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§ 1), or of Piasns, ■ Pelasgian prince. (Strab. xiv. p. SSI.)

1. An important town of Thessaly, the capital of the district Pelasgiotis, was situated in a fertile pl.iin upon a gently rising ground, on the right or south bank of the Peneius. It had a strongly fortified citadel. (Diod. xv. 61.) Larissa is not mentioned by Homer. Some commentators, however, suppose it to be the same as the Pelasgic Argos of Homer (/£ ii. 681), but the latter was the name of a district rather than of a town. Others, with more probability, identify it with the Argissa of the poet (II. ii. 738.) [See Vol. I. p. 209.] Its foundation was ascribed to Acrisius. (Steph. B. s. v.~) The plain of Laris.-a was formerly inhabited by the Perrhaebi, who were partly expelled by the Larissaeans, and partly reduced to subjection. They continued subject to Larissa, till Philip made himself master of Thessaly. (Strab. ix. p. 440.) The constitution of I.arissa was democratical (Aristot. Pol. v. 6), and this was probably one reason why the Larissaeans were allies of the Athenians during the Peloponnesinn War. (Thuc. ii. 22.) During the Roman wars in Greece, Larissa is frequently mentioned as a place of importance. It was here that Philip, the son of Demetrius, kept all his royal papers during his campaign against Flamininus in Greece; but after the tattle of Cynoscephalae, in B. c. 197, he was obliged to abandon Larissa to the Romans, having previously destroyed these documents. (Polyb. xviii. 16.) It was still in the hands of the Romans when Anti'iehus crossed over into Greece, B.C. 191, and this king made an ineffectual attempt upon the town. (lit. xxxvi. 10.) In the time of Strabo Larissa continued to be a flourishing town (ix. p. 430). It is mentioned by Hierocles in the sixth century as the first town in Thessaly (p. 642, ed. Wessel.). It is still a considerable place, the residence of an archbishop and a pasha, and containing 30,000 inhabitants. It continues to bear its ancient name, though the Turks csll it l'eniaheher, which is its official appellation. Its circumference is less than three miles. Like other towns in Greece, which have been continually inhabited, it presents few remains of Hellenic times. They are chiefly found in the Turkish cemeteries, consisting of plain quadrangular stones, fragments of columns, mostly fluted, and a great number of ancient cippi and sepulchral stelae, which now serve for Turkish tombstones. (Leake, Northern Greece, voL - p. 439, «eq.)

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more celebrated Larissa, situated in a plain. Strabo also describes it as well watered and producing vines (ix. p. 440). The same writer adds that it was surnamed Pelasgia as well as Cremaste (/. ft). From its being situated in the dominions of Achilles, some writers suppose that the Roman poets give this hero the surname of Larissaens, but this epithet is perhaps used generally for Thessalian. Larissa Cremaste was occupied by Demetrius Poliorcetes in B. c. 302, when he was at war with Cassander. (Diod. xx. 110.) It was taken by Apustius in the first war between the Romans and Philip, B C. 200 (Liv. xxxi. 46), and again fell into the hands of the Romans m the war with Perseus, B. c. 171. (Liv. xlii. 56, 57.) The ruins of the ancient city are situated upon a steep hill, in the valley of GardJiiki, at a direct distance of five or six miles from Khamdho. The walls are very conspicuous on the western side of the hill, where several courses of masonry remain. Gell says that there are the fragments of a Doric temple upon the acropolis, but of these Leake makes no mention. (Gell, Itinerary of Greece, p. 252; Dodwell, Travels, vol. ii. p. 81; Leake, NorUtern Greece, vol. iv. p. 347.)

3. The citadel of Argos [Vol. I. p. 202.] LARISSA (AofHo-ffa). 1. A town in the territory of Ephesus, on the north bank of the Caystrus, which there flows through a most fertile district, producing an excellent kind of wine. It was situated at a distance of 180 stadia from Ephesus, and 30 from Tralles. (Strab. ix. p. 440, xiii. p. 620.) In Strabo's time it had sunk to the rank of a village, but it was said once to have been a jroAir, with a temple of Apollo. Cramer (As. Mm. i. p. 558) conjectures that its site may correspond to the modern Tirielt.

2. A place on the coast of Troas, about 70 stadia south of Alexandria Troas, and north of Hamaxitus. It was supposed that this Larissa was the one mentioned by Homer (IL ii. 841), but Strabo (xiii. p. 620) controverts this opinion, because it is not far enough from Troy. (Camp. Steph. B. s. r.) The town is mentioned as still existing by Tim cydides (viii. 101) and Xenophon (BelUn. hi 1. § 13; comp. Scylax, p. 36; Strab. ix. p. 440, xiii. p. 604). Athenaeus (ii. p. 43) mentions some hot springs near Larissa in Troas, which are still known to exist a little above the site of Alexandria Troas. ( Voyage Pittoreeque, vol. ii. p. 438.)

3. Larissa, sumamed Phricoms, a Pelasgiar town in Aeolis, but subsequently taken possession of by the Aeolians, who constituted it one of the towns of their confederacy. It was situated near the coast, about 70 stadia to the south-east of Cyme (4 irtpl riiv Kd/upr, Strab. xiii. p. 621; Herod, i. 149). Strabo, apparently for good reasons, considers this to be the Larissa mentioned in the Iliad (ii. 840). Xenophon (Eellen. iii. 1. § 7, comp. Cyrop. vii. 1. § 45) distinguishes this town from others of the same name by the epithet of "the Egyptian," because the elder Cyrus had established there a colony of Egyptian soldiers. From the same historian we must infer that Larissa was a place of considerable strength, as it was besieged in vain by Thimbrom; but in Strabo's time the place was deserted. (Comp. Plin. v. 32; Veil. Pat i. 4; Vit Horn, c 11; Steph. B. s. v.; Ptol. v. 2. §5.) [L.S]

LARISSA (tepiaaa, Xen. Anab. iii. 4. § 7), a town of Assyria, at no great distance from the left bank of the Tigris, observed by Xenophon on the retreat of the Ten Thousand Greeks. It appears to have been situated a little to the north of the junction of the Lycus (ZiV) and the Tigris. Xenophon describes it as a deserted city, formerly built by the Medes, with a wall 25 feet broad, and 100 high, and extending in circumference two parasangs. The wall itself was constructed of bricks, but had a foundation of stone, 20 feet in height (probably a casing in stone over the lower portion of the bricks). He adds, that when the Persians conquered the Medes, they were not at first able to take this city, but at last captured it, during a dense fog. Adjoining the town was a pyramid of stone, one plethron broad, and two pie thru in height. It has been conjectured that this was the site of the city of Resen, mentioned in Genesis (x. 12); and there can be little doubt, that these ruins represent those of Nunriid, now so well known by the excavations which Mr. Layard has conducted. [V.]

LAKISSA (Aapitriro), a city of Syria, placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotia, in which Antioch was situated (v. 15. § 16), but probably identical with the place of the same name which, according to Strabo, was reckoned to Apatnia (xvi. p. 572), and which is placed in the Itinerary of Antoninus 16 M. P. from Apatnia, on the road to Emesa. D'Anville identifies it with the modem Kaiaat Shyzar, on the left bank of the Orontes, between Hamah and Kaiaat el-Medyk or Apamia. [G. W.]

LABISSUS or LARISUS, a river of Achaia. [Vol. I. p. 14, a.]

LA'RIUS LACUS (r) Adpios \lfirq: Logo di Como"), one of the largest of the great lakes of Northern Italy, situated at the foot of the Alps, and formed by the river Addua. (Strab. iv. p. 192; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) It is of a peculiar form, long and narrow, but divided in its southern portion into two great arms or branches, forming a kind of fork. The SW. of these, at the extremity of which is situated the city of Como, has no natural outlet; the Addua, which carries off the superfluous waters of the lake, flowing from its SE. extremity, where stands the modern town of Lecco. Virgil, where he Ls speaking of the great lakes of Northern Italy, gives to the Larius the epithet of "maximtis" (Georg. ii. 159); and Servius, in his note on the passage, tells us that, according to Catu, it was 60 miles long. This estimate, though greatly overrated, seems to have acquired a sort of traditionary authority: it is repeated by Cassiodorns (Far. Ep. xi. 14), and even in the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 278), and is at the present day still a prevalent notion among the boatmen on the lake. The real distance from Conio to the head of the lake does not exceed 27 Italian, or 34 Roman miles, to which five or six more may be added for the distance by water to JUva, the Logo di Rim being often regarded as only a portion of the larger lake. Strabo, therefore, is not far from the truth in estimating the Larius as 300 stadia (37 J Roman miles) in length, and 30 in breadth. (Strab. iv. p. 209.) But it is only in a few places that it attains this width; and, owing to its inferior breadth, it is really much smaller than the Benacus (Lago di Garda) or Verbanus (Lago Maggiore). Its waters are of great depth, and surrounded on all sides by high mountains, rising in many places very abruptly from the shore: notwithstanding which their lower slopes were clothed in ancient times, as they still are at the present day, with rich groves

of olives, and afforded space for numerous villas. Among these the most celebrated are those of the younger Pliny, who was himself a native of Comum, and whose paternal estate was situated on the banks of the lake, of which last he always speaks with affection as " Larius noster." (Ep. ii. 8, vL 24, vii. 11.) But, besides this, he had two villas of a more ornamental character, of which he gives some account in his letters (Ep. ix. 7): the one situated on a lofty promontory projecting out into the waters of the lake, over which it commanded a very extensive prospect, the other close to the water's edge. The description of the former would suit well with the site of the modem Villa SerbeUoni near Bellaggio; but there are not sufficient grounds upon which to identify it. The name of Villa Plmiana is given at the present day to a villa about a mile beyond the village of Torno (on the right side of the lake going from Como), where there is a remarkable intermitting spring, which is also described by Pliny (Ep. iv. 30) ; but there is no reason to suppose that this was the site of either of his villas. Claudian briefly characterises the scenery of the Larius Lac as in a few lines (B. Get. 319—322); and Cassiodorns gives an elaborate, but very accurate, description of its beauties. The immediate banks of the lake were adomed with villas or palaces (praetoria), above which spread, as it were, a girdle of olive woods; over these again were vineyards, climbing np the sides of the mountains, the bare and rocky summits of which rose above the thick chesnut-wouds that encircled them. Streams of water fell into the lake on all sides, in cascades of snowy whiteness. (Cassiod. Var. xi. 14.) It would be difficult to describe more correctly the present aspect of the Lake of Como, the beautiful scenery of which is the theme of admiration of all modem travellers.

Cassiodorns repeats the tale told by the elder Pliny, that the course of the Addua could be traced throughout the length of the lake, with which it did not mix its waters. (Plin. ii. lOo. s. 106; Cassiod. I. c.) The same fable is told of the Lacus Lemannus, or Lake of Geneva, and of many other lakes formed in a similar manner by the stagnation of a large river, which enters them at one end and flows out at the other. It is remarkable that we have no trace of an ancient town as existing on the site of the modem Lecco, where the Addua issues from the lake. We learn, from the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 278), that the usual course in proceeding from Curia over the Rhaetian Alps to Mediolanum, was to take boat at the head of the lake and proceed by water to Comum. This was the route by which Stilicho is represented by Claudian as proceeding across the Alps (B. Get. I. c.); and Cassiodorns speaks of Comum as a place of gieat traffic of travellers (I c.) In the latter ages of the Roman empire, a fleet was maintained upon the lake, the head-quarters of which were at Comum. (Not. Dign. ii. p. 118.)

The name of Lacus Larius seems to have been early superseded in common usage by that of Laci's Comacinus, which is already found in the Itinerary, as w ell as in Paulus Diaconus, although the latter author uses also the more classical appellation. (Itin. AnLLc; P. Diac. Hist. v. 38, 39.) [E.H.B.]

LARLX or LAK1CE, a place on the southern frontier of Noricum, at the foot of the Julian Alps, and on the road from Aquileia to Lauriacum. The town seems to have owed its name to the forests of larch trees which abound In that district, and its site most be looked for between Idria and Krainburg, in Ulyricum. (A Ant. p. 276; oomp. Muchar, Nuricum, p. 247.)' [L. S.]

LARNUM (Tordera), a small coast river in the territory of the Laketani, in Hispania Tarraconensis, falling into the sea between Iluro and Blanda. (Plin. iii. 3. s, 4.) It has been inferred that there was a town of the same name on the river, from Pliny's mention of the Larnehsks in the conventos of Caesaraugosta: but it is plain that the Laeetani belonged to the conventus of Tarraco. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 456, assigns these Larnenses to the Arevacae.) [P. S.]

LARTOLAEAETAE. [lab*tani.] LARYMNA (Aapi/M"0-). the name of two towns in Boeotia, on the river Cephissus, distinguished as Upper and Lower Larymna. (Strab. ix. pp. 405, 406.) Strabo relates that the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel at the Upper Larymna, and joined the sea at the Lower Larymna; and that Upper Larymna had belonged to Phocis until it was annexed to the Lower or Boeotian Larymna by the Romans. Upper Larymna belonged originally to the Opuntian Locris, and Lycophron mentions it as one of the towns of Ajax OTleus. (Lycophr. 1146.) Pausanias also states, that it was originally Locrian; and he adds, that it voluntarily joined the Boeotians on the increase of the power of the Thebans. (Paus. ix. 23. § 7.) This, however, probably did not take place in the time of Epaminondas, as Scylax, who lived subsequently, still calls it a Locrian town (p. 23). Ulrichs conjectures that it joined the Bueotian league after Thebes had been rebuilt by Cassander. In B. c. 230, Larymna is described as a Boeotian town (Polyb. xx. 5, where Adpvfivav should be read instead of Aa€pcVav); and in the time of Sulla it is again spoken of as a Boeotiarr town.

We may conclude from the preceding statements that the more ancient town was the Locrian Larymna, situated at a spot, called Anchoe by Strabo, where the Cephissus emerged from its subterranean channel. At the distance of a mile and a half Larymna had a port upon the coast, which gradually rose into importance, especially from the time when Larymna joined the Boeotian League, as its port then became the most convenient communication with the eastern sea for Lebudeia, Chaeroneia, Orchomenos, Copae, and other Boeotian towns. The port town was called, from its position, Lower Larymna, to distinguish it from the Upper city. The former may also have been called more especially the Boeotian Larymna, as it became the seaport of so many Boeotian towns. Upper Larymna, though it had joined the Boeotian League, continued to be frequently called the Locrian, on account of its ancient connection with Locris. When the Romans united Upper Larymna to Lower Larymna, the inhabitants of the fomer place were probably transferred to the latter; and Upper Larymna was henceforth abandoned. This accounts for Pausanias mentioning only one Larymna, which must have 'jKa the Lower city; for if he had visited Upper Larymna, he could hardly have failed to mention the emissary of the Cephissus at this spot. Moreover, the ruins at Lower Larymna show that it became a place of much more importance than Upper Larymna. These rains, which are called Kastri, like those of Delphi, are situated on the shore of the Bay of Lama, on a level covered with bushes, ten urinotes to the left of the mouth of the Cephissus.


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1. A small port, anciently closed in the manner here described.

2. The town wall, traceable all around.

3. Another wait along the tea, likewise traceable.

i. A mole, in the sea.

A. Various ancient foundations in the tower and acrepolis.

6. A Sorus.

7. Gtyfontr6, or Salt Source.

8. An oblong foundation of an ancient building.

Leake adds, that the walls, which in one place are extant to nearly half their height, are of a red soft stone, very much corroded by the sea air, and in some places are constructed of rough masses. The sorus is high, with comparison to its length and breadth, and stands in its original place upon the rocks: there was an inscription npon it, and some ornaments of sculpture, which are now quite defaced. The Glyfonerd is a small deep pool of water, impregnated with salt, and is considered by the peasants as sacred water, because it is cathartic. The sea in the bay south of the ruins is very deep; and hence we ought probably to read in Pausanias (ix. 23. § 7), AipV 47 <r(pltriv itrrlr ayx'Saty*, instead of Xljurn, since there is no land-lake at this place. The ruins of Upper Larymna lie at Baearaki, on the right bank of the Cephissus, at the place where it issues from its subterranean channel. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 287, seq.; Ulrichs, Keisen in Griechenland, p. 229, seq.)

LARY'SIUM. [gythium.]

LAS (Ados, Horn ; Aoj, Scyl., Pans., Strab.; AS, Steph. B. i. v.: Eth. Aaos), one of the most ancient towns of Laconia, situated upon the western coast of the Laconian gulf. It is the only town on the coast mentioned by Scylax (p. 17) between Taenarus and Gythium. Scylax speaks of its port; but, according to Pausanias, the town itself was distant 10 stadia from the sea, and 40 stadia from Gythium. (Paus. iii. 24. § 6.) In the time of Pausanias the town lay in a hollow between the three mountains, Asia, Ilium, and Cnacadium; but the old town stood on the summit of Mt. Asia. The name of Las signified the rock on which it , originally stood. It is mentioned by Homer (7J. ii


585), and is said to have been destroyed by the Dioscuri, who hence derived the surname of Lapersae. (Strab. viii. p. 364; Steph. B. s. v. AS.) There was also a mountain in Laconia called Lapersa. (Steph. B. 9. v. Aair^xra.) In the later period it was a place of no importance. Livy speaks of it as " vicus maritimus" (xxxviii. 30), and Pausanias mentions the ruins of the city on ML Asia. Before the walls he saw a statue of Hercules, and a trophy erected over the Macedonians who were a part of Philip's army when he invaded Laconia; and among the ruins he noticed a statue of Athena Asia. The modem town was near a fountain called Galaco (raAcucu), from the milky colour of its water, and near it was a gymnasium, in which stood an ancient statue of Hermes. Besides the ruins of the old town on Mt. Asia, there were also buildings on the two other mountains mentioned above: on Mt Ilium stood a temple of Dionysus, and on the summit a temple of Asclepius; and on Mt. Cnacadium a temple of Apollo Carneins.

Las is spoken of by Polybius (v. 19) and Strabo (viii. p. 363) under the name of Asine; and hence it has been supposed that some of the fugitives from Asine in Argolis may have settled at Las, and given their name to the town. But, notwithstanding the statement of Polybius, from whom Strabo probably copied, we have given reasons elsewhere for believing that there was no Laconian town called Asine; and that the mistake probably arose from confounding "Asine" with "Asia," on which Las originally stood. [asine, No. 3.]

Las stood upon the hill of Passavd, which is now crowned by the ruins of a fortress of the middle ages, among which, however, Leake noticed, at the southern end of the eastern wall, a piece of Hellenic wall, about 50 paces in length, and two-thirds of the height of the modern wall. It is formed of polygonal blocks of stone, some four feet long and three broad. The fountain Galaco is the stream Twkdvrysa, which rises between the hill of Pastavd and the village of Kdrvela, the latter being one mile and a half west of Passavd. (Leake, Morea, vol. L p. 254, seq., p. 276, seq.; Peloponnesiaca, p. 150; Boblaye, Recherches, cfc p. 87 j Curtius, Peloponnesos, voL ii. p. 273, seq.)

LASAEA (Aewolo), a city in Crete, near the roadstead of the " Fair Havens." (Acts, zzvii. 8.) This place is not mentioned by any other writer, but is probably the same as the Lisia of the Peutinger Tables, 16 M. P. to the E. of Gortyna. (Comp Hock, Kreta, vol. i. pp. 412,439.) Some MSS. have Lasea; others, Alassa. The Vulgate reads Thalassa, which Beza contended was the true name. (Comp. Coneybeare and Howson, Life and Epist. of St. Paul, vol. ii. p. 330.) [E. B. J.]

LA'SION (Aewfctfi* or Aaai&v), the chief town of the mountainous district of Acroreia in Elis proper, was situated upon the frontiers of Arcadia near Psophis. Curtius places it with great probability in the upper valley of the Ladon, at the Paleokastro of Kumani, on the road from the Eleian Pylos and Ephyra to Psophis. Lasion was a frequent object of dispute between the Arcadians and Eleians, both of whom laid claim to it. In the war which the Spartans carried on against Elis at the close of the Peloponnesian War, Pausanias, king of Sparta, took Lasion (Diod. xiv. 17). The invasion of Pausanias is not mentioned by Xenophon in his account of this war; but the latter author relates that, by the treaty •f peace concluded between Elis and Sparta in B.C.

400, tho Eleians were obliged to give np Lasion, in consequence of its being claimed by the Arcadians. (Xen. Hell, iii. 2. § 30.) In B. c. 366 the Eleians attempted to recover Lasion from the Arcadians; they took the town by surprise, but were shortly afterwards driven out of it again by the Arcadians. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 13, seq.; Diod. xv. 77.) In B. c. 219 Lasion was again a fortress of Elis, but upon the capture of Psophis by Philip, the Eleian garrison at Lasion straightway deserted the place. (Polyb. iv. 72, 73.) Polybius mentions (v. 102) along with Lasion a fortress called Pyrgos, which he places in a district named Perippia. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 200, seq.; Boblaye, Recherches, $c. p. 125; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 41 )

LA'SSORA, a town of Galatia, mentioned in the Peut. Tab. as 25 miles distant from Eecobriga, whence we may infer that it is the same place as the At«ricop!a of Ptolemy (v. 4. § 9). The Antonine Itinerary (p. 203) mentions a town Adapera in about the same site. [L. S. j

LASTI'GI, a town of Hispania Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Hispalis (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3), and one of the cities of which we have coins, all of them belonging to the period of its independence : their type is a head of Mars, with two ears of corn lying parallel to each other. The site is supposed to be at Zahara, lying on a height of the Sierra de Ronda above the river Gvadalete. (Carter's Travels, p. 171 Florez, Esp. S. vol. ix. pp. 18, 60, Med, vol. ii p. 475, vol. iii. p. 85; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 50, Suppl. vol. i. p. 113; Sestini, Med. Isp. p. 61; Num. Goth.; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 25; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. pp.358, 382.) [P. S.]

LASUS, a town of Crete, enumerated by Pliny (iv. 12) among his list of inland cities. A coin with the epigraph AATIflN, the Doric form fbi Aaolmr, is claimed by Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 316, comp. Sestini, p. 53) for this place. [E. B. J.]

LATARA. [lkdus.]

LATHON (AdBum, Strab. xvii. p. 836, where the vulgar reading is \dSav ; comp. xiv. p. 647, where he calls it AriBaios; Ptol. iv. 4. § 4; A4)6uv, Ptol. Energ. ap A th. ii. p. 71 ; Fluvius Lkthon, Plin. v. 5; Solin. 27 ; Lethes Amnis, Lucan, ix. 355), a river of the Hesperidae or Hesperitae, in Cyrenaica. It rose in the Herculis Arenae, and fell into the sea a little N. of the city of Hesprripes or BeRenice: Strabo connects it with the harbour of the city (Ai/iV 'E<nrtpiSui>: that there is not the slightest reason for altering the reading, as Grosknrd and others do. into will presently appear); and

Scyiax {p. 110, Grnnov.) mentions the river, which he calls Ecceius ('EitMid's), as in close proximity with the city and habour of Hesperides. Pliny expressly states that the river was not far from the city, and places on or near it a sacred grove, which was supposed to represent the " Gardens of the Hesperides" (Plin. v. 5: nec procul ante oppidum flavins Lethon, lucus sacer, vbi Hesperidum horti memorantur). Athenaeus quotes from a work of Ptolemy Euergetes praises of its fine pike and eels, somewhat inconsistent, especially in the mouth of a luxurious king of Egypt, with the mythical sound of the name. That name is, in fact, plain Doric Greek, descriptive of the character of the river, like our English Mole. So well does it deserve the name, that it "escaped the notice" of commentators and geographers, till it was discovered by Beechey, as it still flows " concealed" from such scholars as depend i on vague guesses in place of an accurate knowledge of tbe localities. Thus the laborious, bat often /nost inaccurate, compiler Forbiger, while taking on himself to correct Strain's exact account, tells ns that "the river and lake (Strabo's harbour) have now entirely Tanished and vet, a few lines down, he refers to a passage of Beechey^ work within a very few pages of the place where the river itself is actually described! (Forbiger, Handbook der alten Geographic, vol. ii. p. 828, note.)

The researches made in Beechey's expedition give the following results :—East of the headland on which stands the ruins of Hesperides or Berenice (now Bengazi) is a small lake, which communicates with the harbour of the city, and has its water of coarse salt. The water of the lake varies greatly in quantity, according to the season of the year; and is nearly dried up in summer. There are strong grounds to believe that its waters were more abundant, and its communication with the harbour more perfect, in ancient times than at present. On the margin of the lake is a spot of rising ground, nearly insulated in winter, on which are the remains of ancient buildings. East of this lake again, and only a few yards from its margin, there gushes forth an abundant spring of fresh water, which empties itfelf into the lake, " running along a channel of inconsiderable breadth, bordered with reeds and rushes," and " might be mistaken fcy a common observer for an inroad of the lake into tbe sandy soil which bounds it" Moreover, this is the only stream which empties itself into the lake; and indeed the only one found on that part of the toast of Cyrenatca. Now, even without searching further, it is evident how well all this answers to the description of Strabo (xvii. p. 836) :—" There is a promontory called Pseudopenias, on which Berenice is situated, beside a certain Lake of Tritonis (iropA Mfarnr riya TpiTuviifia), in which there is generally (/ioAio-ra) a little island, and a temple of Aphrodite upon it: but there is (or it is) also the Harbour of Hesperides, and the river Lathon falls into it." It is now evident how mnch tbe sense of the description would be impaired by reading \tuyr) for \tuTiv in the last clause; and it matters bat little whether Strabo speaks of the river as falling into the harbour because it fell into the lake which communicated with the harbour, or whether he means that the lake, which he calls that of Tritonis, was actually the harbour (that is, an inner harbonr) of the city. But the little stream which falls into the lake is not the only representative of the river Lathon. Further to the east, in one of the subterranean caves which abound in the neighbourhood of Bengaxi, Beechy found a large body of fresh water, losing itself in the bowels of the earth ; and the Bey of Bengazi affirmed that he had tracked its subterraneous course till he doubted the safety of proceeding further, and that he had found it as much as 30 feet deep. That the stream thus lost in the earth is the same which reappears in the spring on the margin of the lake, is extremely probable; but whether it be so in fact, or not, we can hardly doubt that the ancient Greeks would imagine the connection to exist. (Beechey, Proceedings, <fc- pp. 326, foil.; Barth, Wanderungen, tfc. p. 887. [P. S.]

LATHRIPPA (Aoflphnro), an inland town of Arabia Felix, mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 7. § 31), which there is no difficulty in identifying with the ancient name of the renowned El-Afedineh, "the city," as it is called by emphasis among the disciples of the false prophet. Its ancient name, Yathrib, still exists in tbe native geographies and local tra

ditions, which, with the definite article el prefixed, is as accurately represented by Lithrippa as the Greek alphabet would admit. "Medineh is situated on the edge of the great Arabian desert, close to the chain of mountains which traverses that country from north to south, nnd is a continuation of Libanon. The great plain of Arabia in which it lies is considerably elevated above the level of the sea. It is ten or eleven days distant from Mekka, and has been always considered the principal fortress of the Hedjaz, being surrounded with a stone wall. It is one of the best-built towns in the East, ranking in this respect next to Aleppo, though ruined houses and walls in all parts of the town indicate how far it has fallen from its ancient splendour. It is surrounded on three sides with gardens and plantations, which, on the east and south, extend to the distance of six or eight miles. Its population amounts to 16,000 or 20,000— 10,000 or 12,000 in the town the remainder in the suburbs." (Burckhardt, A rabia 321—400; Bitter, Erdhmde, vol. i. p. 15, ii pp. 149, Sec.) [G. W.]

LATIUM (i Aotihi: Eth. and Adj. Latinus), was the name given by the Romans to a district or region of Central Italy, situated on the Tyrrhenian sea, between Etruria and Campania.

I. Namh.

There can be little doubt that Latium meant originally the land of the Latini, and that in this, as in almost all other cases in ancient history, the name of the people preceded, instead of being derived from, that of the country. But the ancient Roman writers, with their usual infelicity in all matters of etymology, derived the name of the Latini from a king of the name of Latinus, while they sought for anofher origin for the name of Latium. The common etymology (to which they were obviously led by the quantity of the first syllable) was that which derived it from "lateo;" and the usual explanation was, that it was so called because Saturn had there lain hid from the pursuit of Jupiter. (Virg. Aen. viii. 322; Ovid, Fast. i. 238.) The more learned derivations proposed by Saufeius and Varro, from the inhabitants having lived hidden in caves (Saufeius, ap. Serv. ad Aen.i. 6), or because Latium itself was as it were hidden by the Apennines (Varr. ap. Serv. ad Aen. viii. 322), are certainly not more satisfactory. The form of the name of Latium would at first lead to the supposition that the ethnic Latini was derived from it; but the same remark applies to the case of Sumnium and the Samnites, where we know that the people, being a race of foreign settlers, must have given their name to the country, and not the converse. Probably Latini is only a lengthened form of the name, which was originally Latii or Latvi; for the connection which has been generally recognised between Latini and Lavinium, Latinus and Lavinus. seems to point to the existence of an old form, Latvinus. (Donaldson, Varronianus, p. 6; Niebuhr, V.u. L.Kvmde, p. 352.) Varro himself seems to regard the name of Latium as derived from that of Latinus (/./.. v. § 32); and that it was generally regarded as equivalent to "the land of the Latins" is sufficiently proved by the fact that the Greeks always rendered it by \ Aot(it), or r) Aarivuv yrj. The name of hdnov is found only in Greek writers of a late period, who borrowed it directly from the Romans. (Appian, B. C. ii. 26; Herodian, i. 16.) From the same cause it most have proceeded that when the Latini cea.sed to

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