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Orchomenus and Caphyae on tbe N., and that of Tegea and Pallantium on the S. Tbe distance between Mantineia and Tegea Ib about 10 English miles in a direct line. The height of the plain where Mantineia stood is 2067 feet above the level of the sea. Owing to its situation, Mantineia was a place of great military importance, and its territory was the scene of many important battles, as has been already related. It stood upon the river Ophis, nearly in the centre of the plain of Tripolited as to length, and in one of the narrowest parts as to breadth. It was enclosed between two ranges of hills, on the E.and the W., running parallel to Mts. Artemisium and Maenalus respectively. The eastern hill was called Alesium ('aa^o-iov, Pans. viii. 10. § 1), and between it and Artemisium lay the plain called by Pausaniaa (viii. 7. § 1) To itpybv xeSW, or the " Uncultivated Plain." (viii. 8. § 1.) The range of hills on the W. had no distinct name: between them and Mt. Maenalus there was also a plain called Alcimedon ('AA/ci/it'oW, Paus. viii. 12. §2.)

Mantineia was not only situated entirely in the plain, but nearly in its lowest part, as appears by the course of the waters. In the regularity of its fortifications it diners from almost all other Greek cities of which there are remains, since very few other Greek cities stood so completely in a plain. It is now called Pakdpoli. Tbe circuit of the walls is entire, with the exception of a small space on the K. and W. sides. In no place are there more than three courses of masonry existing above ground, and the height is so uniform that we may conclude that the remainder of the walls was constructed of unbaked bricks. The city had 9 or 10 gates, the approach to which was carefully defended. Along the walls there were towers at regular distances. Leake reckoned 118 towers, and says that the city was about 2\ miles in circumference; but Ross makes the city considerably larger, giving 129 or 130 as the number of the towers, and from 28 to 30 stadia, or about 3J English miles, as the circuit of the city. The walls of the city are surrouuded by a ditch, through which the river Ophis flows. This stream is composed of several rivulets, of which the most important rises on Mt. Alesium, on the E. aide of the city : the different rivulets unite on the N\V. side of the town, and flow westward into a katavdthra. Before the capture of Mantineia by Agesipolis, the Ophis was made to flow through the city ; and it is probable that all the water-courses of the surrounding plain were then collected into one channel above the city. Of the buildings in the interior of the city, described by Pausanias, few remains are left. Nearly ill the centre of the city are the ruins of the theatre, of which the diameter was about 240 feet; and west of the theatre, Ross observed the foundations of the temple of Aphrodite Symmachia, which the Mantineians erected to commemorate the share they had taken in the battle of Actium. (Paus. viii. 9. § 6.)

The territory of Mantineia is frequently described by the ancient writers, from its having been so often the seat of war; but it is difficult, and almost impossible, to identify any of the localities of which we find mention, from the disappearance of the sanctuaries and monuments by which spots are indicated, and also from the nature of the plain, the topography of which must have been frequently altered by the change of the water-courses. On the latter subject a few words are necessary. The plain of Tripolitzd,

of which Mantinice formed part, is one of those valleys in Arcadia, which is so completely shut in by mountains, that the streams which flow into it have no outlet except through the chasms in the mountains, called katavdthra. [arcadia.] Tbe part of tbe plain, which formed the territory of Mantineia, is so complete a level, that there is not, in some parts, a sufficient slope to carry off the waters; and the land would be overflowed, unless trenches were made to assist the course of the waters towards some one or other of the katav&hra which nature has provided for their discharge. (PoL xi. 11.) Not only must the direction of these trenches have been Bometimes changed, but even the course of the streams was sometimes altered, of which we have an interesting example in the history of the campaign of 418. It appears that the regulation of the mountain torrent on the frontiers of Mantinice and Tegeatis was a frequent subject of dispute and even of war between the two states; and the one frequently inundated the territory of the other, as a means of annoyance. This was done in 418 by Agis, who let the waters over the plain of Mantineia (Thuc. v. 65). This river can only be tbe one called Ophis by tbe Geographers of the French Commission. It rises a little N. of Tegea, and after flowing through Tegeatis falls now into a katavothra north of the hill Scope. In general the whole plain of Mantineia bears a very different aspect from what it presented in antiquity; instead of the wood of oaks and corktrees, described by Pausanias, there is now not a single tree to be found; and no poet would now think of giving the epithet of " lovely" (Ipartaiii) to the naked plain, covered to a great extent with stagnant water, and shut in by gray treeless rocks. (Ross, Reuen in Petopomia, p. 128.)

About a mile N. of the ruins of Mantineia is an isolated hill called Gwtzuli; north of which again, also at the distance of about a mile, is another hill. The latter was probably the site of the ancient Mantineia, and was therefore called Ptolis (nroAis) in the time of Pausanias (viii. 12. § 7). This appears to have been one of the five villages from the inhabitants of which the city on the plain was peopled.

There were several roads leading from Mantineia. Two of these roads led north of the city to Orchomenus: the more easterly of the two passed by Ptolis, just mentioned, the fountain of Alalcomeneia, and a deserted village named Ma Era (Matpa), 30 stadia from Ptolis; the road on the west passed over Mt. Anchisia, on the northern slope of which was the temple of Artemis Hymnia, which formed the boundary between Mantinice and Orchomenia. (Pans. viii. 12. §§ !S—9, comp. viii. 5. §11.)

A road led from Mantineia on the W. to Methydrium. It passed through the plain Alcimedon, which was 30 stadia from the city, above which was Mount Ostracina; then by the fountain Cissa, and, at the distance of 40 stadia from the fountain, by the small place Petkosaca (>) nerpocrrfjra), which was on the confines of the Mantineian and Megalopolitan territories. (Paus. viii. 12. §§ 2—4.)

Two roads led from Mantineia southwards,—the one SE. to Tegea, and the other SVV. to Pallantium. On the left of the road to Tegea, called Xents (Hfxlj)by Polybius (xi. 11. § 5),just outside the gates of Mantineia, was the hippodrome, and a little further on the stadium, above which rose Mount Alesium: at the spot where the mountain ceased was the temple of Poseidon Hippius, which was 7 stadia from the city, as we learn from Poly


bius (xi. 11. § 4, compared with zi. 14. § 1). Here commenced the ditch, which is said by Polybius to have led across the Mantineian plain to the mountains bordering upon the district of the Elisphasii (ri run 'E\ur<paatuv x^'C, »»• § 6<

comp. 15. § 7, xvii. 6).* Beyond the temple of Poseidon was a forest of oaks, called Pblaous (IleAcryoj), through which ran the road to Tegea. On turning out of the road to the left, at the temple of Poseidon, one found at the distance of 5 stadia the tombs of the daughters of Pelias. Twenty stadia further on was a place called Phoezow (♦offaw). This was the narrowest part of the plain between Tegea and Mantineia, the road being shortened by the hill Scope on the W. and a similar projecting rock on the E. Here was the tomb of Arcithous, who was said to hare been slain in a narrow pass by Lycurgus (oTeivanry iv 45£, Horn. 1L vii. 143).f This narrow valley, shut in by the two projecting ridges already mentioned, formed the natural frontier between the territories of Mantineia and Tegea. The boundary between the two states was marked by a round altar on the road, which was about four miles distant from Mantineia, and about six miles from Tegea. It was here that the Lacedaemonian army was posted, over which Epaminondas gained his memorable victory. He had marched from Tegea in a north-westerly direction, probably passing near the site of the modern Tripolitzd, and then keeping along the side of MtMacnaluB. He attacked the enemy on their right flank, near the projecting ridge of Mt. Maenalus, already described. It was called Scope' (sk6ti)i now Myrtikai), because Epaminondas, after receiving his mortal wound, was carried to this height to view the battle. Here he expired, and his tomb, which Pausanias saw, was erected on the spot. (Paus. viii. II. §§ 6, 7; for an account of the battle see Grote, vol. xi. p. 464, seq.)

The road from Mantineia to Pallantium ran almost parallel to the road to Tegea till it reached the frontiers of Tegeatis. At the distance of one stadium was the temple of Zeus Charmon. (Paus. viii. 10, 11, 12. § I.)

Two roads led from Mantineia eastwards to Argos,

* This ditch must have terminated in a kataeothra, probably in one of the karavothra on the W. side of the plain at the foot of the Maenalian mountains. On the other side of these mountains is the village and river named Helisson; and as the Elisphasii are not mentioned in any other passage, it has been proposed to read ''EKitrtrovrUtv instead of 'EXimpaalwy. (Ross, p. 127.) Leake has conjectured, with some probability, that Elisphasii may tie the corrupt ethnic of Elymia ('EAi^i(a), a place only mentioned by Xenophon {Hell. vi. 5. § 13), who places it on the confines of Orchomenus and Mantineia. Although Leake places Elymia at Levidhi, on the NW. frontier of Mantinice, he conjectures that the whole plain of Alcimedon may have belonged to it. (Leake, Fekpomaiaea, p. 380.)

f Leake imagines that Phoezon was situated on a side road, leading from the tombs of the daughters of Pelias. But Ross maintains that Phoezon was on the high-road to Tegea, and that Pausanias has oidy mentioned by anticipation, in viii. 11. § 1, the altar forming the boundary between Mantinice and Tegeatis, the more proper place for it being at the close of § 4.

called Prinus (Ityii'os) and Climax (KAi'/ia{), or the "Ladder," respectively. (Paus. viii. 6. § 4.J The latter was so called from the steps cut out of the rock in a part of the road; and the Prinus probably derived its name from passing by a large holm-oak (irpipos), or a small wood of holm-oaks; but the roads do not appear to have borne these names till they entered Mantinice. There are only two passes through the mountains, which separate the Argive plain from Mantinice, of which the southern and the shorter one is along the course of the river Charadrus, the northern and the longer one along the valley of the Inachns. Both Ross and Leake agree in making the Prinus the southern and the Climax the northern of these two roads, contrary to the conclusions of the French surveyors. Both roads quitted Argos at the same gate, at the hill called Deiras, but then immediately parted in different directions. The Prinus, after crossing the Charadrus, passed by Oenoe, and then ascended Mount Artemisium (Malerds), on the summit of which, by the road-side, stood the temple of Artemis, and near it were the sources of the lunch us. Here were the boundaries of Mantinice and Argolia. (Paus. ii. 25. §§ 1—3.) On descending this mountain the road entered Mantinice, first crossing through the lowest and most marshy part of the " Argon," or "Uncultivated Plain," so called because the waters from the mountains collect in the plain and render it unfit for cultivation, although there is a katav6thra to carry them off. On the left of the plain were the remains of the camp of Philip, son of Amyntaa, and a village called Nkstank (Ktcrdn)), probably now the modern village of Tzipiand. Near this spot the waters of the plain entered the katavrithra, and are said not to have made their exit till they reached the sea off the coast of the Argeia. Below Nestane was the "Dancingplace of Maera" (Xopij Malpas), which was only the southern arm of the Argon Plain, by means of which the latter was connected with the great Mantineian plain. The road then crossed over the foot of Mount Alesium, and entered the great Mantineian plain near the fountain Ante at the distance of 12 stadia from the city. From thence it passed into the city by the south-eastern or Tegcatan gate. (Paus. viii. 6. § 6—viii. 8. § 4.)

The other road, called Climax, ran from Argos in a north-westerly direction along the course of the Inachus, first 60 stadia to Lyrceia, and again 60 stadia to Orneae, on the frontiers of Sicyonia and Phliasia. (Paus. ii. 25. §§ 4—6.) It then crossed the mountain, on the descent of which into Mantinice were the steps cut out of the rock. The road entered Mantinice at the upper or northern corner of the Argon Plain, near the modern village of Sanga. It then ran in a south-westerly direction, along the western side of Mount Alesium, to a place called Mklamoeia (ta M«Ao77«m), from which drinkingwater was conducted by an aqueduct to Mantineia, of which remains were observed by Ross. It corresponds to the modern village of Pikemij which is said to signify in the Albanian language "abounding in springs." The road next passed by the fountain of the Meliastae (MeAia<rraf), where were temples of Dionysus and of Aphrodite Melaenis: this fountain was 7 stadia from the city, opposite Ptolis or Old Mantineia. (Pans. viii. 6. §§ 4, 5.) The preceding account is rendered clearer by the map on p. 263.


(For the geography of Mantinice, see Leake, Mono, vol. i. p. 100, seq, voL iii. p. 44, seq.; Peloponnesiaca, p. 369, seq.; Boss, Reisen im Peloponnes, vol. i. p. 121, seq.; Curtiua, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 232, seq.)

MA'NTUA (MdVroua: Eih. Mantuanns: ManUna), a city of Cisalpine Gaul, situated on the river Mincius, on an island formed by its waters, about 12 miles above its confluence with the Padua. There seems no doubt that it was a very ancient city, and existed long before the establishment of the Gauls in this part of Italy. Virgil, who was naturally well acquainted with the traditions of his native place, tells us that its population was a mixed race, but the bulk of the people were of Etruscan origin; and Pliny even says that it was the only city beyond the Padus which was still inhabited by an Etruscan people. (Virg. Aen. x. 201—203; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23.) Virgil does not tell us what were the other national elements of its population, and it is not easy to understand the exact meaning of his expression that it consisted of three "gentes," and that each gens comprised four " populi;" but it seems certainly probable that this relates to the internal division of its own territory and population, and has no reference (as Miiller has supposed) to the twelve cities founded by the Etruscans in the valley of the Padus. (Miiller, Etnuker, vol. i. p. 137; Niebubr, vol. i. p. 296, note 757.) The Etruscan origin of Mantua is confirmed by its name, which was in all probability derived from that of the Etruscan divinity Mantus, though another tradition, adopted by Virgil himself, seems to have deduced it from a prophetic nymph of the name of Manto. (Serv. ad Aen. 1. c.; Schol. Veron. ad foe. p. 103, ed. Keil.) According to one of the oldest scholiasts on Virgil, both Verrius Flaccus and Caecina, in their Etruscan histories, ascribed the foundation of Mantua to Tarchon himself, while Virgil represents Ocnus, the son of Manto, as its founder. (Virg. A en. x. 200; Schol. Veron. I.e.) The only historical fact that can be considered as resulting from all these statements is that Mantua really was an Etruscan settlement, and that for some reason (probably from its peculiar and inaccessible situation) it retained much of its Etruscan character long after this had disappeared in the other cities of Cisalpine Gaul.

After the settlement of the Gauls in Northern Italy, Mantua was probably included in the territory of the Cenomani (Ptol. iii. 1. § 31); but we find no mention of its name in history, nor do we know at what period it passed under the Roman dominion. From an incidental notice in Livy (xxiv. 10) during the Second Punic War, we may probably infer that it was then on friendly terms with Rome, as were the Cenomani and Veneti; and as its name is not mentioned during the subsequent wars of the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, it is probable that it passed gradually, with the other towns of the Cenomani, from a state of alliance to one of dependence, and ultimately of subjection. But even under the Roman dominion the name of Mantua scarcely appears in

history, and it is clear that it was far from possessing the same relative importance in ancient times that it did in the middle ages, and still retains. It was undoubtedly a municipal town, and is mentioned as such by all the geographers, as well as in inscriptions, but both Strabo and Martial speak of it as very inferior to the neighbouring city of Verona, in comparison with which the latter terms it "parva Mantua." (Strab. v.p. 213; Plin. iii. 19. s. 23; Ptol. iii. 1. § 31; Martial, xiv. 195.) During the civil wars after the death of Caesar, Mantua suffered the loss of a part of-its territory, for Octavian having assigned to his discharged soldiers the lands of the neighbouring Cremona, and these having proved insufficient, a portion of the territory of Mantua was taken to make up the necessary amount. (Virg. EcLix. 28, Georg. ii. 198; Serv. ad foe.) It was on this occasion that Virgil was expelled from his patrimonial estate, which he however, recovered by the favour of Augustus.

The chief celebrity of Mantua under the Roman Empire was undoubtedly owing to its having been the birthplace of Virgil, who has, in consequence, celebrated it in several passages of his works; and its name is noticed on the same account by many of the later Roman poets. (Virg. Georg.iii. 12; Ovid,.dmor. iii. 15. 7 ; Stat. Sih. iv. 2. 9 ; Sil. ItaL viii. 595; Martial, i. G2.2, xiv. 195.) According to Donatus, however, the actual birthplace of the poet was the village of Andes in the territory of Mantua, and not the city itself. (Donat. Vit. Virg. 1; Hieron. Chron. ad ann. 1947.)

After the fall of the Roman Empire,Mantua appears to have become a place of importance from its great strength as a fortress, arising from its peculiar situation, surrounded on all sides by broad lakes or expanses of water, formed by the stagnation of the river Mincius. It, however, fell into the hands of the Lombards under Agilulf (P. Diac. iv. 29), and after the expulsion of that people was governed by independent counts. In the middle ages it became one of the most important cities of the N. of Italy; and is still a populous place, and one of the strongest fortresses in Italy. It is still so completely surrounded by the stagnant waters of the Mincio, that it is accessible only by causeways, the shortest of which is 1000 feet in length.

Mantua was distant from Verona 25 miles; so that Procopius calls it a day's journey from thence. (Procop. B. G. iii. -3.) It was situated on a line of road given in the Tabula, which proceeded from Mediolanum, by Cremona and Bedriacum, to Mantua, and thence to Hostilia, where it crossed the Padus, and thence proceeded direct to Ravenna. (Tab. Peut.~) Mantua was distant from Cremona by this road about 40 miles. It would appear from one of the minor poems ascribed to Virgil (Catakct. 8.4), that this distance was frequently traversed by muleteers with light vehicles in a single day. [E. H. B.]

MANTZICIERT (MarrfiKitpr, Const. Porph. de Adm. Imp. c 44), a fortress of great importance upon the Armenian frontier. In A. D. 1050, it offered so determined a resistance to Togrnl Bel, the founder of the Seljukian dynasty, that he had to give up all hope of breaking through the barrier of fortresses that defended the limits of the empire, and retired into Persia. (Cedren. vol. ii. p. 780; Le Beau, Bus Empire, vol. xiv. p. 367; Finlay, Byzantine Empire, p. 523.) It is identified with Melasgerd or Alanatkhert, situated to the NW. of lake Van, and the remarkable volcanic cone of Sipin Tdgh. (St. Martin, M(m. tar VArmeiue, vol. i. p. 105; Ritter, Erdkunde, vol. ix. p. 994.) [E. B. J.]

MAOGAMALCHA (Ammian. xxiv. 4), a place in Mesopotamia, attacked and taken by Julian. It was distant about 90 stadia from Ctesiphon. (Zosim. iii. 21.) It appears to have been strongly fortified and well defended. Zosimus evidently alludes to the same place (i c), though he does not mention it by name. [V.]

MAON (fttuiv), a city of Judah, in the mountains, south of Hebron. It is joined with Carmel, and Ziph, and <futtah (Josh. xv. 55), known only as the residence of Nabal and Abigail (1 Sam. xxv. 2). "The wilderness of Maon, in the plain on the south of Jeshimon," is identical with or contiguous to the wilderness of Ziph, where David and his men hid themselves in the strongholds from the malice of Saul (xxiii. 14—25). It is placed by Ensebius in the east of Daroma (Onomast. s. v.) Its site is marked by ruins, still called 3/am, situated between Carmel and Zuph, half an hour south of the former. [carmel, Vol. I. p. 521.] [G. W.]

MAPHARITIS (Ma^opTTij), a district of Arabia Felix, lying about the city of Sava (SaiM), which is placed by Arrian three days' journey from Muza, on the Red Sea. [muza.] He mentions the king's name, Cholaebus (XdAoiSoj). (Periplus Maris Eryth. p. 13.) The Sava of Arrian is probably identical with the Sapphara or Sapphar of Ptolemy (2dir<papa al. 2air<pap /irrrpiwoKts, vi. 7. §41), the capital no doubt of a tribe named by him Sappharitae (Sainpaprraf), the Mapharitis of Arrian. They are distinct from the Maphoritae of Ptolemy. [G. W.]

MAPHORI'TAE (Mcupoprroi), a people of Arabia Felix, placed by Ptolemy above, i. e. north of, the Rathini, and west of the outer Frankincense country

Iktos S/uvpvofdpos), contiguous to the Chatrainamititae (vi. 7. § 25). The similarity of name indicates a connection between this tribe and the Maepha metropolis of the same geographer; the same as the "Aphae metropolis" of Arrian, which he places 9 days'journey east of his Maphoritis regio, and therefore 12 days from the Red Sea. It was the capital of Charibael, the lawful king of the Homeritae and their neighbours the Sabaitae, styled the friend of the Roman emperors, to whom he is said to have Bent frequent embassies. [maepiia.] The district is probably that now known as Wady Mayfa, in the midst of which is situated the remarkable ruins now called Nalcab-el Hajar, which are supposed to mark the site of the metropolis. This fruitful valley commences above the ruins in question and is well cultivated throughout. It is thus described by Lieut Wellsted, who traversed its southern part in 1838:— "Nakab-d-Bajar (ancient Maefha, q. p.) is situated north-west, and is distant 48 miles from the village of 'ATn, which is marked on the chart in latitude 14° 2' north, and longitude 46° 30" east, nearly. It stands in the centre of a most extensive valley, called by the natives Wady Mei/ah, which, whether we regard its fertility, population, or extent, is the most interesting geographical feature we have yet discovered on the southern coast of Arabia. Taking its length from where it opens out on the sea-coast to the town of 'Abbdn, it is 4 days' journey, or 75 miles. Beyond this point I could not exactly ascertain the extent of its prolongation; various native authorities give it from 5 to 7 additional days. Throughout the whole of this space it is thickly studded with villages, hamlets, and culti

vated grounds. In a journey of 15 miles, we counted more than thirty of the former, besides a great number of single houses." (Wellsted, Travels in Arabia, vol. i. p. 436.) [G.W.]

MAPONIS, in Britain, occurring in Geogr. Ravenn. among the diversa hca, without any clue to guide us to its locality. An inscription to a topical deity Mapon (Deo Mapono), discovered at Phtmpton in Cumberland; and another (Apollini Mapono) at Ribcltester, in Lancashire, merely strengthen the probability of the existence of a place so called in Britain, without disclosing its situation. Maporiton also appears in Geogr. Ravenn. among the towns in the north of Britain. [G. R S.]

MARA'BIUS (Mapd&os, ViapoiSios, PtoL T. 9 § 2), a river of Sarmatia, which Reichard has identified with the Manyez, an affluent of the Don, on the left bank of that river. Some have considered the Manyez to represent the Achardeds CAxapSe'oj), but Strabo (xi. p. 506) expressly says that the latter discharges itself into the Maeotis. (Sehafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. pp. 60,500.) [E. B. J.]

MARACAKDA (MopoWSo, Strab. xi. p. 517; Arrian, iii. 30, iv. 5; Ptol. vi. 11. § 9), the capital of Sogdiana, now Sumarcand. It is said by Strabo to have been one of the eight cities which were built in those parts by Alexander the Great Ptolemy places it in Bactriana. Arrian (iii. 30) states that it contained the palace of the ruler of the Sogdiani, but does not apparently credit the story that Alexander had anything to do with the building of it Curtius states that the city was 70 stadia in circumference, and surrounded by a wall, and that he had destined the province for his favourite, Clitus, when the unfortunate quarrel took place in which he was slain (viii. 1. § 20). Professor Wilson (Ariana, p. 165) considers that the name has been derived from the Sanscrit Samara-lchanda, " the warlike province." In many of tho old editions the word was written Paracanda, but there can be no doubt that Maracanda is the correct form. Samarcand has been in all ages a great entrepot for the commerce of Central Asia. [V-3

MARANI'TAE (Mapavfrai, Strab. xvi. p. 776; Mapou/us), an ancient people on the W. coast of Arabia Felix, near the comer of the Aelaniticus Sinus, destroyed by the Garindaei.

MARAPHII (Oapipm, Herod. L 125), one of the three tribes into which the highest Cisbs of the ancient Persians was divided, according to Herodotus. The other two were the Pasargadae and the Maspii. [V.]

MA'RATHA (Meipa&O, a village of Arcadia, in the district Cynuria, between Buphagium and Gortys, perhaps represented by the ruin called the Castle of Leodhoro. (Pans. viii. 28. § 1; Leake, Morea, voL ii. p. 66, Peloponnesiaca, p. 232.)

MARATHE, a small island near Corcyra, mentioned only by Pliny (iv. 12. s. 19).

MARATHE'SIUM (Mapfcfow: Eth. MapaftfItios), an Ionian town on the coast of Lydia, south of Ephesos, and not far from the frontiers of Caria, whence Stephanus (s. p.) calls it a town of Caria. (Seylax, p. 37; Plin. H. N. v. 31.) The town at one time belonged to the Samians; but they made an exchange, and, giving it up to the Ephesians, received Neapoli8 in return. (Strab. xiv. p. 639.) Col. Leake (Asia Minor, p. 261) believes that a few ancient ruins found at a place called Skalanova mark the site of Marathesium, though others regard them as remains of Pygela. [L.

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