صور الصفحة

Inner Libya. Bat the remains of the New City Beem to belong almost entirely to the period of the Roman Empire, and especially to the reign of Septiinius Severus, who restored and beautified this his native city. (Spark Sev. 1; Aurel. Vict. Ep. 20.) It had already before acquired considerable importance under the Romans, whose cause it espoused in the war with Jugurtha (Sail. Jug. 77—79: as to its later condition see Tac. Hist. iv. 50); and if, as Eckhel inclines to believe, the coins with the epigraph cou vie. Iul. L.KP. beting mostly, if not entirely, to Leptis Magna, it must have been made a colony in the earliest period of the empire. It was still a flourishing and populous fortified city in the 4th century, when it was greatly injured by an assault of a Libyan tribe, called the Aukusiani (Ammian. xxviiL 6); and it never recovered from the blow.

3. Justinian is said to have enclosed a portion of it with a new wall; but the city itself was already too far buried in the sand to be restored; and, as far as we can make out, the little that Justinian attempted seems to have amounted only to the enclosure of a suburb, or old Libyan camp, some distance to the E. of the river, on the \V. bank of which the city itself had stood. (Procop. de Ae d. vi. 4; comp. Barth.) Its ruin was completed during the Arab conquest (Leo, Afr. p. 435); and, though we find it, in the middle ages, the seat of populous Arab camps, no attempt has been made to make use of the splendid site, which is now occupied by the insignificant village of Legdtak, and the hamlet of El-Hush, which consists of only four houses. (For particulars of the ruins, see Lucas, Proceedings of ike Association, $c. vol. ii. p. 66, Lond. 1810; Delia Cella, Viaggio, q}c. p. 40; Beechey, Proceedings, <fe. chap. vi. pp. 50, folL; Russell's Barbary; Barth, Wanderungen, <fc. pp. 305—315.) [P. S.]

[graphic][merged small]

LERINA and LERON. Srrabo (p. 185) says: "After the Stoecbades are Planasia and Leron (tj Tlkavcuria Ko1 Atytav), which are inhabited; an/1 in Leron there is also a Leroum of Leron, and Lcron is in front of Antipolis." (Antibes.) Pliny (iii. 5) has "Lero, et Lerina adversus Antipolim." Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 21) places Lerone (Aijpwnj) before the mouth of the Var. Lerina once had a town named Vergoanum (Pliny). The Maritime Itin. places "Lero et Lerinas insulae" 11 M. P. from Antipolis.

These two islands are the Lerins, off the coast of the French department of Var. Strabo's Planasia ii supposed to be Lerina, because it is flat; Leron must then be the larger island, called SaiiUe Marguerite; and D'Anville conjectures that the monastery dedicated to Sainte Marguerite took the place of the Leroum of Lero, which is mentioned by Strubo. The position of these two small islands is

fixed more accurately by the Itin. than by the geographers. Lerina, from which the modern name LeYins comes, is very small; it is called St. ffonorat, from a bishop of Aries in the fifth century, who was also a saint. [G.L.]

LERNA or LERNE (Aspect, Acptnj), the name of a marshy district at the south-western extremity of the Argive plain, near the sea, and celebrated as the spot where Hercules slew the many-headed Hydra, or water-snake. [Set Diet, of Biogr. Vol. II. p. 394.] In this part of the plain, there is a number of copious springs, which overflow the district and turn it into a marsh; and there can be little doubt that the victory of Hercules over the Hydra, is to be understood of a successful attempt of the ancient lords of the Argive plain to bring its marshy extremity into cultivation, by draining its sources and embanking its streams. The name of Lerna io usually given to the whole district (Paus. ii. 15. § 5, ii. 24. § 3, ii. 36. § 6, ii. 38. § 1; Plut. Cleom. 15), but other writers apply it more particularly to the river and the lake. (Strab. viii. p. 368.) The district was thoroughly drained in antiquity, and covered with sacred buildings, of which Pauj-anias has left us an account (ii. 36, 37). A road led from Argfffi to Lerna, and the distance from the gate of the city to the sea-coast of Lerna was 40 stadia. Above Lerna is the Mountain Pontinus (uqvtxvo?}% which according to Pausanias absorbs the rain water, and thus prevents it from running off. On its summit, on which there are now the ruins of a mediaeval castle, Pausanias saw the remains of a temple of Athena Saitis, and the foundations of the house of Hippomedon, one of the seven Argive chiefs who marched against Thebes. (Atpvaia 5* oum ydfiaB* 'Imrofittwp &va£, Eurip. Phoen. 126.) The grove of Lerna, which consisted for the most part of plane trees, extended from Mount Pontinus to the sea, and was bonnded on one Bide by a river called Pontinus, and on the other by a river named Amymone. The grove of Lerna contained two temples, in one of which Demeter Prosymna and Dionysus were worshipped, and in the other Dionysus Saotes. In this grove a festival, called the Lernaea, was celebrated in honour of Demeter and Dionysus. Pausanias also mentions the fountain of Amphiaraus, and the Alcyonian pool (j} 'AKtcvovla AfjUVTj), through which the Argive* say that Dionysus descended into Hades in order to recover Semele. The Alcyonian pool was said to be unfathomable, and the emperor Nero in vain attempted to reach its bottom with a sounding line of several fathoms in length. The circumference of the pool is estimated by Pausanias as only one-third of a stadium: its margin was covered with grass and rushes. Pausanias was told that, though the lake appeared so still and quiet, yet, if any one attempted to swim over it, he was dragged down to the bottom. Here Prosymnus is said to have pointed out to Dionysus the entrance in the lower world. A nocturnal ceremony was connected with this legend; expiatory rites were performed by the side of the pool, and, in consequence of the impurities which were then thrown into the pool, the proverb arose of a Lerna of ills. (Arp»r} fta/co**-; see Preller, Demeter, p. 212.)

The river Pontinus issues from three sources at the foot of the hill, and joins the sea north of some mills, after a course of only a few hundred yards. The Amymone is formed by seven or eight copious sources, which issue from under the rocks, and which are evidently the subterraneous outlet of one of the katavothra of the Arcadian rallies. The river soon after enters a small lake, a few hundred yards in circumference, and surrounded with a great variety of aquatic plants; and it then forms a marsh extending; to the sea-shore. The lake is now walled in, and the water is diverted into a small stream which turns some milk standing close to the seashore. This lake is evidently the Alcyonian pool of Pansanias; for although he does not say that it is formed by the river Amymone, there can be no doubt of the fact. The lake answers exactly to the description of Pausanias, with the exception of being larger j and the tale of its being unfathomable is still related by the millers in the neighbourhood. Pausanias is the only writer who calls this lake the Alcyonian pool; other writers gave it the name of Lernaean; and the river Amymone, by which it is formed, is likewise named Lenia. The fountain of Amphiaraus can no longer be identified, probably in consequence of the enlargement of the lake. The station of the hydra was under a palm-tree at the source of the Amymone; and the numerous heads of the water-snake may perhaps have been suggested by the numerous sources of this river. Amymone is frequently mentioned by the poets. It is said to have derived its name from one of the daughters of Danaus, who was beloved by Poseidon; and the river gushed forth when the nymph drew out of [lie rock the trident of the god. (Hygin. Fab. 169.) Hence Euripides (Phoen. 188) speaks of TlQ(Ttiliu>via 'AfMufxwvta SSdra. (Comp. Pmpert. ii. 26, 47; Ov. Met. ii. 240.)

(Dodwell, Classical Tour, vol. ii. p. 225; Leake, Murea, vol. ii. p. 472, seq; Boblaye, Recherche*, $c. p. 47; Mure, Tour in Greece, vol. ii. p. 194; Koss, Reiaen am Peloponnes, p. 150; Curtins, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. p. 368, seq.)

LEROS (Aepos: Eth. Aiptos : Leros'), a small island of the Aegean, and belonging to the scattered islands called Sporades. It is situated opposite the Sinus Iassius, on the north of Calymna, and on the south of Lepsia, at a distance of 320 stadia from Cos and 350 from Myndus. (Stadiasm. Mar. Magni, §§ 246, 250, 252.) According to a statement of Anaximenesof Lampsacus, Leros was,like Icaros,colonised by Milesians. (Strab. xiv.,p. 635.) Thiswasprobably done in consequence of a suggestion of Hecataeus; for on the breaking out of the revolt of the Ionians against Persia, he advised his countrymen to erect a fortress in the island, and make it the centre of their operations, if they should be driven from Miletus. (Herod, v. 125; comp. Thucyd. viiL 27.) Before its occupation by the Milesians, it was probably inhabited by Dorians. The inhabitants of Leros were notorious in antiquity for their ill nature, whence Phocylides sang of them : —

A4pioi Kokoi, obx & !5r 8' off,

Tldvrts, Tav UpoK\4ouf Kal UpoK\rijs Atpios.

(Strab. x. p. 487, Sec.) The town of Leros was situated on the west of the modern town, on the south side of the bay, and on the slope of a hill; in this locality, at least, distinct traces of a town have been discovered by Ross. (Rei&en oaf d. Griech. Inseln, ii. p. 119.) The plan of Hecataeus to fortify Leros does not seem to have been carried into effect. Leros never was an independent community, but was governed by Miletus, as we must infer from inscriptions, which also show that Milesians continued to inhabit the island as late as the time of the Romans. Leros contained a sanctuary of Artemis Parthenos,

in which, according to mythology, the sisters d Meleager were transformed into guinea fowls (>«Aeayptocs; Anton. Lib. 2; comp. Ov. Met. viii. 533, &c), whence these birds were always kept in the sanctuary of the goddess. (Athen. xiv. p. 655.) In a valley, about ten minutes' walk from the sea, a small convent still bears the name of Partheni, and at a little distance from it there are the ruins of an ancient Christian church, evidently built upon some ancient foundation, which seems to have been that <-f the temple of Artemis Parthenos. "This small island," says Ross, "thongh envied on account of its fertility, its smiling valleys, and its excellent harbours, is nevertheless scorned by its neighbours, who charce its inhabitants with niggardliness" (L c. p. 122; comp. Bockh, Corp. Inscript. n. 2263; Ross, Inscript. ined. ii. 188.) [L. S.]

LESBOS (A«r&»: Eth. and Adj. Aitr€iosy AtoGucds, Aco6iok6s, Lesbius, Lesbicus, Lesbiacus : Jem. AtoSts, A«r€td$, Lesbis, Lesbias: in the middle ages it was named Mitylene, from its principal city: Geog. Rav. v. 21; Suidas. s. v.; Hierocl. p. 686; Eustath. ad II. ix. 129, Od. Hi. 170: hence it is called by the modern Greeks Mitylen or Metelino, and by the Turks Medilii or Medellu Adassi.) Like several other islands of the Aegean, Lesbos is said by Strabo, Pliny and otlu-rs to have had various other names, Issa, Himeile, Lasia, Pelasgia, Aegira, Aethiope, and Hacario. (Strab. i. p. 160, v. p. 128; Plin. v. 31 (39); Diud. iii. 55, v. 81.)

Lesbos is situated off the coast of Mysia, exaelly opposite the opening of the gulf of Adramyttium. Its northern part is separated from the mainland near Assos [Assos] by a channel about 7 miles broad; and the distance between the south-eastern extremity and the islands of Argiiiusae [arginusae] is about the tame. Strabo reckons the breadth of the former strait at 60 stadia, and Pliny at 7 miles: for the latter strait see Strab. xiii. pp. 616, 617, and Xen. Hell. i. 6. §§ 15—28. The island lies between the parallels of 38° 58' and 39° 24'. Pliny states the circumference as 168 miles, Strabo as 1100 stadia. According to Choiscul-Gouffier, the latter estimate is rather too great. Scylax (p. 56) assigns to Lesbos the seventh rank in size among the islands of the Mediterranean sea

In shape Lesbos may be roughly described as a triangle, the sides of which face respectively the N\V., the NE., and the SW. The northern point is the promontory of Argennum, the western is that of Sigrium (still called Cape Sigri), the south-eastern is that of Malea (now called ZeitounBouroun or Cape St. Mary). But though this description of the island as triangular is generally correct, it must be noticed that it is penetrated far into the interior by two gulfs, or sea-lochs as they may properly be called, on the south-western side. One of these is Port Hiero or Port Olivier, "one of the be>t harbours of the Archipelago," opening from the sea about 4 miles to the westward of Cape Malea, and extending about 8 miles inland among the mountains. It may be reasonably conjectured that its ancient name was Portus Hieraeus; since Pliny mentions a Lesbian city called Hiera, which was extinct before < his time. The other arm of the sea, to which we have alluded, is about half-way between the former and Cape Sigrium. It is the *' beautiful aud extensive basin, named Port CaUmi" and anciently called Euripus Pyrrhaeus. From the extreme nar| rowness of the entrance, it is less adapted for the

purposes of a harbour. Its ichthyology is repeatedly mentioned by Aristotle as remarkable. (Iftit. Animal. ». 10. § 2, v. 13. § 10, viii. 20. $ 15, ix. 25. §8.)

The surface of the bland is mountainous. The principal mountains wereOrdymnus in the W., Olympus in the S., and Lepethymnus in the N. Their elevations, as marked in the English Admiralty Charts, are respectively, 1780, 3080, and 2750 feet. The excellent climate and fine air of Lesbos are celebrated by Diodorus Siculus (v. 82). and it is still reputed to be tiie most healthy island in the Archijtelago. (Purdy s Sailing Directory, p. 154.) Tacitus {Ann. vi. 3) calls it "insula nobilis et amoena." Agates were found there (Plin. xxxvii. 54), and its quarries produced variegated marble (xxxvi. 5). The wholesome Lesbian wines (" innocentis pocula Lesbii,M Hor. Carm. i. 17, 21) were famous in the ancient world; bat of this a more particular account is given under Methymna. The trade of the island was active and considerable; but here again we mast refer to what is said concerning its chief city Mytilenk. At the present day the figs of Lesbos are celebrated; but its chief exports are oil and gall-nuts. The population was estimated, in 1816, at 25,000 Greeks and 5000 Turks.

Tradition says that the first inhabitants of Lesbos were Pelasgians: and Xanthus was their legendary leader. Next came lonians and others, under Macareus, who is said by Diodorus (v. 80) to have introduced written laws two generations before the Trojan war. Last were the Aeolian settlers, under the leadership of Lesbus7 who appears in Strabo under the name Gratis, and who is said to have married Methyinna, the daughter of Macareus. Mytilene was the elder daughter. This is certain, that the early history of Lesbos is identical with that of the Aeolians. Strabo regards it as their central seat (jtx&ov IxfrrpiiroXts^ xiii. pp. 616, 622). In mercantile enterprise, in resistance to the Persians, and in intellectual eminence, the iifeular Aeolians seem to have been favourably contrasted with their brethren on the continent. That which Horace calls "Aeolium carmen" and "Aeoliae fides" {Carm. ii. 13. 24, iii. 30. 13) was due to the genius of Lesbos: and Niebuhr's expression regarding this island is, that it was "the pearl of the Aeolian race." {Lectures on Ancient Kthnohgy and Geography, vol. i. p. 218.)

Lesbos was not, like several other islands of the Archipelago, such as Cos, Chios and Sanios, the territory of one city. We read of six Aeolian cities in Lesbos, each of which had originally separate possessions and an independent government, and which were situated in the following geographical order. Methymna (now Molivo") was on the north, almost immediately opposite Assos, from which it was separated by ons of the previously mentioned straits. Somewhere in its neighbourhood was Anise A, which, however, was incorporated in the Methymnaean territory before the time of Herodotus (L 151). Near the western extremity of the island were Antissa and Eressps. The former was a little to the north of Cape Sigrium, and was situated on a small island, which in Pliny's time (ii. 91) was connected with Lesbos itself. The latter was on the south of the promontory, and is still known under the name of Erissi, a modern village, near which ruins have been found. At the head of Port Caloni w.is Pvkrha, which in Strabo's time had been swallowed up by the sea, with the exception of a suburb.

(Strab. xiii. p. 618; see Plin. v. 31.) The nan.e of Pera is still attached to this district according to Pococke. On the eastern shore, facing the mainland, was Mytilene. Besides these places, we most mention the following: — Hiera, doubtless at the head of Port Olirier, said by Pliny to have been destroyed before his day; Agamede, a village in the neighbourhood of Pyrvha; Nape, in the plain of Methyinna; Aegircs, between Methymna and Mytilene; and Polium, a site mentioned by Steplianus B. Most of these places are noticed more particularly under their respective names. All of them decayed, and became unimportant, in comparison with Methymna and Mytilene, which were bitnated on good harbours opposite the mainland, and convenient for the coasting-trade. The annals of Lesbos are so entirely made up of events affecting those two cities, especially the latter, that we must refer to them for what does not bear upon the general history of the island.

From the manner in which Lesbos is mentioned both in the Iliad and Odyssey (//. xxiv. 544, Od. iv. 342), it is evident that its cities were populous and flouri>hing at a very early period. They had also very large possessions on the opposite coast. Lesbos was not included in the conquests of Croesus. (Herod, i. 27.) The severe defeat of the Lesbians by the Etonians under Polycrates (iii. 39) seems only to have been a temporary disaster. It is said by Herodotus (i. 151) that at first they had nothing to fear, when Cyrus conquered the territories of Croesus on the mainland: but afterwards, with other islanders, they seem to have submitted voluntarily to Harpagus (i. 169). The situation of this island on the very confines of the great struggle between the Persians and the Greeks was so critical, that its fortunes were seriously affected in every phase of the long conflict, from this period down to the peace of Antakidas and the campaigns of Alexander.

The Lesbians joined the revolt of Aristagoras (Herod, vi. 5, 8), and one of the most memorable incidents in this part of its history is the consequent hunting down of its inhabitants, as well as those of Chios and Tenedos, by the Persians (Herod, vi. 31; Aesch. Pers. 881). After the battles of Salamis and Mycale they boldly Identified themselves with the Greek cause. At first they attached themselves to the Lacedaemonian interest: but before long they came under the overpowering influence of the naval supremacy of Athens. In the early part of the Peloponnesian War, the position of Lesbos was more favourable than that of the other islands: for, like Corcyra and Chios, it was not required to furnish a inoney-tribute, but only a naval contingent (Thuc. ii. 9). But in the course of the war, Mytilene was induced to intrigue with the Lacedaemonians, and to take the lead in a great revolt from Athens. The events which fill so large a portion of the third book of Thucydidrs — the speech of Cleon, the change of mind on the part of the Athenians, and the narrow escape of the Lesbians from entire massacre by the sending of a second ship to overtake the first — are perhaps the most memorable circumstances connected with the history of this island. The lands of Lesbos were divided among Athenian citizens {kktjpovxoi), many of whom, however, according to Boeckh, returned to Athens, the rest remaining as a garrison. Methymna had taken no part in the revolt, and was exempted from the punishment After the Sicilian expedition, the Lesbians again wavered in I their allegiauce to Athens; but the result was unins portant (Thncyd. viii. 5, 22, 23, 32, 100). It was near the coast of thU island that the last great naval victory of the Athenians during the war was won, that of Conon over Callicratidas at Arginosae. On the destruction of the Athenian force by Lysander at Aegospotami, it fell under the power of Sparta; but it was recovered for a time by Thrasybulus (Xon. Hell iv. 8. §§ 28—30). At the peace of Antalcidas it was declared independent. From this time to the establishment of the Macedonian empire it is extremely difficult to fix the fluctuations of the history of Lesbos in the midst of the varying influences of Athens, Sparta, and Persia.

After the battle of the Granicus, Alexander made a treaty with the Lesbians. Memnon the Rhodian took Mytilene and fortified it, and died there. Afterwards Hegelochus reduced the various cities of the island under the Macedonian power. (For the history of these transactions see Arrian, Exped. Alex. iii. 2; Curt. Hist. Alex. iv. 5.) In the war of the Romans with Perseus, Labeo destroyed Antissa for aiding the Macedonians, and incorporated its inhabitants with those of Methymna (Liv.xlv.31. Hence perhaps the true explanation of Pliny's remark, I c). In the course of the Mithridatic War, Mytilene incurred the displeasure of the Romans by delivering up M'. Aquillius (Veil. Pat, ii IS; Appian, Mithr. 21). It was also the last city which held out after the close of the war, and was reduced by M. Minucius Thennus,—an occasion on which Julius Caesar distinguished himself, and earned a civic crown by saving the life of a soldier (Liv. EpiL 89; Suet. Cats. 2; see Cic. contra Hull ii. 16). Pompey, however, was induced by Theophanes to make Mytilene a free city (Veil. Pat, I. c.; Strab. xiii. p. 617), and he left there his wife and son during the campaign which ended at 1'harsalia. (Appian, B. C. ii. 83; Plat. Pomp. 74,75.) From this time we are to regard Lesbos as a part of the Roman province of Asia, with Mytilene distinguished as its chief city, and in the enjoyment of privileges more particularly described elsewhere. We may mention here that a few imperial coins of Lesbos, as distinguished from those of the cities, are extant, of the reigns of M. Aurclius and Com mod as, and with the legend K01NON AECBIIIN (Eckhel, vol.ii. p. 501; Mionnet, vol. iii. pp. 34. 35).

Jn the new division of provinces under Constantino, 'Lesbos was placed in the Provincial Insularum (Uicrocl. p 686, ed. Wcsseling). A few detached notices of its fortunes during the middle ages are all that can be given here. On the 15th of August, A.d. 802, the empress Irene ended her extraordinary life here in exile. (See Le Beau, Hist, du Bos Empire, vol. xii. p. 400.) In the thirteenth century, contemporaneously with the first crusade, Lesbos began to be affected by the Turkish conquests: Tzachas, Emir of Smyrna, succeeded in taking Mytilene, but failed in his attempt on Methymua. (Anna Comn. Alex. lib. vii. p. 362, ed. Bonn.) Alexis, however, sent an expedition to retake Mytilene, and was successful (lb. ix. p. 425). In the thirteenth century Lesbos was in the power of the Latin emperors of Constantinople, but it was recovered to the Greeks by Joannes Ducas Vatatzes, emperor of Nicaea (see his life in the Diet, of Biography). In the fourteenth century Joannes Palacologus gave his sister in marriage to Francisco Gatcluzaio, and the island of Lesbos as a dowry; and it continued in the possession of this family till its final absorption in the Turki.-h empire (Ducas, Hist. Bgzant. p. 46, cd. Bonn). It

appears, however, that these princes were tributary to the Turks (lb. p. 328). In 1457, Mahomet II. made an unsuccessful assault on Methymna, in consequence of a suspicion that the Lesbians had aided the Catalan buccaneers (lb. p. 338; see also Vertut, Hist, de rOrdre de Malte, ii. 258). He did not actually take the island till 1462. The history of the annalist Ducas himself is closely connected with Lesbos: he resided there after the fall of Constantinople; he conveyed the tribute from the reigning Gateluzzio to the sultan at Adrianoplc; and the last paragraph of his history is an unfinished account of the final catastrophe of the island.

This notice of Lesbos would be very incomplete, unless something were said of its intellectual eminence. In reference to poetry, and especially poetry in connection with music, no island of the Greeks is so celebrated as Lesbos. Whatever other explanation we may give of the legend concerning the head and lyre of Orpheus being carried by the waves to its shores, we may take it as an expression of the fact that here was the primitive seat of the music at the lyre. Leschos, the cyclic minstrel, a native of l'yrrha, was the first of its series of poets. Terpander, though his later life was chiefly connected with the Peloponnesus, was almost certainly a native of Lesbos, and probably of Antissa: Arion, of Methymna, appears to have belonged to his school; and no two men were so closeiy connected with the early history of Greek music. The names of Alcaeus and Sappho are the most imperishable elements in the renown of Mytilene. The latter was sometimes called the tenth Muse (as in Plato's epigram, Sarcpu) A.etr€6dev Tj OfKartj); and a school of poetesses (Lesbiadum turba, Ovid, Her. xv.) seems to have been formed by her. Here, without entering into the discussions, by Welcker and others, concerning the character of Sappho herself, we must state that the women of Lesbos were as famous for their profligacy as their beauty. Their beauty is celebrated by Homer (//. ix. 129, 271), and, as regards their profligacy, the proverbial expression \ta@id£ctv affixes a worse stain to their island than KpTjri^eiv does to Crete.

Lesbos seems never to have produced any distinguished painter or sculptor, but Hellanicus and Theophanes the friend of Pompey are worthy of being mentioned among historians; and Pittacus, Theophrastus, and Cratippus are known in the annals of philosophy and science. Pittacus was famous also as a legislator. These eminent men were all natives of Mytilene, with the exception of Theophrastus, who was born at Eresus.

The fullest account of Lesbos is the ti-eatise of S. L. Plehn, Lesbiacorum Liber, Berlin, 1826. In this work is a map of the island; but the English Admiralty charts shonld be consulted, especially Nos. 1654 and 1665. Forbiger refers to reviews of Plehn's work by Meier in the Hall. Altg. Lit. Zeit. for 1827, and by O. Miiller in the Goett. Gel Am. for 1828; also to Lander's Beitrage zur Kwide der Iiisel Lesbos, Hainb. 1827. Information regarding the modern condition of the island will be obtained from Pococke. Touruefort, Richter, and Prokesch. [J. S. H.]

LE'SORA MON'S (Mont Lozere), a summit of the Cevetmei, above 4800 feet high, is mentioned by Sidonius Apnllinaris (Cann. 24, 44) as containing the source of the Tarnis (Torn): —

"Hinc te Lcsoni Caucasum Scytharutn
Vincens aspiciet citusque Tarnis."

Tit** pastures on this mountain produce*] good cheese in Pliny's time (ff.N.xi. 42), as they do now. 3 font iAtztrt gives its name to the Frcncli department Lozere. [G. L.]

LESSA (A^tTffo), a village of Epidauria, upon the confines of the territory of Argos, and at the foot of Mount Arachnaeum. Pausanias saw there a temple of Athena. The ruins of Lessa are situated upon a hill, at the foot of which is the village of Lyhtrio. On the outside of the walls, near I he foot of the mountain, are the remains of an ancient pyramid, near a church, which contains some Ionic columns. (Paus. ii. 25. § 10; Leake, Aforea, vol. ii. p. 419; Boblaye, Recherchet, tf-e. p. 53; Curtius, Pehpormetot, vol. ii. p. 418.)

LESTADAE. [naxos.]

LE'SURA, a branch of the Mosella (Motel), mentioned by Ausonius (Mosella, v. 365). lie calls it u exilis," a poor, ill-fed stream. The resemblance of name leads us to conclude that it is the Leter or /,£**«, which flows past Wittlich, and joins the Motel on the left bank. [G. L.]

LKTANDROS, a small island in the Aegacan sea, near Amorgos, mentioned only by Pliny (iv. 12. s. 23).

LETS (a^ttj: Eth. AwTcuoy), a town of Macedonia, which Stephanus B. asserts to have been the native city of Nearchus, the admiral of Alexander the Great; but in this he is certainly mistaken, as Nearchus was a Cretan. (Comp. Arrian, Ind. 18; Diod xix. 19.) [E. B. J.]



LETHAEUS (Anflowf, Strab. x. p. 478; Ptol. iii. 17. § 4; Eustath. ad Horn. It. ii. 646; Solin. 17; Vib. Seq. 13), the large and important river which watered the plain of Gortyna in Crete, now the MalogniH. [E. B. J.]

LETHAEUS (AijOcuos), a small river of Curia, which has its sources in Mount Pactyes, and after a short course from north to south discharges itself into the Maeander, a little to the Bouth-east of Magnesia. (Strab. xii. p. 554, xiv. p. 647; Athen. xv. p. 683.) Arundell {Seven Churches, p. 57) describes the river which he identifies with the ancient Letliaeus, as a torrent rushing along over rocky ground, and forming many waterfalls. [L. S."]

LETHES FL. [gallaecta.]

LETO'POLIS (Anrovs *6\ti, Ptol. iv. 5. § 46; Atjtqoj, Steph. B. s. v.; Letus, Jtin. Anton, p. 156: Eth. AirroitoKlrni), a town in Lower Egypt, near I the apex of the Delta, the chief of the nonie Leto- | poliles, but with it belonging to the nomos or prefecture of Memphis. (Strab. xvii. p. 807.) It was I probably situated on the banks of the canal of Memphis, a few miles SW. of Ccrcasorum. Leto, from | whom the town and the norae derived their name, was an appellation of the deity Athor, one of the eight DiiMajores of Aegypt. Lat.30°N. [W.B.D.]!

LETK1NI (Airptyot, Pans.; Atrpiva, Xen.), a town of Pisatis in Elis, situated near tlie sea, upon the Sacred Way leading from Elis to Olympia, at

the distance of 180 stadia from Elis, and 120 from Olyftipia. It was paid to have been founded by Let reus, a son of Pelojw (Paus. vi. 22. § 8.) Together with several of the other dependent townships of Elis, it joined Agis, when he invaded the territories of Elis; and the Eleians were obliged to surrender their supremacy over Letrini by the peace which they concluded with the Spartans in B. C. 400. (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. §§ 25, 30.) Xenophon (/. c.) speaks of Letrini, Aniphidoli, and Marganeis as Triphylian places, although they were on the right bank of the Alphcius; and if there is no corruption in the text, which Mr. Grote thinks there is {Hist, of Greece, vol. ix. p. 415), the word Triphylian must be used in a loose sense to signify the dependent townships of Elis. The Atrpivdiat yvat are mentioned by Lycophron (158). In the time of Pausanias nothing remained of Letrini except a few houses and a temple of Artemis Alpheiaea. (Paus. L c.) Letrini may be placed at the village and monastery of St. John, between Pyrgo and the port of Katdkolo, where, according to Leake, among many fragments of antiquity, a part of a large statue was found some years ago. (Leake. Aforea, vol. ii. p. 188; Boblaye, p. 130, &c; Curtius, Pehponnesos, vol. i. p. 72.)

LEVACI, a people in Caesar's division of Gallia, which was inhabited by the Belgac. The Levari, with some other small tribes, were dependent on the Nervii. (B. G. v. 39.) The position of the Levari is unknown. [G. L.]

LEVAE FANUM, in Gallia Belgica is placed by the Table on the road from Lugdunum Batavoruin (Leiden) to Noviomagus (Nymegeri). Levae Fan urn is between Fletio (Vleuten) and Carvo; 25 M. P. from Fletio and 12 from Carvo. [carvo.] D'Anville, assuming that he has fixed Carvo right, supposes that there is some omission of places in the Table between Fletio and Carvo, and that we cannot rely upon it He conjectures that Levae Fanum may be a little beyond Dwsteede, on the bank opposite to that of the Batavi, at a place which he calls Liven-dael (vailis Levae), this Leva being some local divinity. Walckenaer fixes Levae Fanuni at Leersum. [G. L.]

LEUCA (ri Acvxd, Strab.: T^ettca), a small town of Calabria, situated close to the Iapyginn promontory, on a small bay immediately to the W of that celebrated headland. Its site is clearly marked by an ancient church still called Sta. Maria di Leuca, but known also as the Madonna di Finisterra, from its situation at the extreme point of Italy in this direction. The Iapygian promontory itself is now known as the Capo di Leuca. Strabo is the only author who mentions a town of this name (vi. p. 281), but Lucan also notices the "secreta littora Leucae"(v. 375) as a port frequented by shipping; and its advantageous position, at a point where so many ships must necessarily touch, would soon create a town upon the spot. It was probably never a municipal town, but a large village or borgo, such as now exists upon the spot in consequence of the double attraction of the port and sanctuary. (Rampoldi, Corogr. deW Italia, vol. ii. p. 442.)

Strabo tells us (i c.) that the inhabitants of Leuca showed there a spring of fetid water, which they pretended to have arisen from the wounds of some of the giants which had been expelled by Hercules from the Phlegraean plains, and who had taken refuge here. These giants they called Leutcrnii,

« السابقةمتابعة »