صور الصفحة

&tt* a&rjjs (i. e. Ttjt w6\tus) To &\(ro$ rov Tp&puviov, where there is little doubt that ■Karo.p.&i, or some equivalent term, must be applied as the nominative of Zttlpyu. The ancient city would, in that case, have stood on the right or eastern bank of the river, which also appears probable from the numerous fragments of antiquity still scattered over the eminence on this side of the river; and the grove of Trophonius would have been on the western side of the stream, on which the greater part of the modern town stands.

The most remarkable object in the grove of Trophonius was the temple of the hero, containing his stat ue by Praxiteles, resembling a statue of Asclepius; a temple of Demeter, sumamed Earope; a statue of Zeus Hyetius (Pluvius) in the open air; and higher up, upon the mountain, the oracle (to fian-tiov). Slill higher up was the hunting place of Persephone; a large unfinished temple of Zeus Basileus, a temple of Apollo, and another temple, containing statues of Cronus, Zeus, and Hera. Pausanias likewise mentions a chapel of the Good Daemon and of Good Fortune, where those who were going to consult the oracle first passed a certain number of days.

In the Turkish mosque, now converted into a church of the Panagia, on the western side of the river, three inscriptions have been found, one of which contains a dedication to Trophonius, and the other a catalogue of dedications in the temple of Trophonius. (See BBckh, Inter. 1571, 1588.) Hence it has been inferred that the temple of Trophonius occupied this site. Near the fountain of Krya, there is a square chamber, with seats cut out of the rock, which may perhaps be the chapel of the Good Daemon and Good Fortune. Near this chamber is a cavern, which is usually regarded as the entrance to the oracle. It is 25 feet in depth, and terminates in a hollow filled with water. But this could not have been the oracle, since the latter, according to the testimony both of Pausanias and Philostratus, was not situated in the valley upon the Hercyna, but higher up upon the mountain. (Paus. ix. 39. § 4; Philostr. Fit Apoll. viii. 19.) Mure justly expresses his surprise that Leake, after quoting the description of Pausanias, who says that the oracle was M rod opovs, should suppose that it was situated at the foot of the hill. A person who consulted the oracle descended a well constructed of masonry, 12 feet in depth, at the bottom of which was a small opening on the side of the wall. Upon reaching the bottom he lay upon his back and introduced his legs into the hole, when upon a sudden the rest of his body was rapidly carried forward into the sanctuary. The site of the oracle has not yet been discovered, and is not likely to be, without an extensive excavation. An account of the rites observed in consulting the oracle is given in the Diet, of Antiq. p. 841, 2nd ed. (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. p. 216, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 118, seq.; Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 233, seq.'; Ulrichs, Reiten in Griechenland. p. 164, seq )

LEBAEA (Afffo(T),) an ancient city in Upper Macedonia, and the residence of the early Macedonian kings, mentioned only by Herodotus (viii. 137).

LEBECIL Jlibici.]

LEBEDO'NTIA, a town upon the coast of Hispania Tarraconensis, situated upon the mountain Scllus, at no great distance from Tarraco. It is mentioned only by Avienus {Or. Marit. 509), in whose time, however, it had ceased to exist.

LE'BEDOS (Actios: Eth. AeeVJioi), an ancient city on the western coast of Asia Minor, 90 stadia to the east of Cape Myonnesus, and 120 to the north-west of Colophon. (Strab. xiv. p. 643.) The place was originally inhabited by Carians, until, on the immigration of the Ionians into Asia, it was taken possession of by them under the guidance of Andraemon, a son of Codrus. (Paus vii. 3. § 2.) Strabo (xiv. p. 633), however, in speaking of the foundation of the Ionian cities, states that it was colonised by Andropompus and his followers, having previously borne the name of Artis: the tomb of Andraemon, moreover, was shown in the neighbourhood of Colophon, on the road crossing the river Hales. (Paus. I. c.) For a long time Lebeda6 continued to be a city flourishing by its commerce, the fertility of its territory, and the excellent hot mineral springs in its neighbourhood, which still exist. (Hecat. Frooro. 219; Herod, i. 142; Thucyd. viii. 19.) It was afterwards nearly destroyed by Lysimachus, who transplanted its population to Ephesus (Paus. I. c. i. 9. § 8); after which time Lebedos appears to have fallen more and more into decay so that in the days of Horace it was more deserted than Gabii or Fidenae. (Epist. i. 11. 7.) It is mentioned, however, as late as the 7th century of the Christian era (Aelian, V. H. viii. 5; Ptol. v. 2. § 7; Mela, i. 17; Plin. B. N. v. 31; Hierocles, p. 660); and the Romans, in order to raise the place in some measure, established there the company of actors (rexvrrat irepl Toy Aioyvaov) who had formerly dwelt in Teos, whence during a civil commotion they withdrew to Ephesns. Attains afterwards transplanted them to Myonnesus; and the Romans, at the request of the Teians, transferred them to Lebedos, where they were very welcome, as the place was very thinly inhabited. At Lebedos the actors of all Ionia as far as the Hellespont had ever after an annual meeting, at which games were celebrated in honour of Dionysus. (Strab. xiv. p. 643.) The site of Lebedos is marked by some ruins, now called Eccleria or Xingi, and consisting of masses of naked stone and bricks, with cement. There also exists the basement and an entire floor of a small temple; and nearer the sea there are traces of ancient walla, and a few fragments of Doric columns. (Chandler's Asia Minor,-p. 125.) [L. S.]

LEBEN (Ae'sV, Strab. x. p. 478) or LEBENA (Atenm,Ptol,iii, 17. § 4; Stadiasm.; Plin. nr. 12; AEe^irj, Paus. ii. 26. § 7; Ledena, Petit. To*.), a maritime town of Crete, which was a harbour of Gortyna, about 70 stadia inland. (Strab. /. c.) It possessed a temple of Asclepius, of great celebrity (Philostrat, Vit. Apollon. ii. 11), and is represented by the modem hamlet of Leda. (Hock, Kreta, vol. i. pp. 8, 394, 399.) [E. B. J.]

LEB1NTHUS (AigicSoj), a small island in the Acgaean sea, one of the Sporades, NE. of Amorgus, between which and Lebinthus lies the still smaller island Cinarus. (Strab. x. p. 487; Steph. B. s. v. Apexavn; Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Mela, ii. 7. § 11; Ov. Met. viii. 222, Ar. Am. ii. 81; Koss, lieiten aufden Griech. Inseln, vol. ii. p. 56.)

LEBONAH, a town of Palestine, north of Shilob, identified by Maundrell with Leban, a village 4 hours S. of Naplus. (Judg. xxi. 19; Winer, Biblisch, Realworterbuch, a. ».)

LEBUNI. [lusitania.]

LECHAEUM. [cokinthxs, p. 682.]

LECTOCE, Al), in Gallia Naibuuensis, is placed by the Jerusalem Itin. after Arausio (Orange), and xiii. M.P. from it D'Anville says that the distance is too great, for it seems that the place is at the passage of the small river Lez. [G. L.]

LECTUM (to AtKToV), a promontory in the south-west of Troas, opposite the island of Lesbos. It forms the south-western termination of Mount Ida. (Horn. Kiiv. 294; Herod, ix. 114; Thucyd. viii. 101 ; PtoL v. 2. § 4; Plin. v. 32; Liv. xxxvii. 37.) In the time of Strabo (xiii. p. 605, camp, p. 583) there was shown on Cape Lectum an altar, said to have been erected by Agamemnon to the twelve great gods; but this very number is a proof of the late origin of the altar. Under the Byzantine emperors, Lectum was the northernmost point of the province of Asia. (Hierocl. p. 659.) Athenaeus (iii. p. 88) states that the purple shell-fish, found near Lectum as well as near Sigeum, was of a large size. The modem name of Lectum is Baba, or Santa Maria. [L. S.]

LE'CYTHUS (mikvbos), a town in the peninsula of Sithonia in Chalcidice, not far from Torone, with a temple to Athena. The town was attacked by Brasidas, who took it by storm, and consecrated the entire cape to the goddess. Everything was demolished except the temple and the buildings conliected with it. (Thuc iv. 115, 116.) [E. B. J.]

LEDERA'TA or LAEDERATA (AeSfporo and Acrtpard), a fortified place in Upper Moesia, on the high road from Viminacium to Dacia, on the river Morgus. It was a station for a detachment of horse archers. (Procop. de Aed. iv. 6; Tab. Petit.; Notit. Imp., where it is called Laedenata.) Ruins of ancient fortifications, commonly identified with the site of Lederata, are found in the neighbourhood of Rama. [L. S.]

LEDON (AtSir; Eth. Attirrtot), a town of Phocis, north of Tithorea, the birthplace of Philomelas, the commander of the Phocians in the Sacred War. In the time of Pausanias it was abandoned by the inhabitants, who settled upon the Cephigsus, at the distance of 40 stadia from the town, but the ruins of the latter were seen by Pausanias. Leake supposes that the ruins at Paled Fiva are those of Ledon. (Paus. x. 2. § 2, x. 3. § 2, x. 33. § 1; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 89.)

LEDRON (Aij!po"), a place in Cyprus, near Leucosia, which the ecclesiastical writers mention as a bishop's see. (Sozomen, II.E. v. 10; Niceph. Callist. viii. 42; Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 152.) [E. B. J.]

LEDUS, or LEDUM, as Mela (ii. 5) names it, a small river of Gallia Narbonensis. Festus Avienus (Ov. Marti. 590) names it Ledus. Mela speaks of the "Stagna Volcarutn, Ledum flumen, castcllum Latera." The Ledus is the Lez, which passes by Sextantio, to the east of Montpellier, and flows into the E'tang de Maguelone or Perots below Latera, now Lata or Latte. Pliny (ix. 8) gives the name of Stagnum Latera to this E'tang, and he speaks of it as abounding in mullets, and describes the way of taking them. The mullet is still abundant there. Pliny places the Stagnum Latera in the territory of Nemausus (Nitnet), which is at some distance. But the E'tang and the Castcllum Latera may be among the many small places (Plin. iii. 4) which were ■ mule dependant on Nemausus (Nemausiensibus attribiita). [G. L.]

LEETA'NI. [laisetasi.]

I.EGAE (Ariyai, Strab. xi. p. 503; Avyes, Plut. Pomp. 35). a people on the shores of the Caspian, situated between Albania and the Amaxoncs, and

I belonging to the Scythian stock. (Theophanes, ap. Strab. I. c.) The name survives, it has been conjectured, in the modern Letghi, the inhabitants of the E. region of Caucasus. (Comp. Potocki, Voyage danslesStepsdAstrakhan,vi>l.\. p.239.) [E.B.J.]

LEGEDIA, in Gallia, is placed by the Table on a road from Condate (Rennet) to Coriallum, perhaps Cherbourg. It is 49 Gallic leagues from Condate to Legedia, and 19 from Legedia to Cosedia. None of the geographers agree about the position of Legedia. Walckcnaer places it at Villebaudon, near Lezeau, in support of which there is some similarity of name. [G. L.]

LEGEOLIUM, a town in Britain, mentioned in the Itinerary. At Castleford, in Yorkshire, the raid from Isurium (Aldboroiigh) crosses the river Aire; and in this neighbourhood coins and other antiquities have been dug up. A camp, however, has yet to be discovered. Castleford is generally identified with Legeolium.

Lagecium is the first station from York on the way to London, 21 miles from the former town, and 16 from Danum ( = Doncatter). This is from the 8th Itinerary.

In the 5th Legeolium is exactly in the same position. This identifies the two. [RG.L]

LE'GIO (Atytiiv), a town of Palestine mentioned by Eusebius and S. Jerome. Its importance is intimated by the fact that it is assumed by them as a centre from which to measure the distance of other places. Thus they place it 15 M. P. west of Nazareth, three or four from Taanach (Onomast. t. vv. Nazareth, Thaanach, Thanaach Camona, Aphraim.) Reland (Palaest. t. v. p. 873) correctly identifies it with the modern village Legune or el-Lejjun, "on the western border of the great plain of Esdraelon,"— which Eusebius and S. Jerome designate, from this town, fUya vtblov Atytutvos (Onomast. t. v. raSaSwp), — "where it already begins to rise gently towards the low range of wooded hills which connect Carmel and the mountains of Samaria.'' Its identity with the Megiddo of Scripture is successfully argued by Dr. Robinson (Bio. Ret. vol. iii. pp. 177—180.) Megiddo is constantly joined with Taanach, and Lejjun is the requisite distance from the village of Ta'annuk, which is directly south of it. Both were occupied by Canaanitish sheikhs (Josh, xii. 21), both assigned to the half-tribe of Manasseh, though lying within the borders of Issachar or Asher (xvii. 11; 1 Chron. vii. 29); both remained long unsubdued (Judges, i. 27). In the battle between Barak and Sisera "they fought in Taanach by the Waters of Megiddo,"—which waters issue from a copious fountain, the stream from which turns several mills, and is an important tributary to the Kishon (Maundrell, Journey, March 22, p. 57.) This is probably the place mentioned by Shaw as the Rat-el-Kishon, or the head of the Kishon, under the south-east brow of Mount Carmel. Three or four of its sources, he says, lie within less than a furlong of each other, and discharge water enough to form a river half as big as the Isis. (Travels, p. 274, 4to. ed.) It was visited and described by Mr. Wolcott in 1842. He found it to be an hour and 40 minutes from Ta'annuk (Bibliotheca Sacra, 1843, pp. 76—78.) The great caravan road between Egypt and Damascus passes through Lejjun; and traces of an old Roman road are to be seen to the south of the village. [(.!. W.]

LEGIO VII. GEMINA (Itin. Ant. p. 395; A*y'mv £ Vtpaavmii, Ptol. ii. 6. § 30: Leon), a Roman city of Astoria, in Hispania Tarraconensis, admirably situated at the confluence of two tributaries of the Etla, at the foot of the Astnrian mountains, commanding and protecting the plain of Leon. As its name implies, it grew out of the station of the new 7th legion, which was raised by the emperor Galba in Hispania. (Dion Cass. iv. 24; Tac. Hist.

ii. 11, iii. 25; Suet. Galba, 10.) Tacitus calls the legion Galbiana, to distinguish it from the old Lkgio VII. Claudia, but this appellation is not found on any genuine inscriptions. It appears to have received the appellation of Gemina (respecting the use of which, and Gemella, see Caesar B. C.

iii. 3) on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions, not improbably the Leoio I. Germanica. Its full name was VII. Gemina Felix. After serving in Fannonia, and in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespasian in Hispania Tarraconensis, to supply the place of the VI. Victrix and X. Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but which had been withdrawn to Germany. (Tac. Hist ii. 11, 67, 86, iii. 7, 10, 21—25, iv. 39; Inter, ap. Gruter, p. 245, no. 2.) That its regular winter quarters, under later emperors, were at Leon, we learn from the Itinerary, Ptolemy, and the Notitia Imperii, as well as from a few inscriptions (Muratori, p. 2037, no. 8, A.D. 130; p. 335, nos. 2, 3, A. D. 163; p. 336, no. 3, A. D. 167; Gruter, p. 260, no. 1, A. D. 216); but there are numerous inscriptions to prove that a strong detachment of it was stationed at Tarraco, the chief city of the province. (The following are a selection, in order of time :—Orelli, no. 3496, A.D. 182; no. 4815; Gruter, p. 365, no. 7.) In the inscriptions the legion has the surnames of P. F. Antonihiaha, P. F. AlexanDriana, and P. F. Severiaxa Alexawdriana; and its name occurs in a Greek inscription as AET. Z. AIAiJ/nj (C /. vol. iii. no. 4022), while another mentions a xiklapxov i* 'Immtf \(ytu>ms 465o/ins. (C. /. vol. i. no. 1126.) There is an inscription in which is found a " Tribunus Militiun Leo. VII. GeMinae Felicis In Germasia," from a comparison of which with two inscriptions found in Germany (Lehne, Schriflen, vol. i. nos. 11, 62; Borghesi, suite iter. Rom. del Reno, p. 26), it has been inferred that the legion was employed on an expedition into Germany under Alexander Severus, and that this circumstance gave rise to the erroneous designation of reppaviK'fi in the text of Ptolemy. (Booking, N. D. pt. ii. pp. 1026, seq.; Marquardt's Becker, Rom. Alterthum. vol. iii. pt. 2, p. 354; Grotefend, in Pauly's Realencyklopadie, s. v. Legio.)

The station of this legion in Asturia grew into an important city, which resisted the attacks of the Goths till A. D. 586, when it was taken by Leovigildo; and it was one of the few cities which the Goths allowed to retain their fortifications. During the struggle with the Arab invaders, the same fortress, which tho Romans had built to protect the plain from the incursions of the mountaineers, became the advanced post which covered the mountain, as the last refuge of Spanish independence. After yielding to the first assault of the Moors, it was soon recovered, and was restored by Ordono I. in 850. It was again taken by Al-Mansur in 996, after a year's siege; but was recovered after AlMansur's defeat at Culatanazor, about A. D. 1000; ri'[KN>pled by Alonso V., and enlarged by AluusoXI., under whose successor, Don Pedro, it ceased to be

the capital of the kingdom of Leon, by the removal

of the court to Seville. The greater portion of the Roman walls may still be traced. (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 318.) [P. S.]

LEHI, or more fully Ramathlehi, a place in the south of Palestine, the name of which is derived from one of Samson's exploits. (Judg. xv. 9, 14,17; comp. Joseph. Ant v. 8. § 8; Winer, Biblisch. Recdworterbuch, s. ©.)

LEIMO'NE (Afi/ia-ii)). the later name of the Homeric Elone ('hai4>tj), according to Strabo, was a town of Perrhaebia in Thessaly, and was situated at the foot of Mount Olympus, not far from the Titaresius or Eurotas. The Greeks of EUutona report that there are some remains of this city at Seloe. (Horn. II. ii. 739; Strab. ix. p. 440; Steph. B. s. v. 'HAtirn; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 345.)

LE1NUM (A^ivox), a town of Sarmatia Europaea, which Ptolemy (iii. 5. § 29) places on an affluent of the Borysthenes, but whether on the Beretina, or some other, is uncertain. Liam M (Atlavov, Ptol. iii. 5. § 12), on the Pains Maeotis, appears to be the same place repeated by an oversight. (Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 512.) [E. B. J.]

LEIPSYDRIUM. [attica, p. 326, b.]

LELAMNCNIUS SINUS, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3) as lying between the aestuary of the Clota (Clyde) and the Epidian Promontory (Mull of Cantyre); = Loch Fyne. [R. G. L.]

LELANTUS CAMPUS (to Afaarrov »«oW), a fertile plain in Euboea, between Chalcis and Eretria, which was an object of frequent contention between those cities. [chalcis.] It was the subject of volcanic action. Strabo relates that on one occasion a torrent of hot mud issned from it; and it contained some warm springs, which were used by the dictator Sulla. The plain was also celebrated for its vineyards; and in it there were mines of copper and iron. (Strab. i. p. 58, x. p. 447, seq. ; Horn. Hymn, in A poll. 219; Theogn. 888; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 265.) Pliny mentions a river Lelantus in Euboea, which must have flowed through this plain, if it really existed. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 21.)

LE'LEGES (A*A67«s), an ancient race which was spread over Greece, the adjoining islands, and the Asiatic coast, before the Hellenes. They were so widely diffused that we must either suppose that their name was descriptive, and applied to several different tribes, or that it was the name of a single tribe and was afterwards extended to others. Strabo (vii. p. 322) regarded them as a mixed race, and was disposed to believe that their name had reference to this (to (tuaacktous rfeyovivai). They may pro bably be looked upon, like the Pclasgians and the other early inhabitants of Greece, as members of the great Indo-Europoan race, who became gradually incorporated with the Hellenes, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.

The most distinct statement of ancient writers on the origin of the Leleges is that of Herodotus, who Bays that the name of Li leges was the ancient name of the Carians (Herod, i. 171). A later Greek writer considered the Leleges as standing in the same relation to the Carians as the Helots to tho Lacedaemonians and the Pcnestae to the Thessalians. (Athen. vi. p. 271.) In Homer both Leleges and Carians appear as equals, and as auxiliaries of the Trojans. (//. x. 428.) The Leleges are ruled by Altes, the father-iu-law of Priam, and iuhabit a town called Pedasus at the foot of Mount Ida. (It xxi. 86.) Strata relates that Leleges and Carians once occnpied the whole of Ionia, and that in the Milesian territory and in all Garia tombs and forts of the Leleges were shown. He farther says that the two were so intermingled that they were frequently regarded as the same people. (Strab. vii. p. 321, xiii. p. 611.) It would therefore appear that there was some close connection between the Leleges and Carians, though they were probably different peoples. The Leleges seem at one time to have occupied a considerable part of the western coast of Asia Minor. They were the earliest known inhabitants of Samoa. (Athen. xv. p. 672.) The connection of the Leleges and the Carians was probably the foundation of the Megarian tradition, that in the twelfth generation after Car, Lelex came over from Egypt to Megara, and gave his name to the people (Pans. L 39. § 6) ; but their Egyptian origin was evidently an invention of later times, when it became the &shion to derive the civilisation of Greece from that of Egypt. A grandson of this I.elex is said to have led a colony of Megarian Leleges into Messenia, where they founded Pylus, and remained until they were driven out by Nelens and the Pelasgians from Iolcos; whereupon they took possession of Pylus in Elis. (Pans. v. 36. § 1.) The Lacedaemonian traditions, on the other hand, represented the Leleges as the autochthons of Lacon ia ; they spoke of Lelex as the first native of the soil, from whom tie people were called Leleges and the land Lelegia; and the son of this Lelex is said to have been the first king of Messenia. (Pans, iii. 1. § 1, iv. I. §§ I, 5.) Aristotle seems to have regarded Leucadia, or the western parts of Acarnania, as the original seats of the Leleges ; for, according to this writer, Lelex was the autochthon of Leucadia, and from him were descended the Teleboans, the ancient inhabitants of the Taphian islands. He also regarded them as the same people as the Locrians, in which he appears to have followed the authority of Hesiod, who spoke of them as the subjects of Locrus, and as produced from the stones with which Deucalion repeopled the earth after the deluge. (Strab. vii. pp. 321, 322.) Hence all the inhabitants of Mount Parnassus, Locrians, Phocians, Boeotians, and others, are sometimes described as Leleges. (Comp. Dionys. Hal. i. 17.) (See Thirlwall, Hist of Greece, vol. i. p. 42, seq.)

LEMANIS PORTUS (Kau-oi Ai^k, PtoL ii. 3. § 4), one of the chief seaports of Britain, situated in the territories of the Cantii; the site near Lymne, in Kent The road from Durovernum to Portus Lemanis (/(in. Anton, iv.) is extant nearly its entire length, and known by the name of Stone Street

The harbour or port is no longer to be traced, owing to the silting np of the sea; but it must have been situated opposite to West Hythe and Lymne. The remains of the cast rum, called Stutfall Cattle, to the west of West Hythe, and below Lymne, indicate the quarters of the Tnrnacensian soldiers stationed there in defence of the Littus Saxonicum. (.Vo(. Dig.) Recent discoveries have shown that a body of marines (Classiarii Britannici) were also .ocated at the Portus Lemanis, and at Dubris (Dover). An altar was also found, recording the name of a prefect of the British fleet. (Report on Excavations made at Lymne.') The Portus Lemanis is laid down in the Peutingerian Tables, and it is mentioned by the anonymous Geographer of Uavcuna.

The Roman station was situated on the slope of a hill. Like that of Richborovgh (Rutupiae), it was walled on three sides only; the side facing the sea being sufficiently defended by nature in a steep bank, such as we see at other Roman castra where the engineers have availed themselves of a natural defence to save the expense and labour of building walls. The fortress enclosed about 10 acres. The walls, in part only now standing, were upwards of 20 ft. high, and about 10 ft, thick; they were further strengthened by semicircular solid towers. The principal entrance was on the east, facing the site of the village of West Hythe. It was supported by two smaller towers, and, as recent excavations prove, by other constructions of great strength. Opposite to this, on the west, was a postern gate, of narrow dimensions. At some, remote period the castrum was shattered by a land-slip, and the lower part was carried away, and separated entirely from the upper wall, which alone stands in its original position. To this cause is to be ascribed the present disjointed and shattered condition of the lower part. Parts of the wall and the great gateway were completely buried. The excavations alluded to brought them to light, and enabled a plan to be made. Within the area were discovered the walls of one of the barracks, and a large house with several rooms heated by a hypocaust [C. R. S.]

LEMANUS or LEMANNUS LACUS (Attfroi, Affiirri Aliwn: Leman Lake or Lake of Geneva). Caesar says (B. G. i. 8) that he drew his rampart against the Helvetii "from the Lacus Lemannus, which flows into the Rhone, as far as the Jura;" a form of expression which some of the commentators have found fault with and altered without any reason. The name tufiivri Afarr) in Ptolemy's text (ii. 10. § 2) is merely a copyist's error In the Antonine Itin. the name Lausonius Lacus occurs; and in the Table, Losannensis Lacus. Mela (ii. 5), who supposes the Rhodanus to rise not far from the sources of the Rhenus and the Ister, says that, "after being received in the Lemannus Lacus, the river maintains its current, and flowing entire through it, runs out as large as it came in." Strata (p. 271) basaremarktothesame purpose, and Pliny (ii. 103), and Ammianus Marcellinns (xv. 11). This is not the fact, as we may readily suppose, though the current of the Rhone is perceptible for some distance after the river has entered the east end of the lake of Geneva. Ausonius (De Clar. Urb. Narbo) makes the lake the chief source of the Rhodanus:— Qua rapitnr praeceps Rhodanus genitore Lemanno;

but this poetical embellishment needs no remark.

The Lake of Geneva is an immense hollow filled by the Rhone and some smaller streams, and is properly described under another title. [rhodaNus.] [G. L.]

LEMA'VI. [gallaecia.]

LEMINCUM, in Gallia Nartanensis, is placed in the Table and the Antonine Itin. on a road from the Alpis Graia (Little St. Bernard) to Vienna ( Vienne). Lemincum is Lemens, near Chambery, and there is also, according to some authorities, a Mont Lemmc. The next station to Lemincum on the road to Vienna is Labiscnm. [labiscum.] [G. L.]

LEMNOS (Afifiyos: Eth. A^ukioj), one of tho larger islands in tho Aegaean sea, situated nearly midway between Mount Athos and the Hellespont According to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 23). it lay 22 miles SW. of Jmbros, and 87 miles SE. of Athos; but the latter is nearly double the true distance. Several ancient writers, however, state that Mount Athos cast its shadow upon the island. (Soph. ap. Schol. ad Theocr. vi. 76; Plin. I. c.) Pliny also relates that I-emnos is 112 miles in circuit, which is perhaps not far from the truth, if we reckon all the windings of the coast. Its area is nearly 150 square miles. It is of an irregular quadrilateral shape, being nearly divided into two peninsulas by two deep bays, Port Paradise on the N., and Port St Antony on the S. The latter is a large and convenient harbour. On the eastern side of the island is a bold rock projecting into the sea, called by Aeschylus 'Epfuuov \fwat Afiitmu, in his description of the beacon fires between Mount Ida and Mycenae, announcing the capture of Troy. (Aesch. Agam. 283; comp. Soph. PhilocL 1459.) Hills, but of no great height, cover two-thirds of the island ; they are barren and rocky, and there are very few trees, except in some of the narrow valleys. The whole island bears the strongest marks of the effects of volcanic fire, the rocks, in many places, are like the buint and vitrified scoria of furnaces. Hence we may account for its connection with Hephaestus, who, when hurled from heaven by Zens, is said to have fallen upon Lemnos. (Horn. II. i. 594.) The island was therefore sacred to Hephaestus (Nicandr. Ther. 458; Ov. Fast. iii. 82), who was frequently called the Lemnian god. (Ov. Met. iv. 185; Virg. Aen. viii. 454.) From its volcanic appearance it derived its name of Aethaleia (Ai'flcUfin, Polyb. ap. Steph. B., and Etym. M. ». v. AiOoAn). It was also related that from one of its mountains, called Mosychlus (movi/y\os), fire was seen to blaze forth. (Antimach. ap. Schol. ad Nicandr. Ther. 472; Lycophr. 227; Hcsych. ». ».) In a village in the islnnd, named Choroas, there is a hot-spring, called Thcrmia, where a commodious bath has been built, with a lodging-house for strangers, who frequent it for iU supposed medicinal qualities. The name of Lemnos in said to have been derived from the name of the Great Goddess, who was called Lemnos by the original inhabitants of the island. (Hecat. ap. Steph. B. s.v.)

The earliest inhabitants of Lemnos, according to Homer, were the Sixties (2ivti?j), a Thracian tribe; a name, however, which probably only signifies robbers (from alvOriai). (Horn. II. i. 594, OcL viii. 294; Strab. vii. p. 331, x. p. 457, xii. p. 549.) When the Argonauts landed at Lemnos, they are said to have found it inhabited only by women, who had murdered all tlieir husbands, and had chosen as their queen Hypsipyle, the daughter of Thoas, the former King of the island. [See Diet of Biogr. art, Hypsifyi-e.] Some of the Argonauts bet tied here, and became by the Lemnian women the fathers of the Misyae (MtfiJat)i tne later inhabitants of the island. The Minyae were driven out of the island by the Tyrrhenian Pelasgians, who had been expelled from Attica. (Herod, iv. 145, vi. 137; Apoll. Rhod. i. 608, seq , and Schol.; Apollod. i. 9. § 17, iii. 6. § 4.) It is also related that these Pelasgians, out of revenge, made a descent upon the coast of Attica during the festival of Artemis at Brauron, and carried off some Athenian women, whom they made their concubines; but, as the children of these women despised their half-brothers born of Pebsgian women, the l'clasgians murdered both them and their Athenian mothers. In consequence of this atrocity, and of the former murder of the Lemnian husbands by their wives. " Lemnian Deeds" (Anuria

*P7«) became a proverb throughout Greece for all atrocious acts. (Herod, vi. 128; Eustath. ad II. p. 158. 11, ad Dionys. Per. 347; Zenob. iv. 91.) Lemnos continued to be inhabited by Pelasgians, when it was conquered by Otanes, one of the generals of Darins Hystaspis (Herod, v. 26); but Miltiades delivered it from the Persians, and made it subject to Athens, in whose power it remained for a long time. (Herod, vi. 137; Thuc. iv. 28, vii. 57.) In fact, it was always regarded as an Athenian possession, and accordingly the peace of Antalcidas, which declared the independence of all the Grecian states, nevertheless allowed the Athenians to retain possession of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros. (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 15, v. 1. § 31.) At a later period Lemnos passed into the hands of the Macedonians, but it was restored to the Athenians by the Romans. (Polyb. xxx. 18.)

In the earliest times, Lemnos appears to have contained only one town, which bore the same name as the island (Horn, it xiv. 230); but at a later period we find two towns, Myrina and Hephaestias. Myrika (MiipiKo: Eth. Mupivoios) stood on the western side of the island, as we may infer from the statement of Pliny, that the shadow of Mt. Atlios was visible in the forum of the city at the time of the summer solstice. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Hend. vi. 140; Steph. B. s. v.; Ptol. iii. 13. § 4.) On it* site stands the modem Kastro, which is still the chief town in the place. In contains about 2000 inhabitants; and its little port is defended by a pier, and commanded by a ruinous mediaeval fortress on the overhanging rocks. Hephaestias, or HeFHAESTIA ('HataiffTias, 'H<p£uor(a: Eth. 'H<paioTteus), was situated in the northern part of the island. (Herod., Plin., Ptol. tt.ee.; Steph. B.s. r.) There are coins of Hephaestia (see below), but none of Myrina, and nono bearing the name of the island. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 51.)

According to Pliny (xxxvi. 13. s. 19) Lemnos had a celebrated labyrinth, supported by 150 columns, and with gates so well poised, that a child could open them. Pliny adds, that there were still traces of it in his time. Dr. Hunt, who visited the island in 1801, attempted to find out the ruins of this labyrinth, and was directed to a subterraneous staircase in an uninhabited part of the island, near a bay, called Porniah. He hero found extensive ruins of an ancient and strong building that seemed to have had a ditch round it communicating with the sea. "The edifices have covered about 10 acres of ground; there are foundations of an amazing number of small buildings within the outer wall, each about seven feet square. The walls towards the sea are strong, and composed of large square blocks of stone. On an elevated spot of ground in one corner of the area, we found a subterraneous staircase, and, after lighting our tapers, we went down into it. The entrance was difficult: it consisted of 51 steps, and about every twelfth one was of marble, the others of common stone. At the bottom is a small chamber with a well in it, by which probably the garrison was supplied: a censer, a lamp, and a few matches, were lying in a comer, for the use of the Greek Christians, who call this well an Aylairua, or Holy Fountain, and the rains about it Panagia Coceipee. The peasant* in the neighbourhood had no knowledge of any sculpture, or statues, or medals having ever been found there." It docs not appear, however, that these ruins have any relation to the labyrinth

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