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scribed by Mnrili ( Viaggi, vol. i. p. 204), situated to the south of Leucosia, at the foot of Mount Olympus. [E. B. J.J

IDIMIUM, a towji in Lower Pannonia, on the east of Sirminm, according to the Peut. Tab.; in the Ravenna Geographer (iv. 19) it is called Idominium. Its site must be looked for in the neighbourhood of Munvicza. [L. S.]

IDIMUS, a town of uncertain site in Upper Moesia, probably on the Morawa in Servia. (It. Ant. 134; Tab. Peut.) [L. S.]

IDISTAVISUS CAMPUS, the famous battlefield where Gennanicus, in A. n. 16, defeated Arininius. The name is mentioned only by Tacitus (Arm. ii. 16), who describes it as a "campus meriius inter Visurgim et colles," and further says of it, that41 ut ripae ftuminis cedunt aut prominentia montium resistunt, inaequalitcr sinuatur. Pone tergum iusurgebat silva, editis in altum ramis et pura humo inter arborum truncos." This plain between the river Weser and the hills has been the subject of much discussion among the modem historians of Germany, and various places have been at different times pointed out as answering the description of Tacitus' Idistavisus. It was formerly believed that it was the plain near Vegesack, below Bremen; more recent writers are pretty unanimous in believing that Geriranicus went up the river Weser to a point beyond the modern town of Minden, and crossed it in the neighbourhood of Hausberge, whence the battle probably took place between Hausberge and Rinteln, not far from the Porta Vestphalica. (Ledebur, Land u. Volk der Bructerer, p. 288.) As to the name of the place, it used to be believed that it had arisen out of a Roman asking a German what the place was, and the German answering, " It is a wiese" (it is a meadow); but Grimm (Deutsche Afythol. p. 372. 2nd edit.) has shown that the plain was probably called Idisiaeiso, that is," the maiden's meadow" (from idisi, a maiden). [L. S.]

IDO'MENE CKoaiirn, Ptol. iii. 13. § 39 ; Momenta, reut. Tab.), a town of Macedonia which the Tabular Itinerary places at 12 M. P. from Stena, the pass now called Demirkapi, or Iron Gate, on the river Vardhdri. Sitalces, on his route from Thrace to Macedonia, crossed Mt. Ccrcinc, leaving the Paeoues on his right, and the Sinti and Maedi on his left, and descended upon the Axius at Idotnene. (Time. ii. 98.) It probably stood upon the right bank of the Axius, as it is included by Ptolemy (/, c.) in Emathia. and was near Doberus, next to which it is named by Hierocles among the towns of Consular Macedonia, under the Byzantine empire. (Leake. North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 444.) [E. B. J.]

IDO'MENE. [akgos Amphilochicum.]

IDHAE ("ISpat, Ptol. iii. 5. § 23), a people of Sarumtia Europaea, whose position cannot be made out from the indications given by Ptolemy. (Schafa.ik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 213.) [E. B. J.]

I'DRIAS ('ISpidt), according to Stephanus B. (*. t\), a town in Caria which had formerly borne the name of Chrysaoris. Herodotus (v. 118) desmbes the river Marsyas as flowing from a district called Idrias ; and it is conjectured that Stratoniceia, founded by Antiochus Soter, was built on the site of the ancient town of Idrias. (Coinp. Leake, Asia Minor, p. 235 ; see Laodiceia.) [L. S.]

IDU'BEDA ("ISoyfifSo, misspelt by Agathemerus 'lyoouffoASa, ii. 9: Sierra de Oca and Sierra de Jsttrntzii), a great mountain chain of Hispania, running in a SE. direction from the mountains of

the Cantnbri to the Mediterranean, almost parallel to the Kbro, the basin of which it borders on the W. Strabo makes it also parallel to the Pyrenees, in conformity with his view of the direction of that chain from N. to S. (Strab. iii. p. 161; Ptol. ii. 6. §21.) Its chief offsets were: — M. Caunus. near Bilbilis (Martial, i. 49, iv. 55), the Sai.tus ManLianus (Liv. xl. 39: probably the Sierra Molina), and, above all, M. Ohospkda, which strikes off from it to the S. long before it reaches the sea, and which ought perhaps rather to be regarded as its principal prolongation than as a mere branch. [P. S.]

IDUMAEA ('l&ovpLa7a), "18 name of the country inhabited by the descendants of Edom (or Esau), being, in fact, only the classical form of that ancient Semitic name. (Joseph. Ant. ii. 1. § I.) It is otherwise called Mount Seir. (Gen. xxxii. 3, xxxvi. 8; Deut. ii. 5; Joshua, xxiv. 4.) It lay between Mount Horeb and the southern border of Canaan (Deut. i. 2), extending apparently as far south as the GtdfofAkaba (Deut. ii. 2-^8), as indeed its ports, Ezion-geber, and Eloth, are expressly assigned to the " land of Edom." (2 Chron. viii. 17.) This country was inhabited in still more ancient times by the Horims (Deut. ii. 12, 22), and derived its more ancient name from their patriarch Seir (Gen. xxxvi. 20; comp. xiv. 6), as is properly maintained by Reland, against the fanciful conjecture of Joseplms and others, (Palaeslina, pp. 68, 69.) The Jewish historian extends the name Idumaea so far to the north as to comprehend under it great part of the south of Judaea; as when he says that the tribe of Simeon received as their inheritance that part of Idumaea which borders on Egypt and Arabia. (-In*, v. 1. § 22) He elsewhere calls Hebron the first city of Idumaea, i.e. reckoning from the north. (B.J. iv. 9. § 7.) From his time tne name Idumaea disappears from geographical descriptions, except as an historical appellation of the country that was then called Gebalene, or the southern desert (ij Kot4 fito-nuSptav ipijuos, Euseb. Onom. s. v. A:\du). or Arabia. The historical records of tho Idumaeans, properly so called, are very scanty. Saul made war upon them; David subdued the whole country; and Solomon made Ezion-geber a naval station. (1 Sam. xiv. 47, 2 Sunt. viii. 14; 1 Kings, xi. 15, ix. 26.) The Edomites, however, recovered their national independence under Joram, king of Judah (2 Kings, xiv. 7), and avenged themselves on the Jews in the cruelties which they practised at the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. (Psalms, exxxvii. 7.) It was probably during the Babylonish captivity that they extended themselves as far north as Hebron, where they were attacked and sulxlued by Judas Maccabacus (1 Maccab. v. 65—68; Joseph. Ant. xii. 8. § 6.) It was on this account that the whole of the south of Palestine, about Hebron, Gaza, and Eleutheropolis (Beit Jebrin), came to be designated Idumaea. (Joseph. B. J. iv. 9. § 7, c. Apion. ii. 9; S. Jerom. Comment, in Obad. ver. 1.) Meanwhile, the ancient seats of the children of Edom had been invaded and occupied by another tribe, the Nabathaeans, the descendants of the Ishmaelite patriarch Nebaioth [nabathaei], under which name the country and its capital [petra] became famous among Greek and Roman geographers and historians, on which account their description of the district is more appropriately given under that head. St. Jerome's brief but accurate notice of its general features may here suffice: — '* Oinnis australis regio Iduumeorum de Eleutheropoll usqne ad Pet ram et Ailam (haec est possessio Esau) in specubas habitatiunculas habet; et propter nimios calores solis, quia meridiana provincia est, subterraneis tuguriis utitur." (Comment, in Obad. w. 5, 6.) And again, writing of the same country, he says that south of Tekoa " ultra nullos est viculus, ne agrestes quidem casae et funiorum similes, quas Afri appellant mapalia. Tanta est eremi vastitas, quae usque ad Mare Rubrum Persaromque et Acthiopum atque Iudorum terminos dilatatur. Et quia humi arido atque arenoso nihil omnino frugum gignitur, cuncta sunt plena -pastoribas, ut sterilitatem terrae compeuset pecorum multitudine." (Prolog, ad Amosnm.) [G. W.]

IDUNUM, a town in the extreme south of Pannonia (PtoL ii. 14. § 3), which, from inscriptions found on the spot, is identified with the modern Judenburg. [L. S.]

JEBUS, JEBUSI'TES. [jerusalem.] JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF. [jeruSalem.]

IENA, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii 3. § 2) as an estuary between the outlets of the rivers Abravannus and Deva to the south of the promontory of the Novantae (= Wigton Bay). [R. G. L.]

lEKABRl'GA. [arabrioa.]

JEK1CHO ('Uptx&, 'Uptxovs, Strab.), a strongly fortified city of the Canaanites, miraculously taken by Joshua, who utterly destroyed it, and prohibited it from being rebuilt under pain of an anathema (Josh. ii. vi.)( which was braved and incurred by Hiel of Bethel, five centuries afterwards, in the reign of Aliab, king of Israel. (1 Kings, xvi. 34.) It then became a school of the prophets. (2 Kings, ii. 4, 5.) It lay in the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned (Josh, xviii. 12, 21), but was not far from the southern borders of Ephraim (xvi. 1). It is mentioned in the New Testament in connection with the wealthy revenue-farmer Zacchaeus, who resided there, and probably farmed the government dues of its rich and well cultivated plain. Josephus describes it as well situated, and fruitful in palms and balsam. (Ant. ft. 8. § 1, B. J. i. 6. § 6.) He places the city 60 stadia from the Jordan, 150 from Jerusalem (B. J. iv. 8- § 3), the intervening country being a rocky desert. He accounts for the narrow limits of the tribe of Benjamin by the fact that Jericho was included in that tribe, the fertility of which far surpassed the richest soil in other parts of Palestine (§§ 21, 22). Its plain was 70 stadia long by 20 wide, irrigated by the waters of the fountain of Elisha, which possessed almost miraculous properties. (Ant iv. 8. §§ 2. 3.) It was one of the eleven toparehies of Judaea. (B. J. iii. 2.) Its palm grove was granted by Antony to Cleopatra (i. 18. § 5), and the subsequent possession of this envied district by Herod the Great, who first farmed the revenues for Cleopatra, and then redeemed them (Ant xiv. 4. §§ 1,2), proliably gave occasion to the proverbial use of his name in Horace (Ep. ii. 2. 184): —

"cessare et ludere et ungi, Praeferat Herodis palmetis pinguibus."

It is mentioned by Strabo(xvi. p. 763) and Pliny (v. 14) in connection with its palm-trees and fountains. The former also alludes to the palace and its garden of balsam, the cultivation and collecting of which is more fully described by Pliny (xii. 25).

The palace was built by Herod the Great, as his own residence, and there it was tliat he died;

having first confined in the hippodrome the moat illustrious men of the country, with the intention that they should be massacred after his death, that there might be a general mourning throughout the country on that occurrence. (B. J. i. 33. § 6.) Josephus further mentions that Jericho was visited by Vespasian shortly before he quitted the country, where he left the tenth legion (B.J.lv.8. §1,9. §1); but he does not mention its destruction by Titus on account jff the perfidy of its inhabitants; a fact which is supplied by Eusebius and St. Jerome. They add that a third city had been built in its stead; but that the ruins of both the former were still to be seen (Onomast 8. v.) The existing ruins can only be referred to this latest city, which is frequently mentioned in the mediaeval pilgrimages. They stand on the skirts of the mountain country that shuts in the valley of the Jordan on the west, about three hours distant from the river. They are very extensive, but present nothing of interest. The waters of the fountain of Elisha, now 'Ain es-Sultan, well answer to the glowing description of Josephus, and still fertilise the soil in its immediate neighbourhood. But the palms, balsam, sugar-canes, and roses, fur which this Paradise was formerly celebrated, have all disappeared, and the modern Rika consists only of the tents of a Bedouin encampment. [G. W.]

I ERNE, is a better form for the ancient name of Ireland than Hihkkma, Ibkknia, Ivernia, &c, both as being nearer the present Gaelic name Eri, and as being the oldest form which occurs. It is the form found in Aristotle. It is also the form found in the poem attributed to Orpheus on the Argonautic expedition, which, spurious as it is, may nevertheless be as old as the time of Onomacritus (i. e. the reign of the first Darius): —

vfyrourtw 'I^ovunr iaoov ticwftcu.

(Orpheus, 1164, ed. Leipzig, 1764.)

Aristotle (de Mundo, c 3) writes, that in the ocean beyond the Pillars of Hercules "are two islands, called Britannic, very large, Albion and lerne. beyond the Celtae." In Diodorus Siculus (v. 32) the form is Iris; the island Iris being occupied by Britons, who were cannibals. Strata (ii. p. 107) makes lerne the farthest voyage northwards from Celtic*. It was too cold to be other than barely habitable, the parts beyond it being absolutely uninhabited. The reported distance from Cehica is 500 stadia. The same writer attributes cannibalism to the Irian; adding, however, that his authority, which was probably the same as that of Diodorus, was insufficient. The form in Pomponius Mela is Irerna. In Iverna the luxuriance of the herbage is so great as to cause the cattle who feed on it to burst, unless occasionally taken off. Pliny's form is Hybernia (iv. 30). Solinns, whose form is Hibernia, repeats the statement of Mela as to the pasture, and adds that no snakes are found there. Warlike beyond the rest of her sex, the Hil>eruian mother, on the birth of a male child, places the first morsel of food in his mouth with the point of a sword (c. 22). Avienus, probably from the similarity of the name to T«pa, writes: —

11 Ast in duobus in Sacram, sic insulam
Dixere prisci, solibus cursus rata est.
Haec inter undas multa cespitem jacit
Eamque late gens Hibernorum colit."

(Ora Martt 109—113.)

Avienue'i authorities were Carthaginian. More impurtant than these scanty notices, and, indeed, more important than all the notices of Ireland put together, is the text of Ptolemy. In this author the details for Ireland Clovpvia) are fuller, rather than scantier, than those for Great Britain. Yet, as Ireland was never reduced, or even explored by the Romans, his authorities must have been other than Latin. Along with this fact must be taken another, viz., that of the earliest notice of Ireland('I«'pn))being full as early as the earliest of Britain; earlier, if we attribute the Argonautic poem to Onomacritus; earlier, too, if we suppose that Hanno was the authority of Avienus.

If not Roman, the authorities for Ierne must have been Greek, or Phoenician, — Greek from Marseille*, Phoenician from either the mother-country or Carthage. The probabilities are in favour of the latter. On the other hand, early as we may make the first voyage from Carthage (via Spain) to Ireland, we find no traces of any permanent occupancy, or of any intermixture of blood. The name feme was native; though it need not necessarily have been taken from the Iemians themselves. It may been Iberian (Spanish) as well. Some of the names in Ptolemy

— a large proportion—are still current, e. g. Liboius, Senus, Oboca, Birgus, Eblana, Nagnatae, &c,

LijFy, Shannon, Avoca, Barrow, Dublin, Contmught, 8lc. Ptolemy gives us chiefly the names of the Irish rivers and promontories, which, although along a sea-board so deeply indented as that of Ireland not always susceptible of accurate identification, are still remarkably true in the general outline. What is of more importance, inasmuch as it shows that his authorities had gone inland, is the fact of seven towns being mentioned : —" The inland towns are these, Rhigia, Rhaeba, Laverus, Macolicum, Dunum, another Rhigia, Turnis."

The populations are the Vennicnii and Rhobogdii, in Ulster; the Nagnatae, in Connaught; the Erdiui and Erpeditani, between the Nagnatae and Vennicnii; the Utemi and Vodiae, in Monster; and the Auteri, Gangani, the Veliborae (or Ellebri), between the Uterni and Nagnatae. This leaves Leinster for the Brigantes, Coriondi, Menapii, Cauci, Blanii, Voluntii. and Darnii, the latter of whom may have been in Ulster. Besides the inland towns, there was a Menapia (irdAis) and an Eblana (WAis) on the coast

Tacitus merely states that Agricola meditated the conquest of Ireland, and that the Irish were not very different from the Britons:—" Ingenia, cultusque hominum haud multum a Britannia difieruut." (Agric. 24.)

It is remarkable that on the eastern coast one British and two German names occur,—Brigantes, Cauci, and Menapii. It is more remarkable that two of these names are more or less associated on the continent. The Chauci lie north of the Menapii in Germany, though not directly. The inference from this is by no means easy. Accident is the last resource to the ethnographical philologist; so that more than one writer has assumed a colonisation. Such a fact is by no means improbable. It is not much more difficult for Germans to have been in Wexford in the second century than it was for Northmen to have been so in the eighth, ninth, and tenth. On the other hand, the root m-n-p seems to have been Celtic, and to have been a common, rather than a proper, name; since Pliny gives us the island Mtmapia n A nglesea. No opinion is given as to the nature of these coincidences.

Of none of the Irish tribes mentioned by Ptolemy

do we meet aty separate substantive notice, a notice of their playing any part in history, or a notice of their having come in contact with any other nation. They appear only as details in the list of the populations of Ieme. Neither do the lerni appear collectively in history. They lay beyond the pale of the classical (Roman or Greek) nations, just as did the tribes of Northern Germany and Scandinavia; and we know them only in their geography, not in their history.

But they may have been tribes unmentioned by Ptolemy, which do appear in history; or the names of Ptolemy may have been changed. Ptolemy says nothing about any Scoti; but Claudian does He also connects them with Ireland: —

"maduerunt Saxone fuso Orcades; incaluit Pictorum sanguine Thule Scotorum cumulos flevit glacialis feme"

{Be Tert. Consul. Bonorii, 72—74.)

Again: —

"totum quum Scotus Iemen

Movit."

(/» Prim. Consul Stilich. ii. 252.)

The extent to which the current opinions as to the early history of the Gaels of Scotland confirm the ideas suggested by the text of Claudian is considered under Scoti. At present it may be said that Scoti may easily have been either a generic name for some of the tribes mentioned in detail by Ptolemy, or else a British instead of a Gaelic name. At any rate, the Scoti may easily have been, in the time of Ptolemy, an Irish population.

Two other names suggest a similar question, — Belgae, and Attacotti The claim of the latter to have been Irish is better than that of the former. The Attacotti occur in more than one Latin writer; the Belgae (Fir-bolgs) in the Irish annals only. [See Attacotti, and Belgae Of Britannia.]

The ethnology of the ancient Ieme is ascertained by that of modern Ireland. The present population belongs to the Gaelic branch of the Celtic Block; a population which cannot be shown to have been introduced within the historical period, whilst the stock of the time of Ptolemy cannot be shown to have been ejected. Hence, the inference that the population of Ieme consisted of the ancestors of the present Irish, is eminently reasonable, — so reasonable that no objections lie against it. That English and Scandinavian elements have been introduced since, is well known. That Spanish (Iberic) and Phoenician elements may have been introduced in the ante-historical period, is likely; the extent to which it took place being doubtful. The most cautious investigators of Irish archaeology have hesitated to pronounce any existing remains either Phoenician or Iberian. Neither are there any remains referable to pagan Rome. [R. G. L.]

IERNUS, in Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 2. § 4) as the most southern of two rivers (the Durus being the other) lying between the Senus (Shannon) and the Southern Promontory (Mizen tlead) = either the Kenmare or the Bantry Bay River. [R. G. L.]

JERUSALEM, the ancient capital of Palacstine, and the seat of the Hebrew kingdom.

I. Names.

The name by which this ancient capital is most commonly known was not its original appellation, but apparently compounded of two earlier names.

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