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of the hill may possibly have belonged to the temple of Juno Sospita; and a small portion of a theatre, brought to light by excavations in 1832, are all that are now visible. The inscriptions discovered on the spot belong principally to the time of the Antonines, and excavations in the last century brought to light many statues of the same period. (Nibby, Dinlorni di Soma, vol. u. pp. 173—187; Abeken, MiUel Italien, p. 215.)

Lanuvium, as already observed, was situated at a short distance from the Appian Way, on the right of that road: the station " Sub Lanuvio," marked in the Tabula Peutingeriana between Aricia and Ties Tabernae, was evidently situated on the high road, probably at the eighteenth milestone from Rome, from which point a branch road led directly to the ancient city. (Westphal, Rom. Kamp. p. 28; Nibby,

The remains of two other ancient roads may be traced, leading from the W. and S. of the city in the direction of Antium and Aston. The existence of this line of communication in ancient times is incidentally referred to by Cicero (ad Alt. xii. 41, 43, 46). The tract of country extending S. of Lanuvium in the direction of Antium and the Pontine marshes, was even in the time of Strabo very unhealthy (Strab. v. p. 231), and is now almost wholly depopulated. [E. H. B.]

LAODICEIA COMBUSTA (AooSiKfia Karaxe. Kav/Uvn or xeicai/fifnj), one of the five cities built by Seleucus I., and named after his mother Seleuca. Its surname (Lat. Combusta) is derived by Strabo (xii. pp. 576,579, xiii. pp. 626,628,637) from the volcanic nature of the surrounding country, but Hamilton (Reiearches, iL p. 194) asserts that there is "not a particle of volcanic or igneous rock in the neighbourhood;" and it may be added that if such were the case, the town would rather have been called A. Tjjs KaraKeKav^Uinis. The most probable solution undoubtedly is, that the town was at one time destroyed by fire, and that on being rebuilt it received the distinguishing surname. It was situated on the north-west of Iconinm, on the high road leading from the west coast to Melitene on the Euphrates. Some describe it as situated in Lycaonia (Steph. B. t. v.; Strab. xiv. p. 663), and others as a town of Pisidia (Socrat. Hist. EccL vi. 18 j HierocL p. 672), and Ptolemy (v. 4. § 10) places it in Galatia; but this discrepancy is easily explained by recollecting that the territories just mentioned were often extended or reduced in extent, so that at one time the town belonged to Lycaonia, while at another it formed part of Pisidia. Its foundation is not mentioned by any ancient writer.

Both Leake (Asia Minor, p. 44) and Hamilton identify Laodiceia with the modem Ladik; and the former of these geographers states that at Ladik he saw more numerous fragments of ancient architecture and sculpture than at any other place on his route through that country. Inscribed marbles, altars, columns, capitals, friezes, cornices, were dispersed throughout the streets, and among the houses and burying grounds. From this it wonld appear that Laodiceia must once have been a very considerable town. There are a few imperial coins of Laodiceia, belonging to the reigns of Titus and Domitian. (Scstini, Men. Ant p. 95; conip. Droysen, Geich. da HeUen. i. p. 663, foil.) * [L. S.]

LAODICEIA AD LYCUM (AooSiW npbs rj .\mtp: Eski Histar), a city in the south-west of

Phrygia*, about a mile from the rapid river Lycus, is situated on the long spur of a hill between the narrow valleys of the small rivers Asopus and Caprus, which discharge their waters into the Lycus. The town was originally called Diospolis, and afterwards Khoas (Plin. v. 29), and Laodiceia, the building of which is ascribed to Antiochus Theos, in honour of his wife Laodice, was probably founded on the site of the older town. It was not far west from Colossae, and only six miles to the west of Hierapolis. (It. Ant p. 337; Tab. Peut; Strab. xiii. p. 629.) At first Laodiceia was not a place of much importance, but it soon acquired a high degree of prosperity. It suffered greatly during the Mithridatic War (Appian, BelL JUilhr. 20 j Strab. xii. p. 578), but quickly recovered under the dominion of Borne; and towards the end of the Republic and under the first emperors, Laodiceia became one of the most important and flourishing commercial cities of Asia Minor, in which large money transactions and an extensive trade in wood were carried on. (Cic. ad Fam. ii. 17, iii. 5; Strab. xii. p. 577; comp. Vitruv. viii. 3.) The place often Buffered from earthquakes, especially from the great shock in the reign of Tiberius, in which it was completely destroyed. But the inhabitants restored it from their own means. (Tac. Ann. xiv. 27.) The wealth of its inhabitants created among them a taste for the arts of the Greeks, as is manifest from its ruins; and that it did not remain behind-hand in science and literature is attested by the names of. the sceptics Antiochus and Theiodas, the successors of Aenesidemus (Diog.Laert.ix. 11. § 106, 12. § 116), and by the existence of a great medical school. (Strab. xii. p. 580.) During the Roman period Laodiceia was the chief city of a Roman conventus. (Cic ad Fam. iii. 7, ix. 25, xiii. 54, 67, xv. 4, ad Att v. 15, 16, 20, 21, vi. 1,2, 3, 7, m Verr. i. 30.) Many of its inhabitants were Jews, and it was probably owing to this circumstance, that at a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity, and the see of a bishop. (St. Paul, Ep. ad Colon, ii. 1, iv. 15, foil.; Apocal. iii. 14, foil.; Joseph. Ant. Jud. xiv. 10,20; HierocL p. 665.) The Byzantine writers often mention it, especially in the time of the Comneni; and it was fortified by the emperor Manuel. (Nicet, Chon. Ann. pp. 9,81.) During the invasion of the Turks and Mongols the city was much exposed to ravages, and fell into decay, but the existing remains still attest its former greatness. The ruins near DenUli are fully described in Pococke's, Chandler's, Cockerell's, Arundel's and Leake's works. "Nothing," says Hamilton (Raearcha, vol. i. p. 515), "can exceed the desolation and melancholy appearance of the site of Laodiceia; no picturesque features in the nature of the ground on which it Brands relieve the dull uniformity of its undulating and barren hills; and with few exceptions, its grey and widely scattered ruins possess no architectural merit to attract the attention of the traveller. Yet it is impossible to view them without interest, when we consider what Laodiceia once was, and how it is connected with the early history of Christianity.

Its stadium, gymnasium, and theatres (one

of which is in a state of great preservation, with its

* Ptolemy (v. 2. § 18) and Philostratus ( Vil. SopL i. 25) call it a town of Cans, while Stephanns B. (s. v.) describes it as belonging to Lydia; which arises from the uncertain frontiers of these countries. Brats still perfectly horizontal, though merely laid upon the gravel), are well deserving of notice. Other buildings, also, on the top of the hill, are full of interest; and on the east the line of the ancient wall may be distinctly traced, with the remains of a gateway; there is also a street within and without the town, flanked by the ruins of a colonnade and rumerous pedestals, leading to a confused heap of fallen ruins on the brow of the hill, about 200 yards outside the walls. North of the town, towards the I.vi us, are many sarcophagi, with their covers lying near them, partly imbedded in the ground, and all having been long since rifled. (Dionys. xiii. 447), owed its name to the legendary Lapathus, a follower of Dionysus. Strabo (I. c.) nays that it received a Spartan colony, headed by Praxander. He adds, that it was situated opposite to the town of Nagidus, in Cilicia, and possessed a harbour and docks. It was situated in the N. of the island, on a river of the same name, with a district called Lapktiua (Amrtjflio, Ptol. v. 14. § 5). In the war between Ptolemy and Antigonus, Lapathus, with its king Praxippus, sided with the latter. (Diod. xix. 59.) The name of this place was synonymous with stupidity. (Suid. s. v. Aoiroflioi,) Pococke (Trav. in the East, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 223) saw at LapWio several walls that were cut out of the rock, and one entire room, over the sea: there were also remains of some towers and walls. (Mariti, Viaggi, vol. i. p. 125 ; Eugel, Kypros, vol. i. pp. 37, 78,174, 224, 364, 507.) [E. B. J.]

"Amongst other interesting objects are the remains of an aqueduct, commencing near the summit of a low hill to the south, whence it is carried on arches of small square stones to the edge of the hill. The water must have been much charged with calcareous matter, as several of the arches are covered with a thick incrustation. From this hill the aqueduct crossed a valley before it reached the town, but, instead of being carried over it on lofty arches, as was the usual practice of the Romans, the water was conveyed down the hill in stone barrel-pipes; some of these also are much incrusted, and some completely choked up. It traversed the plain in pipes of the same kind ; and I was enabled to trace tliem the whole way, quite up to its former level in

the town. The aqueduct appears to have

l*cn overthrown by an earthquake, as the remaining arches lean bodily on one side, without being much broken

"The stadium, which is in a good state of preservation, is near the southern extremity of the city. The seats, almost perfect, are arranged along two sides of a narrow valley, which appears to have been taken advantage of for this purpose, and to have been closed up at both ends. Towards tho west are considerable remains of a subterranean passage, by which chariots and horses were admitted into the arena, with a long inscription over the entrance. .... The whole area of the ancient city is covered with ruined buildings, and 1 could distinguish the sites of several temples, with the bases of the

columns still in situ The ruins bear the stamp

of Roman extravagance and luxury, rather than of the stern and massive solidity of the Greeks. Strabo attributes the celebrity of the place to the fertility of the soil and the wealth of some of its inhabitants: amongst whom Hiero, having adorned the city with many be&utiful buildings, bequeathed to it more than 2000 talents at his death." (Comp. Fellows, Journal written in Asia Minor, p. 280, foil.; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 251, foil.) [L. S.]

LAODICEIA AD L1BANUM (Aoo!(<t«ia f, •wpbs \i€dvqi), mentioned by Strabo (xvi. p. 755) as the commencement of the Marsyas Campus, which extended along the west side of the Orontes, near its source. [marsyas Campus.] It is called Cabiosa Laodiceia by Ftolemy (KagiWa AaoSixtia, v. 15), I and gives its name to a district (Aaoftucqtt)), in which he places two other towns, I'aradisus (Ilapo- i Stujoi) and Jabruda ('liSi/ovSa). Pliny (v. 23), among other people of Syria, reckons " ad orientem I^uxlicenos. qui ad Libanum cognominantur." [G.AV.J

LAODICEIA AD MARE, a city of Syria, south ■f Hbraci.kia [Vol. I. p. 1050], described by Strabo (xvi. pp. 751. 752) as admirably built, with an ex- | cellent harbour, surrounded by a rich country spe-! cially fruitful in vines, the wine of which furnished its chief supply to Alexandria. The vineyards were

planted on the sides of gently-sloping hills, which were cultivated almost to their summits, and extended far to the east, nearly to Apameia. Strabo mentions that Dolabella, when he fled to this city before Cassius, distressed it greatly, and that , being besieged there until his death, he destroyed many parts of the city with him, A. D. 43. [Diet, of Biog. Vol. I. p. 1050.] It was built by Seleucus Nicator, and named after his mother. It was furnished with an aqueduct by Herod the Great (Joseph. B.J. i. 21. § 11), a large fragment of which is still to be seen. (Shaw, Travels, p. 262.)

The modern city is named Ladikiyih, and still exhibits faint traces of its former importance, notwithstanding the frequent earthquakes with which it has been visited. Irby and Mangles noticed that "the Marina is built upon foundations of ancient columns," and " there are in the town, an old gateway and other antiquities," as also sarcophagi and sepulchral caves in the neighbourhood. (Travel*, p. 223.) This gateway has been more fully described by Shaw (I. c ) and Pococke, as " a remarkable triumphal arch, at the SE. corner of the town, almost entire: it is built with four entrances, like the Forum Jani at Rome. It is conjectured that this arch was built in honour of Lucius Verus, or of Septiinins Severus." (Description of the East, vol. ii. p. 197.) Shaw noticed several fragments of Greek and Latin inscriptions,dispersed all over the ruins, but entirely defaced. Pococke states that it was a very inconsiderable place till within fifty years of his visit, when it opened a tobacco trade with Damietta, and it has now an enormous traffic in that article, for which it is far more celebrated than ever it was for its wine. The port is half an hour distant from the town, very small, but better sheltered than any on the coast. Shaw noticed, a furlong to the west of the town, "the ruins of a 'beautiful cothon, in figure like an amphitheatre, and capacious enough to receive the whole British navy. The mouth of it opens to the westward, and is about 40 feet wide." [G. W.]

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LAPATHUS. a fortress in the north of Thessaly, near Tenipe, which Leake identifies with the ancient castle near Rapsani. (Liv. xliv. 2, 6; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 397, 418.) LAPHY'STIUM. [boeotia, p. 412, b.] LAPIDEI CAMPI or LAPIDEUS CAMPUS (v&iov MdaSes, \i&tvov ireoW), in Gallia Narbonensis. Strabo (p. 182) says: "Between Massalia and the mouths of the Rhone there is a plain, about 100 stadia from the sea, and as much in diameter, being of a circular form; and it is called the Stouy, from its character; for it is full of stones, of the size of a man's fist, which have grass growing among them, which furnishes abundant food for animals: and in the middle there is standing water, and salt springs, and salt. Now all the country that lies above is windy, but on this plain especially the Melainborian (iai Bise) comes down in squalls, — a violent anil chilling wind: accordingly, they say that some of the stones are moved and rolled about, and that men are thrown down from vehicles, and stripped both of arms and clothing by the blast." This is the plain called La Crau, near the east side of the east branch of the delta of the Rhone, and near the E'twuj tie Berre. It is described by Arthur Young (Travels, cfc. vol. i. p. 379, 2nd ed.), who visited and saw part of the plain. He supposed that there might be about 136,780 English acres. "It is composed entirely of shingle—being so uniform a mass of round stones, some to the size of a man's head, but of all sizes less, that the newly thrown up shingle of a seashore is hardly less free from soil. Beneath these surface-stones is not so much a sand as a kind of cemented rubble, a small mixture of loam with fragments of stone. Vegetation is rare and miserable." The only use that the uncultivated part is turned to, he says, is to feed, in winter, an immense number of sheep, which in summer feed in the Alps towards Barcehnette and Piedmont. When he saw the place, in August, it was very bare. The number of sheep said to be fed there is evidently an exaggeration. Some large tracts of the Crau had been broken up when he was there, and planted with vines, olives, and mulberries, and converted into corn and meadow. Corn had not succeeded; but the meadows, covered richly with "clover, chicory, rib-grass, and avena elntior," presented an extraordinary contrast to the soil in its natural state. The name Crau is probably a Celtic word. In the Slatistique du DSpart. dei Douches du Rhone (torn. ii. p. 190, quoted in Ukert's GaViem, 425) it is supposed that Craou, as it is there written, is a Ligurian word; which may be true, or it may not. What is added is more valuable

information: "There is in Provence a number of places which have this name; and one may even say that there is not a village which has not in its territory a Craou."

Aristotle (Strabo, p. 182) supposed that earthquakes, of the kind named Brastae threw up these stones to the earth's surface, and that they rolled down together to the hollow places in these parts. Posidouius, who, having travelled in Gallia, had probably seen the Crau, supposed that the place was once a lake. Here the text in Strabo is obscure, and perhaps corrupt; but he seems to mean that the action of water rounded the stones, for he adds, after certain words not easy to explain, that (owing to this motion of the water?) "it was divided into many stones, like the pebbles in rivers and the shingle on the sea-shore." Strabo (whose text is here agaiu somewhat corrupted) considers both explanations so far true, that stones of this kind could not have been so made of themselves, but must have come from great rocks being repeatedly broken. Another hypothesis, not worth mentioning, is recorded in the notes of Eustathius (ad Dionys. Perieg. v. 76).

It is a proof of the early communication between the Phocaean colony of Massalia and other parts of Greece, that Aeschylus, whose geography is neither extensive nor exact, was acquainted with the existence of this stony plain; for in the Prometheus Unbound (quoted by Strabo) he makes Prometheus tell Hercules that when he comes into the country of the Ligyes, Zeus will send him a shower of round stones, to defeat the Ligurian army with. This stony plain was a good ground for mythological figments. (The following passages of ancient authors refer to this plain: Mela, ii. 5; Plin. iii. 4, xxi. 10; Gellius, ii. 22, and Seneca, Nat. Quaest. v. 17, who speak of the violent wind in this part of Gallia; and Dionys. Halicarn. i. 41, who quotes part of the passage from the Prometheus Unbound.)

This plain of stones probably owes its origin to the floods of the Rhone and the Durance, at some remote epoch when the lower part of the delta of the Rhone was covered by the sea. [G. L.]

LA'PITHAE (Aairffloi), a mythical race in Thessaly. See Diet, of Biogr. and Myth. Vol. II. p. 721.

LAPITHAEUM. [laconia, p. 113,a.]

LAPITHAS. [elis, p. 817, b.]

LAPPA, LAMPA (AoVwa, Ptol. iii. 17. § 10; Aa/ijra, Aiuwai, Hierocl. ; Au'/im;, Steph. B.: K(h. Aairtraios, Aa^iraToj), an inland town of Crete, with a district extending from sea to sea (Scylax, p. 18), and possessing the port Phoenix. (Strab. x. p. 475.) Although the two forms of this city's name occur in ancient authors, yet on coins and in inscriptions the word Lappa is alone found. Stephanus of Byzantium shows plainly that the two names denote the same place, when he says that Xenion, in his Creiica, wrote the word Lappa, and not Lampa. The same author («. v. Adumj) says that it was founded by Agamemnon, and was called after one Lainpos, a Tarrhaean; the interpretation of which seems to be that it was a colony of Tarrha.

When Lyetus had been destroyed by the Cnossians, its citizens found refuge with the people of Lappa (Polyb. iv. 53). After the submission of Cydonia, Cnossus, Lyctus, and Eleutherna, to the arms of Metellns, the Romans advanced against Lappa, which was taken by storm, and appears to have been almost entirely destroyed. (Dion Cass, xxxvi. 1.) Augustus, in consideration of the aid rendered to him by the Lappiteans in his struggle with M. Antonius bestowed on them their freedom, and also restored their city. (Dion Cass. li. 2.) When Christianity was established, Lappa became an episcopal see; the name of its bishop is recorded as present at the Synod of Ephesus, A. D. 431, and the Council of Chalcedon, A. D. 451, as veil as on man; other subsequent occasions. (Cornelius, Creta Sacra, vol. i. pp. 251, 252.)

Lappa was 32 M. P. from Elenthema and 9 M. P. from Cisamus, the port of Aptera (Peut. Tab.); distances which agree very well with Polis, the modem representative of this famous city, where Mr. Pashley (Tratxh, vol. i. p. 83) found considerable remains of a massive brick edifice, with buttresses 15 feet wide and of 9 feet projection ; a circular building, 60 feet diameter, with niches round it 11 feet wide ; a cistern, 76 ft. by 20 ft.; a Roman brick building, and several tombs cut in the rock. (Comp. Mm. Clau. Antiq vol. ii. p. 293.) One of the inscriptions relating to this city mentions a certain Marcus Aurelius Clesippus, in whose honour the Lappaeans erected a statue. (Crater, p. 1091; Chishull, Antiq. Asiat. p. 122; Mabillon, Mm.llal p. 33; Bockh, Corp. Inter. Gr. vol. ii. p. 423.)

The head of its benefactor Augustus is exhibited on the coins of Lappa : one has the epigraph, ©En KAI2API 2EBA2TO; others of Domitian and Commodus are found. (Hardouin, Num. Antiq. pp. 93, 94 ; Mionnet, vol. ii. p. 286; Supplem. vol. iv. p. 326; Rasche, vol. ii. pi. ii. p. 1493.) On the autonomous coins of Lappa, from which Spanheim supposed the city to have possessed the right of asylum,like the Grecian cities enumerated in Tacitus, see Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 315. The maritime symbols on the coins of Lappa are accounted for by the extension of its territory to both shores, and the possession of the port of Phoenix. [K. B. J.]

LAPURDUM, in Gallia. This place is only mentioned in the Notitia of the Empire, which fixes it in Novempopulana; but there is neither any historical notice nor any Itinerary measurement to determine its position. D'Anville, who assumes it to be represented by Bayonne, on the river Adour, says that the name of Bayonne succeeded to that of Lapurdum, and the country contained between the Adour and the Bidatoa has r. taint 1 the name of Labourd. It is said that the bishopric of Bayonne is not mentioned before the tenth century. The name Bayonne is Basque, and means "port." It seems probable that Lapurdum may have been on the site of Bayonne; but it is not certain. [G. L.]

LAR FLUVIUS. [caho Flumes.]

LARANDA (rk Aiparta Eth. AapavStm, f. Aapavtts; Larenda or Karaman), one of the most important towns of Lycaonia, 400 stadia to the south-east of Iconium. Strabo (xii. p. 569) states that the town belonged to Antipater of Derbe, which shows that for a time it was governed by native princes. Respecting its history in antiquity scarcely anything is known beyond the fact that it was taken by storm, and destroyed by Perdiccas (Diod. xviii. 22); that it was afterwards rebuilt, and on account of the fertility of its neighbourhood became one of the chief seats of the Isaurian pirates. (Amm. Marc. xiv. 2; comp. Steph. B. t. v.; Ptol. v. 6. § 17; Hierocl. p. 675; Euseb. Hitt. Eccl. vi. 19.) Suidas (». r.) says that Laranda was the birthplace of Nestor, an epic poet, and father of Pisander, a poet of still greater celebrity; but when he calls the former AapavSevs in Avxlas, he probably mistook Lycia for Lycaonia. Leake (As. Min. p. 100)

states that he found no Greek remains at Laranda nor are there any coins belonging to the place. The ancient name, Larenda, is still in common use among the Christians, and is even retained in the firmans of the Porte; but its more general name, Karaman, is derived from a Turkish chief of the same name; for it was at one time the capital of a Turkish kingdom, which lasted from the time of the partition of the dominion of the Seljukian monarchs of Iconium until 1486, when it was conquered by the emperor Bayazid II. At present the town is but a poor place, with some manufactures of coarse cotton and woollen stuns. Respecting a town in Cappadocia, called by some Laranda, see the article Lkandis. [L. S.]

LARES (Sail. Jug. 90, where Laris is the acc. pi.: A&pm, Ptol. iv. 3. § 28: the abl. form LaRibus is given, not only, as is so usual, in the Itin. Ant. p. 26, and the Tab. Pent., but also by Augustine, adv. Donat. vi. 20; and that this ablative was used for the nominative, as is common in the Romance languages, is shown by the Greek form AdpiSos. Procop. B. V. ii. 23, whence came at once the modern name, Larbtus or Lorbui). An important city of Numidia, mentioned in the Jugurthine War as the place chosen by Matins for his stores and military chest. (Sail. Jug. 1. c.) Under the Romans it became a colony, and belonged to the province of Africa and the district of Byzaccna. Ptolemy places it much too far west. It lay to the E. of the Bagrodas, on the road from Carthage to Thereste, 63 M. P. from the latter. In the later period of the Empire it had decayed. (Pellissier, Exploration Sciaitijique de TAlgirie, vol. vi. p. 375.) [P. S.]

LARGA, in Gallia, is placed by the Anton. Itin. between the two known positions of Epamanduodurum (Mandeure) and Mons Brisiacus (Vieux Brunch). The distance from Epamanduodurum to Larga is 24 M. P. in the Itin., and in the Table 16 Gallic leagues, which is the same thing. Larga is Largitzen, on or near the Larguet, in the French department of llaut Rhin and in the neighbourhood of Altkirch. [epamanduodurum.] . [G. L.]

LA'RICA (Aoponf, Ptol. vii. 1. §§ 4, 62), a rich commercial district on the extreme of India, described by Ptolemy as being between Syrastrene and Ariaca, and having for its chief town Barygaza (Beroach), the emporium of all the surrounding country. It must, therefore, have comprehended considerable part of Gvzerat, and some of the main land of India, between the gulf of Barygaza and the Narnadus or Nerbndda. Ptolemy considered Larice to have been part of Indo-Scythia (vii. 1. § 62), the Scythian tribes having in his day reached the sea coast in that part of India. [V.]

LARI'NUM (Ad>uw,Ptol.; Aipiva, Steph. B.: Eth. Aapuwor, Steph. B.; but Aapiwru, Pol.; LarinSs, -atis: Larino Vecchio), a considerable city in the northern part of Apulia, situated about 14 miles from the sea, a little to the S. of the river Tifernus. There is much discrepancy among ancient authorities, as to whether Larinnm with its territory, extending from the river Frento to the Tifenun, belonged properly to Apulia or to the land of the Frentari. Ptolemy distinctly assigns it to the latter people; aud Pliny also, in one passage, speaks of the "Larmates cognomine Frentani :" but at the same time he distinctly places Larinum in Apulia, and not in the "regio Frentana," which, according to him, begins only from the Tifernus. Mela takes the same view, while Strabo, strangely enough, omits all mention of Larinum. (Ptol. iii. 1. § 65; Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Mel. ii. 4. § 6.) Caesar, on the other hand, distinguishes the territory of Larinum both from that of the Frentani and from Apulia (" per fines Marracinorum, Frentanorum, Larinatium, in Apuliam pervenit," B. C. i. 23). Livy uses almost exactly the same expressions (xxvii. 43); and this appears to be the real solution, or rather the origin or the difficulty, that the Larinates long formed an independent community, possessing a territory of considerable extent, which was afterwards regarded by the geographers as connected with that of their northern or southern neighbours, according to their own judgment. It was included by Augustus in the Second Region of Italy, of which he made the Tifernus the boundary, and thus came to be naturally considered as an appurtenance of Apulia: but the boundary would seem to have been subsequently changed, for the Liber Coloniarum includes Larinum among the 11 Civitates Regionis Samnii," to which the Frentani also were attached. {Lib. Colon, p. 260.)

Of the early history of Larinum we have scarcely any information. Its name is not even once mentioned during the long continued wars of the Romans and Samnites, in which the neighbouring Luceria figures so conspicuously. Hence we may probably infer that it was at this period on friendly terms with Rome, and was one of those Italian states that passed grudually and almost imperceptibly from the condition of allies into that of dependents, and ultimately subjects of Rome. During the Second Punic War, on the other hand, the territory of Larinum became repeatedly the scene of operations of the Roman and Carthaginian armies. Thus in B.C. 217 it was at Gorunium, in the immediate neighbourhood of Larinum, that Hannibal took up his winter-quarters, while Fabius established his camp at Calela to watch him; and it was here that the engagement took place in which the rashness of Minucius had so nearly involved the Roman army in defeat (Pol. iii. 101; Lir. xxii. 18, 24, &c.) Again, in B. c. 207, it was on the borders of the same territory that Hannibal's army was attacked on its march by the praetor Hostility, and suffered severe loss (Lir. xxvii. 40); and shortly after it is again mentioned as being traversed by the consul Claudius on his memorable march to the Metaurus. (Ibid. 43; Sil. ItaL xv. 565.) In the Social War it appears that the Larinates must have joined with the Frentani in taking up arms against Rome, as their territory was ravaged in B. C. 89 by the praetor C. Cosconius, after his victory over Trebatius near Cannsium. (Appian, B. C. i. 52.) During the civil wars of Caesar and Pompey, the territory of Larinum was traversed by the former general on his advance to Brundusium (Caes. B. C. i. 23). Pompey seems to have at one time made it his head-quarters in Apulia, but abandoned it on learning the disaster of Domitius at Corfinium. (Cic. ad Alt. vii. 12, 13. b.)

From the repeated mention during these military operations of the territory of Larinum, while none occurs of the city itself, it would appear that the latter could not have been situated on the high mad, which probably passed through the plain Mow it. But it is evident from the oration of Cicero in defence of A. Cluentius, who was a native of Larinum, that it was in his day a flourishing and considerable municipal town, with its local magistrates, senate, public archives, forum, and all the other appurtenances of municipal government. (Cic. pro Chant.

5. 8, 13, 15, &e.) We learn from the Liber Coloniarum that it received a colony under Caesar (Lege Julia, Lib. Colon, p. 260): but it appears from inscriptions that it continued to retain its municipal rank under the Roman Empire. (Orell. Inscr. 142; Mommsen, Inter, Regn. Neap. pp. 272, 273.) The existing remains sufficiently prove that it must have been a large and populous town: but no mention of it is found in history after the close of the Roman Republic. Its name is found in the Itineraries in the fourth century (Ttin. Ant. p. 314, where it is corruptly written Arenio; lab. Pent.'); and there is no reason to suppose that it ever ceased to exist, as we find it already noticed as an episcopal see in the seventh century. In A. D. 842 it was ravaged by the Saracens, and it was in consequence of this calamity that the inhabitants appear to have abandoned the ancient site, and founded the modern city of Larino, a little less than a mile to the W. of the ancient one. The ruins of the latter, now called Larino Vecckio, occupy a considerable space on the summit of a hill called Monterone, about three miles S. of the BiJerno (Tifernus): there remain some portions of the ancient walls, as well as of one of the gates; the ruins of an amphitheatre of considerable extent, and those of a building, commonly called // Palazzo, which appears to have stood in the centre of the town, adjoining the ancient forum, and may probably have been the Curia or senate-house. (Tria, Memorie di Larino, i. 10.)

The territory of Larinum seems to have originally extended from the river Tifernus to the Frento (Fortore), and to have included the whole tract between those rivers to the sea. The town of Cliternia, which was situated within these limits, is expressly called by Pliny a dependency of Larinum ("Larinatum Clitcrnia," Plin. iii. 11. s. 16); and Teanum, which is placed by him to the N. of the Frento, was certainly situated on its right bank. Hence it is probable that the municipal territory of Larinum under the Roman government still comprised the whole tract between the two rivers. The Tabula places Larinum eighteen miles from Teanum in Apulia, and this distance is confirmed by an express statement of Cicero. (Tab. Peut.\ Cic. pro CluenL 9.)

There exist numerous coins of Larinum, with the inscription Ladinod in Roman letters. From this last circumstance they cannot be referred to a very early period, and are certainly not older than the Roman conquest. (Eckhel, vol. i. p, 107; Mommsen, Bom. Mumtceten, p. 335.) [K. H. B-]

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