins have been found. (Dubois de Monrpereux, Voyage autour du Caucate, vol. v. p. 713, vol. vi. p. 460; Rennell, Compar. Geog. vol. ii. p. 340.) [E. B. J.]

LAMPATAE or LAMPAGAE (Ao^iroVai or Aanicaytu, Ptol. vii. 1. § 42), a small tribe who lived among the offshoots of the I mans, in the NW. p irt of India, about the sources of the Choes (now KameK), which is itself a tributary of the Kabul river. [V.]

LAMPE (Aojuirfj), a town in Crete, also called Lappa. [lappa.] Besides this town Stephanua B. («. e.) mentions two other towns of this name, otherwise unknown, one in Arcadia and the other in ArgoUs.

LAMPEIA. [ebvmanthus.]

LAMPE'TIA. [clampbtia.]

LAMP0NE1A or LAMPO'NIUM (AauwAma, Aa/iTwyiup), an Aeolian town in the south-west of Troas, of which no particulars are known, except that it was annexed to Persia by the satrap Otanes in the reigu of Darius Hystaspis. It is mentioned only by the earliest writers. (Herod, v. 26; Strab. xiii. p. 610; Steph. B. i. r.) [L. S.]

LAMPRA [attica, p. 331, a.]

LA'MPSACUS (Aa>i(.o«os: Eth. Aaui^ojoj^s), sometimes also called Lampsacum (Cic. in 1'err. i. 24; Pomp. Mela, i. 19), was one of the most celebrated Greek settlements in Mysia on the HellespontIt was known to have existed under the name of Pitynsa or Pitvussa before it received colonists from the Ionian cities of Phocaea and Miletus. (Strab. xiii. p. 589; Steph. B. ». c; Plin. v. 40; Horn. 11 ii. 829; Plut. de Virt. Mul. 18.) It was situated, opposite to Callipolis, in the Thracian Chersonesus, and possessed an excellent harbour. Herodotus (vi. 37) relates that the elder Miltiades, who was Mm tied in the Thracian Chersonesus, made war upon the Lampsaceni. but that they took him by surprise, and made him their prisoner. Being threatened, however, by Croesus, who supported Miltiades, they set him free. During the Ionian revolt, the town fell into the hands of the Persians. (Herod, v. 117.) The territory about Lainpsacus produced excellent wine, whence the king of Persia bestowed it upon Theinistocles, that he might thence provide himself with wine. (Thucyd. i. 138; Athen. i. p. 29; Diod. xi. 57; Plut. Them. 29; Nepos, Them. 10; Ainm. Marc. xxii. 8.) But even while Lainpsacus acknowledged the supremacy of Persia, it continued to be governed by a native prince or tyrant, of the name of Hipjxjclea. His son Aeantides married Archetlice, a daughter of Pisislratus, whose tomb, commemorating her virtues, was seen there in the time of Thucvdides (vi. 59). Tilt attempt of Kiiagnn to seize the citailel, and thereby to make himself tyrant, seems to belong to the same period. (Allien. ii. p. 508.) After the battle of Mycale, in n. c. 479, Lampsacus joined Athens, but revolted after the failure of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily; being, however, unfortified, it was easily reconquered by a leet under Stroinbicbides. (Thuc, viii. 62.) After the time of Alexander the Great, the Lanipsaceni had to defend their city against the attacks of Antiochus of Syria; they voted a crown of gold to the Romans, and were received by them as allies. (Liv. xxxiii. 38, xxxv. 42, xliii. 6; Polyb. XiL 10.) In the time of Strabo, Lampsacus was still a flourishing city. It was the birthplace of niany distinguished authors and philosophers, such as Charon the historian, Anaximenes the orator, and Mctrodoras the disciple of Epicurus, who himself re&itled there for many years, and reckoned some of its citizens among his intimate friends. (Strab. I. c.; I>iog. Laert. x. 11.) Lainpsacus possessed a fine statue by Lysippus, representing a prostrate lion, but it was removed by Agrippa to Rome to adorn the Campus Marti us. (Strab. 1. c.) Lampsacus, as is well known, was the chief seat of the obscene worship of PriapuB, who was believed to have been bom there of Aphrodite. (Athen. i. p. 30; Paus. ii. 31. § 2; Apollon. Rhod. i. 983; Ov. Fast. vi. 345; Virg. Georg. iv. 110.) From this circumstance the whole district was believed to have derived the name of Abarnis or Aparnis (farapvflaOai), because Aphrodite denied that she had given birth to him. (Theophr. Hitt. Plant, i. 6,13.) The ancient name of the district had been Bebrycia, probably from the Thracian Bebryces, who had settled there. (Camp, lb - at. Fragm. 207; Charon, Fragm. 115,119; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 8. § 1; Polyb. v. 77; I'iin. iv. 18, v. 40; Ptol. v. 2. § 2; Steph. B. ». r.) The name of Lamiaki is still attached to a small town, near which Lampsacus probably stood, as Lamtati itself contains no remains of antiquity. There are gold and silver staters of Lampsacus in different collections; the imperial coins have been traced from Augustus to Gallienus. (Sestiui, .Von. VcL p. 73.) [L. S.]

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LAMPSUS, a town of Histiaeotis in Theasaly, on the borders of Athamania. (Liv. xxxii. 14.)

LAMPTRA. [attica, p. 331, a."|

1.AMI'S (Aifun). a village of Cilicia, at the mouth of the river Lamus, from which the whole district derived the name of Lamotis. The river is mentioned by Stepbauus B. (from Alexander Polyhistor), and both the river and the village by Strabo (xiv. p. 671) and Ptolemy (v. 8. §§ 4, 6). The river, which is otherwise of no importance, formed the boundary between Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Propria, and still bears the name of Lamas or Lamtao. About the village of Lamus no particulars are known. (Comp. Nonnus, ttionya. xxiv. 50; Hitrocl. p. 709.) [I S.]

LAMYRON (AnMopwp), a great harbour near Cape lleraclium, on the coast of Pontus, not far from Themiscyra. (Anonym. PeripL Pont. Kitx. p. 10.) [L.S.]

LANCE (am, Ant. p. 395), or LA'NCIA (Aa>xia, Dion Cass. liii. 25,29; Flor. iv. 12; Oros. vi. 21), or LANCIATUM (AoyKlarov, Ptol. ii. 6. § 29), the chief city of the Lanckati (AayiclaTot, Ptol. I. c.) or Lancibxsks (Plin. hi. 3. s. 4), a tribe of the Astures, in Hispania Tarraconensis. It was strongly fortified, and was the most important city of that region, even more so than Lkuio VII. GkMina, at least before the settlement of the latter by the Romans, by whom Lancia was destroyed, though it was again restored. It lay on the high road frum Caesaraugusta to Legio VII. (Leon), only 9 M. P. from the latter, where its name is still to be traced in that of Sollanco or Sollancia. (Florez, Exp. S. vol. svi. p. 16; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 441.) [P. S.]


LA'NCIA OPPIDA'NA. [vettonks.]

LANCIENSES. [lanck.]


LANGOBARDI, LONGOBARDI (Aayyo€^oi, Aoyya€dpHot, also AayyoSdp&cu and Aoyyo€dp$ai), a tribe of Germans whom we first meet with in the plain, south of the lower Kibe, and who belonged to the Suevi (Strab. vii. p. 290, where Kramer reads Aayit6€apBot; Ptol. ii. 11. §§ 9, 17). According to Patilus Diaconus, himself a Langobard, or Lombard (Hist. Longob. i. 3,8; comp. Isidor. Grig. ix. 2; Etym. M. a. v. ytv(toi-). the tribe derived its name from the long beards, by which they distinguished themselves from the other Germans, who generally shaved their beards. But it seems to be more probable that they derived the name from the country they inhabited on the banks of the Elbe, where Horde (or Bord) still signifies "a fertile plain by the side of a river;" and a district near Magdeburg is still called the lange Horde (Wilhelm, Uermanien, p. 286). According to this, Langob:trdi would signify "inhabitants of the long bord of the river.1* The district in which we first meet with them, is the left bank of the Elbe, from the point where the Sala empties itself into it, to the frontiers of the Chauci Minores, so that they were bounded in the north by the Elbe, in the east by the Semnones, in the south by the Cherusci, and in the west by the Fosi and Angrivarii. Traces of the name of the Langobardi still occur in that country in such names as Bardengau, Bardewik. The earliest writer who mentions the Langobardi as inhabiting those {larts, is Velleius Patercuius (ii. 106). But notwithstanding the unanimous testimony of the ancients that they were a branch of the Suevi, their own historian (Paul. Diac. I c; comp. Euseb. Ckron. ad an. 38o) states that the Langobardi originally did not inhabit any part of Germany, but had migrated south from Scandinavia, where they liad borne the name of Vinili, and that they assumed the name I^ingobardi after their arrival in Germany. It is impossible to say what value is to be attributed to this statement, which has found as many advocates as it has had opponents. From Strabo (/. c.) it is clear that tfiey occupied the northern bank of the Elbe, and it is possible that they were among those Germans whom. Tiberius, in the reign of Augustus drove across the Elbe (Suet. Aug. 21). In their new country they were soon reduced to submission by Waroboduus, but afterwards they shook off the yoke, and, in conjunction with the Semnones, joined the confederacy of the Cheruscans against the Marcoinanni. (Tac. Ann. ii. 45.) When, in consequence of the murder of Arminius, the power of the Cheruscans was decaying more and more, the Langobardi not only supported and restored Italns, the king of the Cheruscans who had been expelled, but seem to have extended their own territory in the south, so as to occupy the country between Halle, Magdeburg, and Leipzig. (Tacdnn. xi. 17.) They were not a numerous tribe, but their want of numbers was made np for by their natural bravery (Tac. Germ. 40), and Velleius describes them as a 14 gens etiam Germana feritate ferocior.** Shortly after these events the Langobardi disappear from history, until they are mentioned again by Ptolemy (/. c.), who places them in the extensive territory between the Rhine and Weser, and even beyond the latter river almost as far as the Elbe. 'I'liey thus occupied the country which had formerly been inhabited by the tribes forming the Cheruscan confederacy. This great extension of their territory shows that their power must have been increasing ever since their liberation from the yoke of Maroboduus. After this time we again hear nothing of the r*ongohardi for a considerable period. They are indeed mentioned, in an excerpt from the history of Petrus l'atricius (Kxc. de Legal, p. 124), as allies of the Obii on the frontiers of Pannonia; but otherwise history is silent about thcin, until, in the second half of the 5th century, they appear on the north of the Danube in Upper Hungary as tributary to the Heruli (Procop. de Bell. Goth. ii. 15, who describes them as Christians). Whether theae Langobardi, however, were the same people whom we last met with between the Rhine and the Elbe, or whether they were only a band of emigrants who had in the course of time become so numerous as to form a distinct tribe, is a question which cannot be answered with certainty, although the latter seems to be the more probable supposition. Their natural love of freedom could not bear to submit to the rule of the Heruli, and after having defeated the king of the Utter in a great battle, they subdued the neighbouring Quadi, likewise a Suevian tribe, and henceforth they were for a long time the terror of their neighbours Mild the Roman province of Pannonia. (Paul. Diac. i. 22.) For, being the most powerful nation in those parts, they extended their dominion down the Danube, and occupied the extensive plains in the north of 'Dacia on the river Theiss, where they first came in conflict with the Gepidae, and entered Pannonia. (Paul. Diac. i. 20.) The emperor Justinian, wanting their support against the Gepidae, gave them lands and supplied them with money (Procop. Bell. Goth. iii. 33), and under their king Audoin they gained a great victory over the Gepidae. (Paul. Diac. i. 25; Procop. Bell Goth. iii. 34, iv. 18, 25.) Alboin, Aitdoin's successor, after having, in conjunction wiflr the Avari, completely overthrown the empire of the liepidac, led the I,angobardi, in A. D. 568, into Italy, where they permanently established themselves, and founded the kingdom from which down to this day the north-east of Ii aly bears the name of Lotnbardg ( Ere. de Legal, pp. 303, 304; Marius Episc. Chron. Bone. ii. 412.) The occasion of their invading Italy is related as follows. When Alboin had concluded his alliance with the Avari, and had ceded to them his own dominions. Narses, to take revenge upon Justin, invited them to quit their poor country and take possession of the fertile plains of Italy. Alboin

accordingly crossed the Alps, and as the north ot Italy was badly defended, he succeeded in a short time in establishing his kingdom, which continued to flourish until it was overpowered and destroyed by Charlemagne. (Paul. Diac. ii. 5; Eginhard, Vit. Carol if. 6.) The history of this singular people whose name still survives, has been written in Latin by Paulus Diaconns (Warnefried), in the reign of Charlemagne, and by another Lombard of the 9th century, whose name is unknown. (Comp. Wilhehn, Germanien, p. 281, foil.; Zeuss, die DetUtchen mid die Nachbarstiimme, p. 109, foil.; F. DufTt, Quarttiones de Antiquutima Longobardorum Historic Berlin, 1830, 8vo.; Koch-Sternfeld, doe Reich der Ijmgobardm in Italien, Munich, 1839; Latham, Tac. Germ. p. 139, and EpUeg. p. lxxxiv.) [L.S.J

LANGOBRI'GA. [lusitamia.j

LANU'VIUM (Aavoww, Strab.; AonMur, PtoL: Eth. Aamvtos, Lanuvinus: Civita Lavinia), an ancient and important city of Latium, situated on a lofty hill forming a projecting spur or promontory of the Alban Hills towards the S. It was distant about 20 miles from Rome, on the right of the AppiaH Way, rather more than a mile from the road. The name is often written in inscriptions, even of a good time, Lanivium; hence the confusion which has arisen in all cur MSS. of ancient authors between it and Lavinium: the two names are so frequently interchanged as to leave constant doubt which of the two is really meant, and in the middle ages they appear to have been actually regarded as the same place; whence the name of " Civitas Lavinia" by which Lanuvium is still known, and which con be traced as far back as the fourteenth century. The foundation of Lanuvium was ascribed by a tradition recorded by Appian (B. C. ii. 20) to Diomed; a legend probably arising from some fancied connection with the worship of Juno at Argos. A tradition that has a more historical aspect, though perhaps little more historical worth, represented it as one of the colonies of Alba. (Diod. vii. ap. Euteb. Arm. p. 185.) The statement of Cato («/>. Priscian. iv. 4. § 21) that it was one of the cities which co-operated in the consecration of the celebrated temple of Diana at Aricia, is the first fact concerning it that can be looked upon as historical, and shows that Lanuvium was already a city of consideration and power. Its name appears also in the list given by Dionysius of the cities that formed the league against Rome in B. C. 496, and there is no doubt that it was in fact one of the thirty cities of the Latin League. (Dionys. v. 61 ; Nicbuhr, vol. ii. p. 17.) But from this time we hear little of it, except that it was the faithful ally of Rome during her long wars with the Volscians and Aequians (Liv. vL 21): the position of Lanuvium would indeed cause it to be one of the cities most immediately interested in opposing the progress of the Volscians, and render it as it were the natural rival of Antium. We have no explanation of the causes which, in B. c. 383, led the Lanuvians suddenly to change their policy, and take np arms, together with some other Latin cities, in favour of the Volscians (Liv. vi. 21). They must have shared in the defeat of their allies near Satricum; but apparently were admitted to submission on favourable terms, and we hear no more of them till the great Latin War in B. c. 340, in which they took an active and important part. At first, indeed, they seem to have hesitated and delayed to take the field; but in the two last campaigns their forces are particularly mentioned, both among those that fought at Pedum in B. c. 339, and the next year at Astura (Liv. viii. 12, 13).* In the general (settlement of affairs at the close of the war Lanuvium obtained the Roman civitas, bnt apparently in the first instance without the right of suffrage; for Festus, in a well-known passage, enumerates the Lanuvini among the communities who at one time enjoyed all the other privileges of Roman citizens except the suffrage - and the Jus Magistrataum (Liv. viii. 14 ; Featus, r. Municipium}, a statement which can only refer to this period. We know from Cicero that they subsequently obtained the full franchise and right of suffrage, but the time when they were admitted to these privileges is unknown. (Cic. pro Balb. 13.)

From this time Lanuvium lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town, and is mentioned chiefly in relation to its celebrated temple of Jnno Sospita. It did not, however, fall into decay, like so many of the early Latin cities, and is mentioned by Cicero among the more populous and flourishing municipia of Latium, in the same class with Aricia and Tnsculum, which he contrasts with such poor and decayed places as Labicnm and Collatia (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 35). Its chief magistrate retained the ancient Latin title of Dictator, which was borne by T. Annius Hilo, the celebrated adversary of Clodius, in the days of Cicero. (Cic. pro Mil 10; Orell. Inscr. 3786.) Previous to this period Lanuvium had suffered severely in the civil wars of Mar ins and Sulla, having been taken by the former at the same time with Antrum and Aricia, just before the capture of Rome itself, ». c 87. (Appian, B. C. i. 69; Liv. Epit. 80.) Nor did it escape in the later civil wars: the treasures of its temple were seized by Octavinn, and a part at least of its territory was divided among a colony of veterans by the dictator Caesar. (Appian, B. C. v. 24; Lib. Colon, p. 235.) It subsequently received another colony, and a part of its territory was at one time allotted to the vestal virgins at Rome, (7o«£) Lanuvium, however, never bore the title of a colony, but continued only to rank as a municipium, though it seems to have been a flourishing place throughout the period of the Roman Empire. It was the birthplace of the emperor Antoninus Pius, who in consequence frequently made it his residence, as did also his Micoessors, M. Aurelius and Commodns: the last of these three is mentioned as having frequently displayed his skill as a gladiator in the amphitheatre at Linuvium, the construction of which may probably be referred to this epoch. Inscriptions attest its continued prosperity under the reigns of Alexander Severus and Philippus. (Suet. Aug. 72; Tac. Ann. iii. 48: Capit. Ant. Piut, 1; Lamprid. Commod. 1, 8; Vict, de Caes. 15; Orell. Inter. 884, 3740, &C.)

Lanuvium was the place from which several illustrious Roman families derived their origin. Among these were the Annia, to which Milo, the adversary

* In the Fasti Capitolini (ad ann. cdxv.; Grater, p. 297) the consul C. Maenius is represented as celebrating a triumph over the Lavinians, together with the Amiates and Veliterni, where it appears certain from Livy's narrative that the Lanuviana are the people really meant: a remarkable instance at how early a period the confusion between the two names bad arisen.

of Clodius, belonged by adoption, as well as the Papia, from which he was originally descended; the Roscia, and the Thoria (Cic pro Mil. 10; Ascon od Milon. pp. 32, 53; Cic. de Divm. i. 36, ii. 31, de Fin. ii. 20), to which may probably be added, on the authority of coins, the Procilia and Mettia (Eckhel, vol. v. pp. 253, 267, 289, 293.) We learn from Cicero that not only did the Roscia Gens derive its origin from Lanuvium, but the celebrated actor Roscius was himself born in the territory of that city. (Cic de Div. i. 36.)

But the chief celebrity of Lanuvium was derived from its temple of Juno Sospita, which enjoyed a peculiar sanctity, so that after the Latin War in D. c. 338 it was stipulated that the Romans should enjoy free participation with the LanuvUns themselves in her worship and sacred rites (Liv. viii. 14): and although at a later period a temple was erected at Rome itself to the goddess under tbe same denomination, the consuls still continued to repair annually to Lanuvium for the purpose of offering solemn sacrifices. (Liv. xxxii. 30, xxxiv. 53; Cic. pro Mnren. 41.) The peculiar garb and attributes of the Lanuvian Juno are described by Cicero {de Not. Dear. i. 29), and attested by the evidence of numerous Roman coins: she was always represented with a goat's skin, drawn over her head like a helmet, with a spear in her band, and a small shield on the left arm, and wore peculiar shoes with the points turned up (calceoli repandi). On coins we find her also constantly associated with a serpent; and we learn from Propertius and Aelian that there was a kind of oracle in the sacred grove attached to her temple, where a serpent was fed with fruits and cakes by virgins, whose chastity was considered to be thus put to the test. (Propert. iv. 8 ; Aelian, H. A. xi. 16, where the true reading is undoubtedly Aavouttp, and not fiaovtvltp; Eckhel, vol. v. p. 294.)

The frequent notices in Livy and elsewhere of prodigies occurring in the temple and sacred grove of Juno at Lanuvium, as well as the allusions to her worship at that place scattered through the Roman poets, sufficiently show how important a part the latter had assumed in the Roman religion. (Liv. xxiv. 10, xxix. 14, xxxi. 12, xl. 19; Cic. de Divm. i. 44, ii. 27; Ovid. Fast vi. 60; Sil. Ital. xiii. 364.) We learn from Appian that a large treasure had gradually accumulated in her temple, as was the case with most celebrated sanctuaries; and Pliny mentions that it was adorned with very ancient, but excellent, paintings of Helen and Atalanta, which the emperor Caligula in vain attempted to remove. (I'lin. xxxv. 3. s. 6.) It appears from a passage in Cicero {de Fin. ii. 20) that Juno was far from being the only deity especially worshipped at Lanuvium, but that the city was noted as abounding in ancient temples and religious rites, and was probably one of the chief seats of the old Latin religion. A temple of Jupiter adjoining the forum is the only one of which we find any special mention. (Liv. xxxii. 9.)

Though there is no doubt that Civita Lavinia occupies the original site of Lanuvium, the position of which is well described by Strabo and Silius Italicus (Strab. v. p. 239; Sil. Ital. viii. 360), and we know from inscriptions that the ancient city continued in a flourishing condition down to a late period of the Roman empire, it is curious that scarcely any ruins now remain. A few shapeless masses of masonry, principally substructions and foundations, of which those that crown the summit

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