« السابقةمتابعة »
however, to have lived rather lower down the river near Momjhir, in the district now called Behar. (See Lassen's map.) [V.]
MANDANE (MwoaVn), a town on the coast of Cilicia, between Celenderis, and Cape Pisidium, from which it was only 7 stadia distant (Stadiasm. §§ 174,175.) It is probably the same place as the Myanda or Mysanda in Pliny (v. 27); and if so, it most also be identical with the town of Myus (M no us) mentioned by Scylax (p. 40) between Nagidus and Celenderis. [L. S.]
MANDARAE (MovoapoO, the district about Cyrrhns in Macedonia. (Steph. B. I. v.) [E.B. J.]
MANDKOCIUM. [carthago, VoL I. p.551,a.]
MANDRUANI (Plin. vi. 16. s. 18), a people mentioned by Pliny as occupying a part of Western Bactriana, under the spurs of the Paropamisus. They are now, like several other tribes whose names are given by that geographer to the same locality, no longer to be identified. [V.]
MANDRUTOLIS (MaySpooxoXji or KcwSpiwo\«), a town in Mysia (Hierocl. p. 664), now called Menduria or Maidreghora, at the foot; of Monnt Temnus. Stephanns of Byzantium (a.».) erroneously places the town in Phrygia. There seems to be little doubt but that Mandrupolis is the same town as Mandropus or Mandrupium, mentioned by Livy (xxxviii. 15). [L. S.]
MANDRUS Mons(to MaopoF,fl MdVSpoi/ Spos), one of the chief mountains of Libya, from whence flow all the streams from Salathus to Massa; the middle of the mountain has a position of 14° E. long, and 19° N. lat., assigned to it by Ptolemy (iv. 6. § 8). Afterwards (§ 14) he describes the river Nigeir as uniting, or yoking together (brtfcv~ yvvuiv). Mount Mandrus with Mount Thala. [niGeir.] (Comp. London Geogr. Jauni. vol. ii. p. 19; Donkin, Dissertation on the Niger, p. 81.) Ptolemy (§ 1?) places the following tribes in the neighbourhood of this mountain: the Rabii ('PaSioi), the
Malcoak (mhakobj), and the Mandori (Md>Jooo.). [E. B. J.]
MANDU'BII (MavSoteioi), a Gallic people whom Strabo (iv. p. 191) erroneously calls the neighbours of the Arverni. When Caesar (b. C. 52) was marching through the territory of the Lingones, with the intention of retreating through the Seqnani into the Provincia, he was attacked by the confederate Galli under Vercingetorix (B. G. vii. 68). The Galli were defeated, and Vercingetorix, with his men, took refuge in Alesia, a town of the Mandubii. The site of the battle is not indicated by Caesar, but the position of Alesia is at Alise, or Alise SainteReine, as it is also called, in the department of the Cote dOr. The railroad from Paris to Dijon crosses the hills of the Cole <TOr,o( which Alesia and the heights around it are a part. The Mandubii were a small people who fed their flocks and cattle on the grassy hills of the Cote dOr, and cultivated the fertile land at the foot of Alesia. Before the blockade was formed, they had driven a great quantity of their animals (pecus) within the walls. (£. G. vii. 71.)
The Mandubii who had received their countrymen into the city, were turned out of it by them, with their wives and children, during Caear's blockade, in order that the scanty supply of provisions for the troops might last longer. The Romans refused to receive the Mandubii and give them food. The certain conclusion from Caesar's narrative is, that these unfortunate people died of hunger between their own walls and the Roman circumvallation (/»'. G. vii. 78; Dion Cass. xl. 41). Caesar's description of Alesia is true; and the operations of his army about the place (B. G. vii. 69—90) are easily understood.
This plan of Alesia and the surrounding country is taken from Cassini's large map of France. The city of the Mandubii, or Alexia, was " on the summit of a hill, in a very elevated position," as Caesar correctly describes it. This hill stands alone, and, except on the west side, where there is a plain, it is surrounded by hills of the same height, which are separated from Alesia by valleys. In the flat valley
on the north side of Alesia, and in the narrower valley at the east end, is the railroad from Paris to Dijon. The nearest railway station to Alesia is Let Laumes.
The summit of Alesia is not quite flat; bnt the irregularities are inconsiderable. The sides of the hill beneath the plateau are steep and rocky; and the npper part of the ascent to the summit is not easy. Below the plateau, and below this steep ascent, there is a narrow level piece of ground, which appears to hare been widened a little by the labour of man; and below this level part there is another descent, which in some parts is steep. The fine plain (planities) at the western foot of Alesia, which Caesar describes, is 6een well from the western end of the level summit. This is the part which Caesar (c. 84) calls the "An Alesiae." The surface of the plateau rises a little towards the western extremity, and then falls away abruptly, terminating in a rocky promontory, something like the head of a boat. A cross, with a small tree on each side of it, stands at the edge of the brow, and exactly marks the place from which Vercingetorix looked down on the plain of Alesia (c. 84). Beneath the Arx Alesiae is the small town of Alise, on the western and south-western slope of the hill. It occupies a different place from the old town of the Mandubii, which was on the summit level. The hill is a mass of rock. The plateau has a thin soil, and the few parts which are not cultivated are covered with a short grass like that on the Brighton downs. It appears that the town of the Mandubii occupied all the large plateau, the length of which is shown by the scale, though we must assume that it was not all built on. The Arx, as already explained, was at the west end, commanding a view of the plain. The city wall seems to have been carried all round the margin of the plateau. Caesar says (B. G. vii. 69): " under the wall, that part of the hill which looked towards the east, all this space the forces of the Galli had filled, and they had formed in their front a ditch and a wall of stones (maceria) six feet high." This is the place marked A. in the plan, the only part of the hill of Alesia which is connected with the neighbouring heights. It is a small neck of land which separates the valleys of the Loze and the Lozerain. This is the part where the plateau of Alesia is m"st accessible, which Vercingetorix first occupied when he retired to Alesia, and where he constructed the wall of loose stones (maceria). There are plenty of stones on the spot to construct another such wall, if it were wanted.
At the eastern end of the plateau, just under the summit there is a source of water, which is now covered over with a small building. The water is now carried in pipes round the hill, to snpply the hospital of Alise, which is (F.) on the west side of the hill on the slope. Water is got at A lite by digging wells in the small level below the plateau; and as the Galli held this part of the mountain during the blockade, they may have got water from wells, as they no doubt did from the spring on the plateau.
Caesar's lines were formed all round the hill of Alesia, and they crossed the neck (A.) which connects this hill with another hill (B.) on the southeast side. The "castra" of Caesar (cc 69, 80) were on B. C. D. E., on all the heights around AleBia. These hills have a steep side turned to Alesia, and flat tops. They are so near to Alesia that Caesar could not be safe against an attack from the outside, unless he occupied them. The valleys between Alesia and B. C. D. are narrow. On the north and
north-west side the valley is wider. There is a good source of water on the hill B.
The hill of Alesia is well defined on the north and the south by the valleys of the two streams which Caesar mentions (fl. G. vii. 69), and on the west side by the plain in which these rivers meet. Caesar estimates the width of this plain from north to south at three Roman miles; and it is that width at least even in the part which is only a little distance from the foot of the hill. It extends much further in a NW. direction on the road to Montbard. This plain is a perfect level, covered in summer with fine wheat. As we go from the foot of the hill of Alesia to Les Laumes, the Arx Alesiae is a conspicuous object
Caesar made two lines of circumvallation round Alesia. The circuit of the inner lines was eleven Roman miles; and we may infer from his words that this circumvallation was entirely in the plain and the valleys, except that it must hare passed over the small elevation or neck of land between A. and B. In making the outer lines, which were fourteen Roman miles in circuit, he followed the lerel as far as the ground allowed (c 74); from which we conclude that some parts of the outer line were on the high grounds opposite to the hill of Alesia; and the form of the surface shows that this must hare been so. The upper part of the hill west of Cressigny, part of which hill appears in the north-west angle of the plan, was crossed by the lines; and the camp of Reginus and Rebilus (c. 83) was on the slope of this hill which faces Alesia. One of the ditches (fossae) of the interior lines was filled with water from the rirer (c. 72). The lines of eleven and fourteen miles in circuit are no exaggeration. No less circuit would enclose the hill and give the Romans the necessary space. The boldness of the undertaking may be easily conceived by the aid of numbers; but the sight of the work that was to be done before Vercingetorix and his troops, to the number of 80,000 men, could be shut in, can alone make us fully comprehend and admire the daring genius of the Roman proconsul.
There was a caralry fight in the great plain before Caesar had completed his works. The Galli were driven back from the plain to their camp under the east end of the hill, and took refuge within Alesia. After this defeat Vercingetorix sent his cavalry away, and made preparation for holding out till the Gallic confederates should come to his aid. (B.G. 70, 71.) When the forces of the confederates (vii. 75) came to raise the blockade of Alesia, they posted themselves on the hills where the name Mnssij appears; and in the battle which is described in vii. 79, the Gallic cavalry filled the plain on the west side of the hill of Alesia, while the infantry remained on the heights about Mutsy. The Gallic horse were beaten back to their camp (c 80); but on the following night they renewed the attack on that part of the lines which crossed the plain. This attack also failed The next night the Gallic confederates sent 60,000 men under Vergasillaunus to the north, to the back of the hill (E.), on the south slope of which Reginus and Rebilus had their camp. Their orders were to fall on the Romans at midday. The Galli got to the back of the hill at daybreak, and waited till near noon, when they began their attack on the camp. At the same time the cavalry of the confederates came against- the lines in the plain; and Vercingetorix descended from the heights of Alesia to attack the lines from the inside. The Galli failed to force the lines both on the inside and the outside. Bnt the attack on the camp of Beginus and Rebilus was desperate, and Labienns was sent to support them. Neither ramparts nor ditches could stop the fierce assault of the enemy. Labienus summoned to his aid the soldiers from the nearest posts, and sent to tell Caesar what he thought ought to be done. His design was to sally out upon the enemy, as Caesar had ordered him to do, if he could not drive them off from the lines.
The place where the decisive struggle took place is easily seen from the Arx Alesiae; and it is accurately described by Caesar (B.G. 83,85). This is the hill (E.) which slopes down to the plain of the Loze. The upper part of the slope opposite to the An Alesiae is gentle, or " leniter declivis" (c 83); but the descent from the gentle slope to the plain of the Lote, in which the railway runs, is in some parts very steep. Caesar could draw his lines in such a way as to bring them along the gentle slope, and comprise the steep and lower slope within them. But there would still be a small slope downwards from the upper part of the hill to the Roman lines; and this is this gentle slope downward which he describes in c. 85, as giving a great advantage to the Gallic assailants under Vergasillaunus (" Exiguum loci ad declivitatem fastigium magnum habet momentum ").
The mountain behind which Vergasillaunus hid himself after the night's march is the part of the mountain west of Cressigny. The camp of Reginns and Rebilus being on the south face turned to Alesia, they could see nothing of Vergasillaunus and his men till they came over the hill top to attack the lines. Vercingetorix, from the Arx Alesiae (c. 84), could see the attack on Reginns* camp, and all that was going on in the plain. He could see everything. Caesar's position during the attack of Vergasillaunus was one (idoneus locus) which gave him a view of the fight. He saw the plain, the " superiores munitiones," or the lines on the mountain north-west of Alesia, the Arx Alesiae, and the ground beneath. He stood therefore on the hill south of Alesia, and at the western end of it.
Caesar, hearing from Labienus how desperate was the attack on the upper lines, sent part of his cavalry round the exterior lines to attack Vergasillaunus in the rear. The cavalry went round by the east end of Alesia. They could not go round the west end, for they would have crossed the plain outside of the lines, and the plain was occupied by the Galli. Nor could they have got up the hill on that side without some trouble; and they would not have come on the rear of the enemy. It is certain that they went by the east end, and upon the heights ronnd Alesia, which would take a much longer time than Caesar's rapid narrative would lead us to suppose, if we did not know the ground.
When Caesar sent the cavalry round Alesia, he went to the aid of Labienus with four cohorts and some cavalry. The men from the higher ground could see him as he came along the lower ground (cc 87, 88). He came from the hill on the south of Alesia, between his lines along the plain, with the Arx Alesia on his right, from which the men in the town were looking down on the furious battle. The scarlet cloak of the proconsul told his men and the enemies who was coming. He was received with a shout from both sides, and the shout was answered from the circuinvallation and ali the lines. The
Roman soldier throws his pila aside ; and the sword begins its work. All at once Caesar's cavalry appears in the rear of Vergasillaunus: "other cohorts approach; the enemy turn their backs; the cavalry meet the fugitives; there is a great slaughter; "and the victory is won. The Galli who were on the outside of the fortifications desert their camp, and the next day Vercingetorix surrenders Alesia. The fight of Alesia was the last great effort of the united Galli against Caesar. They never recovered from this defeat; and from this time the subjugation of Gallia, though not yet quite completed, was near and certain.
Alesia was a town during the Roman occupation of Gallia; but the plateau has long since been deserted, snd there is not a trace of building upon it. Many medals and other antiquities have been found by grubbing on the plateau. A vigneron of Alise possesses many of these rare things, which he has found; a fine gold medal of Nero, some excellent bronze medals of Trajan and Faustina, and the wellknown medal of Nemausns (JVfmes), called the " pied de biche." He has also a steelyard, keys, and a variety of other things.
The plan of Cassini is tolerably correct; correct enough to make the text of Caesar intelligible. [G.L.]
MANDUESSEDUM, a Roman station in Britain (It. Ant. p. 470), the site of which is supposed to be occupied by Mancesttr in Warwickshire. [C. R. S.]
MANDU'RIA (MavMptw, Staph. B.: Eth. Mar. tvpivos: Manduria), an ancient city of Calabria, in the territory of the Salentines, situated at the distance of 24 miles E. of Tarentum. Its name has obtained some celebrity from its being the scene of the death of Archidamus, king of Sparta, the son ot Agesiluus, who had been invited to Italy by the Tarentines, to assist them against their neighbours the Messapians and Lucanians; but was defeated and slain in a battle under the walls of Manduria, which was fought on the same day with the more celebrated battle of Chaeronea, 3rd Aug., B. c. 338. (Pint Ages. 3, who writes the name Mavlonor; Theopomp. ap. Athen. xii. p. 536; Diod. xri. 63,88; Pans. iii. 10. § 5.) This is the first notice we find of the name of Manduria: it would appear to have been a Messapian (or rather perhaps a Salentine) city, and apparently a place of considerable importance; but the only other mention of it that occurs in history is in the Second Punic War, when it revolted to the Carthaginians, but was taken by assault by Fabius Maximus, just before he recovered Tarentum, B. c. 209. (Liv. xxvii. 15.) We have no account of its fate on this occasion, but it would seem certain that it was severely punished, and either destroyed or at least reduced to a degraded condition; for we find no mention of it as a municipal town under the Romans; and Pliny omits its name in his list of towns in this part of Italy, though he elsewhere (ii. 103. s. 106) incidentally notices it as "oppidum in Salentino." The name is again found in the Tabula, which places it at the distance of 20 M. P. from Tarentum, an interval less than the truth, the actual distance being 20 geog. miles, or at least 24 Roman miles. ( Tab. Pent.)
The existing ruins are considerable, especially those of the ancient walls, great part of the circuit of which is still preserved: they are built of large rectangular blocks, but composed of the soft and porous stone of which the whole neighbouring country consists; and in their original state appear to have formed a double circuit of walls, with a broad street or way between the two, and a ditch on the outside. At present they are nowhere more than six feet in height. The modern town of Manduria (a flourishing place, with about 6000 inha. bitants) does not occupy the site of the ancient city; the latter having been destroyed by the Saracens, the few remaining inhabitants settled at a place called Casal Nuovo, which appellation it retained till towards the close of the eighteenth century, when, having grown into a considerable town, it resumed, by royal license, its ancient name of ifanduria. (Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. p. 222; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 53; Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. v. p. 338.)
Pliny mentions the existence at Manduria of a well or spring of water, which was always full to the brim, and could not be either increased or diminished in quantity. This natural curiosity is still shown by the inhabitants of Manduria, and has been described by several recent travellers; it is said that it preserves a constant equality in the level of its waters, notwithstanding any addition that may be made to them or any quantity that may be withdrawn,—a statement exactly coinciding with that of Pliny. (Plin. ii. 103. a. 106; Swinburne, Trave.lt, vol. i. p. 223; K. Craven, Travels, pp. 165—167.) The expression used by that author, who calls the basin or reservoir of the water " lacus," has given rise to the erroneous notion that there existed a lake in the neighbourhood of Manduria, for which there is no foundation in fact. [E. H. B.]
MANIMI, a tribe of the Lygii, in the north east of Germany (Tac. Germ. 43). They occupied the country south of the Burgundiones, and appear to be the same as the Omanni ('O^awol) of Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 18; Zeuss, Die Deutschen, p. 124). [L. S.]
MANI'TAE (Maytraj), an inland tribe of Arabia Felix, situated west of the Thanuetae, and south of the Salapeni, north of the "inner Frankincense" country (rj ivrbs 2nvpvoip6pos, PtoLvi. 7. §23). The position of Ptolemy's "Manitae," west of his Katanitae, and of Zamet Mons, together with the near resemblance of name, implies their being the same with the Mazeyne of Burckhardt, the most eastern of the Harb tribes, situated on the borders of Karym in the line of country between Medina and Derayeh. (Forster, Geog. of Arabia, vol. ii. p. 249.) [G. W.]
MA'NIUS SINUS (MdV.os K6\*os, Scyl. p. 8), that part of the sea off the coast of Dalmatia into which the river Naro discharged itself, and in which the Libumian group of islands is situated. In modern times it bears no distinctive name. [E. B.J.]
MANLIA'NA) UavKlaya *. MapAfevo, Ptol. iv. 2. § 25), an inland town of Mauretania, upon the position of which there is a great disagreement between Ptolemy and the author of the Itinerary. The first places it 10' to the W. of Oppiddm Novum, and the latter 18 M. P. to the E. of that place. The modern Miliaria, on the slopes of the Lesser Atlas, preserving the ancient name, may be presumed to represent the old town, both of Ptolemy and the Itinerary, in which a Christian community was established. (Augustin. Ep. cexxxvi.; Morcelli, Africa Christiana, vol. i. p. 211.) Shaw (Travels, pp. 62—64) found remains of Roman architecture, and a "cippus" with an inscription which he refers to some of the descendants of Cn. Pompeius (Barth, Wanderungen, pp. 58, 207.) [E. B. J.]
MANLIA'NUS SALTUS. [idubbda.]
MANNARITIUM, in north Gallia, is placed by the Autonine Itin. on a road which leads from
Lugdunnm through Trajectum (Utredii) to Cairo [carvo]. It is 15 M. P. from Trajectum to Mannaritium, and 16 M. P. from Mannaritium to Cairo. Mannaritinm may be Maaren. But other places have been suggested. [G. L.]
MANRALI (MirpaXoi, Ptol. T. 10. § 6), a people on the coast of Colchis, whose name has been traced in the modem Mingrelia- [E. B. J.]
MANTALA, a place in Gallia Narbonensis, on the road from Vienna ( Vienne) to Darantasia (Montiers en Tarentaise). It is the next station after Lemincom [lkxincum], and 16 M. P. from it. The Antonine Itin. and the Table agree as to the position of Mantala. The site of the station Mantala may be, as D'Anville suggests, at a place on the Isere, named Gressi, which is commanded by an old building named Montailleu. |"G. L-]
MANTIANA LACUS. [arsissa.]
MANTINEIA (Mairivfia: Eth. Mojro-fiSi.Mantinensis: Paleopoli), one of the most ancient and powerful towns in Arcadia, situated on the borders of Argolis, S. of Orchomenus, and N. of Tegea. Its territory was called Mantinick (MeuriKuri)). The city is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue as M<u>rtvi-n ipartLvi\, and, according to tradition, it derived its name from Mantineus, a son of Lycaon. (Horn. H ii. 607; Pol. ii. 56; Pans. viiL 8. § 4.) Mantineia originally consisted of four or five distinct villages, the inhabitants of which were collected into one city. (Xen. Sell v. 2. § 6, seq.; Strab. viii. p. 337; Diod. xv. 5.) If Strabo is correct in stating that this incorporation was brought about by the Argives, we may conjecture, with Mr. Grote, that the latter adopted this proceeding as a means of providing some check upon their powerful neighbours of Tegea. The political constitution of Mantineia is mentioned by Polybius as one of the best in antiquity; and the city had acquired so great a reputation at an early period, that the Cyrenaeans, in the reign of Battus III. (b. O. 550—530), when weakened by internal seditions, were recommended to apply to the Mantineians, who sent to them Demonax to settle their constitution. (Pol. vi. 43; Herod, ir. 161.) Some time before the Persian ware, Mantineia, like the other Arcadian towns, had acknowledged the Spartan supremacy; and accordingly the Mantineians fought against the Persians as the allies of Sparta. Five hundred of their citizens fought at Thermopylae, but their contingent arrived on the field of Plataea immediately after the battle. (Herod, vii. 202, ix. 77.) In the Peloponnesian War, Mantineia was at first a member of the Peloponnesian confederacy; but several causes tended to estrange her from the Spartan alliance. Mantineia and Tegea were, at this time, the two most important Arcadian states, and were frequently engaged in hostilities. In B. c. 423, they fought a bloody and indecisive battle, which is mentioned by Thucydides (iv. 134). Tegea, being oligarchically governed, was firmly attached to Sparta; whereas Mantineia, from her possessing a democratical constitution, as well as from her hatred to Tegea, was disposed to desert Sparta on the first favourable opportunity. In addition to this, the Mantineians had recently extended their dominion over the Parrhasians and had garrisoned a fortress at Cypsela, near the site where Megalopolis was afterwards built. Well aware that the Lacedaemonians would not allow them to retain their recent acquisitions, as it was the policy of Sparta to prevent the increase of any political power in the Peloponnesus, the Manti
neians fonned an alliance with Argos, Elis, and Athens, in B. c. 421, and thus became involved in war with Sparta. (Thnc. v. 29, 33, 47.) This war was brought to a close by the decisive battle fought near Mantineia, in June, 418, iu which the Argives, Hantineians, and Athenians were defeated by the Lacedaemonians under Agis. This battle was fought to the S. of Mantineia, between the city and the frontiers of Tegea, and is the first of the five great battles bearing the name of Mantineia. The Mantineians now concluded a peace with Sparta, renouncing their dominion over the districts in Arcadia, which they bad conquered. (Thnc. v. 65, «eq., 81.)
Mantineia continued an- unwilling ally of Sparta for the next 33 years; but in the second year after the peace of Antalcidas, which had restored to the Spartans a great part of their former power, they resolved to crush for ever this obnoxious city. Accordingly, they required the Mantineians to raze their walls; and upon the refusal of the latter, they marched against the city with an army under the command of their king Agesipolis (b. C. 385), alleging that the truce for 30 years had expired, which had been concluded between the two states after the battle of 418. The Mantineians were defeated in battle, and took refuge in their city, prepared to withstand a siege; but Agesipolis having raised an embankment across the river Ophis, which flowed through Mantineia, forced back the waters of the river, and thus caused an inundation around the walls of the city. These walls, being built of unbaked bricks, soon began to give way; and the Mantineians, fearing that the city would be taken by assault, were obliged to yield to the terms of the Spartans, who required that the inhabitants should quit the city, and be dispersed among the villages, frum the coalescence of which the city had been originally formed. (Xen. Sell v. 2. §§ 6, 7; Diod. xv. 5; Ephorus, op. Jlarpocrat. I. v. MwriyeW SiotKur/iis; Pol. iv. 27; Paus. viii. 8. § 7, seq.) Of the forces of Mantineia shortly before this time we have an account from the orator Lysias, who says that the military population or citizens of Mantineia were not less than 3000, which will give 13,000 for the free population of the Mantineian territory. (Lysias, ap. Dionys. p. 531; Clinton, F. H. vol. ii. p. 416.)
The Mantineians did not long remain in this dispersed condition. When the Spartan supremacy was overthrown by the battle of Leuctra in 371, they again assembled together, and rebuilt their city. They took care to exclude the river from the new city, and to make the stone substructions of the walls higher than they had been previously. (Xen. Hell. vi. 5. § 3; Paus. viii. 8. § 10; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 73.) The Mantineians took an active part in the formation of the Arcadian confederacy, and in the foundation of Megalopolis, which followed immediately after the restoration of their own city; and one of their own citizens, Lycomedes, was the chief promoter of the scheme. But a few years afterwards the Mantineians, for reasons which are not distinctly mentioned, quarrelled with the supreme Arcadian government, and formed an alliance with their inveterate enemies the Spartans. In order to put down this new coalition, Epaminondas marched into the Peloponnesus; and Mantineia was again the scene of another great battle (the second of the five alluded to above), in which the Spartans were defeated, but which was rendered still more inemo
rable by 'the death of Epaminondas. (Xen. Hett.
vii. 5; Diod. xv. 84.) The site of this battle is described below. The third and fourth battles of Mantineia are only incidentally mentioned by the ancient writers: the third was fought in 295, when Demetrius Poliorcetes defeated Archidamus and the Spartans (Plut. Dtme.tr. 35); the fourth in 242, when Aratus and the Achaeans defeated the Spartans under Agis, the latter falling in the battle. (Paus. viii. 10. § 5, seq.)
Mantineia continued to be one of the most powerful towns of Arcadia down to the time of the Achaean League. It at first joined this league ; but it subsequently deserted it, and, together with Orchomenus and Tegea, became a member of the Aetolian confederacy. These three cities at a later time renounced their alliance with the Aetolians, and entered into a close union with Sparta, about B. c. 228. This step was the immediate cause of the war between the Achaeans and the Spartans, usually called the Cleomenic War. In 226, Aratus surprised Mantineia, and compelled the city to receive an Achaean garrison. The Mantineians soon afterwards expelled the Achaeans, and again joined the Spartans; but the city was taken a second time, in 222, by Antigonus Doson, whom the Achaeans had invited to their assistance. It was now treated with great severity. It was abandoned to plunder, its citizens were sold as slaves, and its name changed to Antigoneia (^AvriySveia), in compliment to the Macedonian monarch (Pol. ii. 57, seq.; Plut. Aral. 45 ; Paus. viii. 8. § 11). In 207, the plain of Mantineia was the scene of a fifth great battle, between the Achaean forces, commanded by Philopoemen, and the Lacedaemonians, under the tyrant Machanidas, in which the latter was defeated and slain. An account of this battle is given by Polybins, from whom we Irani that the Achaean army occupied the entire breadth of the plain S. of the city, and that their light-armed troops occupied the hill to the E. of the city called Alesium by Pausanias. The Lacedaemonians were drawn up opposite to the Achaeans ; and the two armies thus occupied the same position as in the first battle of Mantineia, fought in the Peloponnesian War. (PoL xi. 11.) The Mantineians were the only Arcadian people who fought on the side of Augustus at the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12.) The city continued to bear the name of Antigoneia till the timo of Hadrian, who restored to it its ancient appellation, and conferred upon it other marks of his favour, iu honour of his favourite. Antinous, because the Bithynians, to whom Antinous belonged, claimed descent from the Mantineians. (Paus. viii. 8. § 12,
viii. 9. § 7.)
The territory of Mantineia was bounded on the W. by Mt. Maenalus, and on the E. by Mt. Artemisiuin, which separated k from Argolis. Its northern frontier was a low narrow ridge, separating it from Orchomenia; its southern frontier, which divided it from Tegeatis, was formed by a narrow part of the valley, hemmed in by a projecting ridge from Mt. Maenalus on the one side, and by a similar ridge from Mt. Artemisius on the other. (Sec below.) The territory of Mantineia forms part of the plain now called the plain of Tripolikni, from the modern town of this name, lying between the ancient Mantineia and Tegea, and which is the principal plaie in the district. This plain is about 25 English miles in length, with a breadth varying from 1 to 8, and includes, besides the territory of Mantineia, that o.