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MA'RATHON (VlapMv: Eth. MapaBiivtos), a small plain in the NE. of Attica, containing four places,named Mabathoh, Probalinthds (TlpoSiKtvBos: Eth. Y\poga\iaios), Tbicobythub (Tpuc6pv&ot, or TptK6pvv6os. TpiK6ptv6os: Eth. TpiKopi<t«oj), and Oexoe (oivoij: Eth. OiViuor), which originally formed the Tetrapolis, one of the 12 districts into which Attica was divided before the time of Theseus. Here Xuthus, who married the daughter of Erechtheus, is said to have reigned; and here the Heracleidae took refuge when driven out of Peloponnesus, and defeated Eurystheus. (Strab. viii. p. 383; Steph. B. t. v. TeTpdVoAij.) The Marathonii claimed to be the first people in Greece who paid divine honours to Hercules, who possessed a sanctuary in the plain, of which we shall speak presently. (Pans. i. 15. § 3, i. 35. § 4.) Marathon is also celebrated in the legends of Theseus, who conquered the ferocious ball, which used to devastate the plain. (Pint. Tha. 14; Strah. ix. p. 399; Pans. i. 27. § 10.) Marathon is mentioned in the Homeric poems in a way that implies that it was then a place of importance. (0c£ vii. 80.) Its name was derived from an eponymous hero Marathon, who is described by Pausanias as a son of Epopeus, king of Sicyon, who fled into Attica in consequence of the cruelty of his father (Paus. ii. 1. § 1, ii. 6. § 5, i. 15. § 3, i. 32. § 4). Plutarch calls him an Arcadian, who accompanied the Dioscuri in their expedition into Attica, and voluntarily devoted himself to death before the battle. {Tha. 32.)

After Theseus united the 12 independent districts of Attica into one state, the name of Tetrapolis gradually fell into disuse; and the four places of which it consisted became Attic demi, — Marathon, Tricorythus, and Oenois belonging to the tribe Aeantis, and Frobalinthus to the tribe Pandionis; but Marathon was so superior to the other three, that its name was applied to the whole district down to the latest times. Hence Lucian speaks of "the parts of Marathon about Oenoe" (MapafiuFos ra wtpl Tv Olv6i)v, Icaro-Menip. 18).

Few places have obtained such celebrity in the history of the world as Marathon, on account of the victory which the Athenians here gained over the Persians in B. c. 490. Hence it is necessary to give a detailed account of the topography of the plain, in which we shall follow the admirable description of Culonel Leake, drawing a little additional information from Mr. Finlay and other writers.

The plain of Marathon is open to a bay of the sea on the east, and is shut in on the opposite side by the heights of Brilessus (subsequently called Pentelicus) and Diacria, which send forth roots extending to the sea, and bounding the plain to the north and south. The principal shelter of the bay is afforded by a long rocky promontory to the north, anciently called Cvnosuka (KvvSoovpa, Hesycb., Phot., ». v.) and now Stomi The plain is about 6 miles in length and half that breadth in its broadest part. It is somewhat in the form of a half-moon, the inner curve of which is bounded by the bay, and the outer by the range of mountains already described. The plain, described by Aristophanes as the "pleasant mead of Marathon" (\eipMva Top ip6tvra Mapa(luivos, Arts, 246), is a level green expanse. The hills, which shnt in the plain, were covered in ancient times with olives and vines (Nonn. Dionys. xiiL 84, xlviii. 18). The plain is bounded at at its southern and northern extremities by two marshes, of which the southern is not large and

is almost dry at the conclusion of the great heats; while the northern, which is much larger, oners several parts which are at all seasons impassable. Both, however, have a broad, firm, sandy beach between them and the sea. A river, now called the river of Marathmui, flows through the centre of the plain into the sea.

There are four roads leading out of the plain. 1. One runs along the coast by the south-western extremity of the plain. (Plan, oo.) Here the plain of Marathon opens into a narrow maritime plain three miles in length, where the mountains fall so gradually towards the sea as to present no very defensible impediment to the communication between the Marathonia and the Mesogaea. The road afterwards passes through the valley between Pentelicus and Hymettus, through the ancient demus of Pallene. This is the most level road to Athens, and the only one practicable for carriages. It was the one by which Peisistratus marched to Athens after landing at Marathon. (Herod. L 62.) 2. The second road runs through the pass of Krand, so called from a small village of this name, situated in the southern of the two valleys, which branch off from the interior of the plain. (Plan, 66.) This road leads through Cephisia into the northern part of*the plain of Athens. 3. The third road follows the vale of Marathona, the northern of the two valleys already named, in which lies the village of the same name, the largest in the district (Plan, cc.) The two valleys are separated from one another by a hill called Kotrmi (Plan, 3), very rugged, but of no great height. This third road leads to Aphidna, from which the plain of Athens may also be reached. 4. The fourth road leaves the plain on the north-east by a narrow pass (Plan, dd) between the northern marsh and a round naked rocky height called MU KcroJci or SiavrokorakL (Plan, 4.) It leads to Rhamnus; and at the entrance of the pass stands the village of Lower StUi. (Plan, 12.)

Three places in the Marathonian district particularly retain vestiges of ancient demi. 1. Vrani, which Leake supposes to be the site of the demus of Marathon. It lies upon a height fortified by the ravine of a torrent, which descends into the plain after flowing between Mts.Argaliki and AJbrismo, which are parts of Mt. Brilessus or Pentelicus. (Plan, 1,2.) A little below Vrand are seen four artificial tumuli of earth, one considerably larger than the others; and in a pass at the back of the hill of Kotnini, which leads from the vale of Vrani into that of Marathona, there are some remains of an ancient gate. Near the gate are the foundations of a wide wall, 5 feet in thickness, which are traced for nearly 3 miles in circumference, enclosing all the npper part of the valley of Vrani These ruins are now known by the name of v pAvSpa Ttjj ypaias (the old woman's sheepfold). Near the ruined gate Leake observed the remains of three statues, probably those which were erected by Herodes Atticus to three favourite servants. (Philostr. Soph. ii. 1. § 10.) Marathon was the demus of Herodes, who also died there. The wall mentioned above was probably built by Herodes, to enclose bis property; for it would seem from Pliny that Marathon no longer existed as a town or village a century before the time of Herodes. (" Rhamnus pagus, locus Marathon," Plin. iv. 7. s. 11.) The early disappearance of the ancient town of Marathon would easilv cause its name to be transferred to another site; and it was natural that the celebrated name should be given to the principal place in the district. Three-quarters of a mile to the south-east of the tumuli of Vrand there is a rising ground, upon which are the traces of a Hellenic wall, apparently the peribolus of a temple. This was probably the temple of Hercules (Plan, 10), in whose sacred enclosure the Athenians were encamped before the battle of Marathon. (Herod, vi. 108.)

2. There are several fragments of antiquity situated at the head of the valley of Marathona at a spot called Tnoi, which is no doubt the site of the ancient Oesok, one of the four demi of the district. The retired situation of Oenoe accounts for its omission by Strabo in his enumeration of the demi situated near the coast (ix. p. 399).

3. There are also evident remains of an ancient demos situated upon an insulated height in the plain of Suli, near the entrance of the pass leading out of the Marathonian plain to Suli. These ruins are probably those of Trioorythus, the situation of which agrees with the order of the maritime demi in Strabo, where Tricorythus immediately precedes Rhamnus. We learn from Aristophanes and Suidas that Tricorythus was tormented by gnats from a neighbouring marsh (iiaris iariv ^5tj TpiKopvala, Aristoph. Lysutr. 1032; Suidas, t. v. ^iTn't); and at the present day the inhabitants of Lower Suli in the summer are driven by this plague and the bad air into the upper village of the same name. The town was probably called Tricorythus from the triple peak on which its citadel was built.

The site of Phobalihthus is uncertain, but it should probably be placed at the south-west extremity of the Marathonian plain. This might be inferred from Strabo's enumeration, who mentions first Probalinthus, then Marathon, and lastly Tricorythus. Between the southern marsh and 3ft, Argaliki there are foundations of buildings at a place called Vatari, which is, perhaps, a corruption of Probalinthus. Close to the sea, upon a rising ground in the marsh, there are some ancient remains, which may, perhaps, be those of the temple of Athena Hellotia (Plan, II), which epithet the giiddess is said to have derived from the marsh of Marathon, where the temple was built. (Schol. ad Find. 01 xiii. 56 ; Etym. M. «. v. 'EWarh.)

The principal monument in the Marathonian plain was the tumulus erected to the 192 Athenians who were slain in the battle, and whose names were inscribed upon ten pillars, one for each tribe, placed upon the tomb. There was also a second tumulus for the Plataeans and slaves, and a separate monument to Miltiades. All these monuments were seen by Pausanias 600 years after the battle (i. 32. § 3). The tumulus of the Athenians still exists. It stands in the centre of the plain, about half a mile from the sea-shore, and is known by the name of Sord (o iopit), the tomb. (Plan, 13.) It is about 30 feet high, and 200 yards in circumference, composed of a light mould mixed with sand, amidst which have been found many brazen heads of arrows, about an inch in length, of a trilateral form, and pierced at the top with a round hole for the reception of the nhaft. There are also found, in still greater numbers, fragments of black flint, rudely shaped by art, which have been usually considered fragments of the arrow-heads used by the Persian archers; but this opinion cannot be received, as flints of the same

kind abound in other parts of Greece, where no Persian is reputed to have set bis foot; and, on the other hand, none have been found either at Thermopylae or Plataea. At a very small distance from this tumulus Leake noticed a small heap of earth and stones, which is, perhaps, the tomb of Plataeans and Athenian slaves. At 500 yards north of the great tumulus is a rain called Pyrgo (Jlvpryoi), consisting of the foundation of a square monument, constructed of large blocks of white marble; it is apparently the monument erected in honour of Miltiades. (Plan, 14.)

We learn from Philochorus that there was a temple of the Pythian Apollo at Marathon (ay. Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col. 1047); and Demosthenes relates that the sacred vessel was kept on this coast, and that once it was carried off by Philip. (Phil. i. p. 49.)

Pausanias (i. 32. § 3, seq.) mentions in the plain several natural objects, some of which have been noticed already. The lake at the northern extremity of the plain he describes " as for the most part marshy, into which the flying barbarians fell through their ignorance of the ways; and here it is said that the principal slaughter of them occurred. Beyond the lake (ftirrp Tv Miun)v) are seen the stables of stone for the horses of Artaph ernes, together with vestiges of a tent upon the rock. A river flows out of the lake which, within the lake, affords water fit for cattle to drink; but, towards the place where it enters the sea, becomes salt and full of sea-fishes. At a little distance from the plain is a mountain of Pan, and a cavern worthy of inspection: the entrance is narrow; but within are apartments and baths, and that which is called the goat-stand (a'nr6\iov) of Pan, together with rocks very much resembling goats." Leake observes that the marshy lake, and the river, which, beconung salt towards the mouth, produces sea-fishes, are precisely as Pausanias describes them. The marsh is deepest towards the foot of Mu Koraki, where several springs issue from the foot of the rocks on the right side of the road leading from the great plain to Lower Suli. These springs are apparently the fountain Macaria (Plan, 8), which Pausanias mentions just before his description of the marsh. It derived its name from Macaria, a daughter of Hercules, who devoted herself to death in behalf of the Heraclidae before the victory which they gained over the Argives in the plain. (Comp. Strab. viii. p. 377.) A small stream, which has its origin in these springs, is traced through the marsh into a small salt lake (Plan, 9), supplied by subterraneous sources, and situated on the south-eastern extremity of the marsh, under a rocky ridge, the continuation of C. Stomi. Both the ridge and salt lake are known by the name of Dhrakoniria (ta Apmtvipia, i. e. the monster-waters, so called from its size, since tipdxo is a common expression among the modern Greeks for any marvellous object). On the eastern side of the great marsh Leake noticed a small cavern in the side of Mt. Dhrakoniria, which is perhaps the place called by Pausanias "the stables of Artaphcrnes." Leake supposes that the Persian commanders were encamped in the adjoining plain of Tricorythus. The mountain and cavern of Pan have not yet been discovered. They would appear, from the description of Pausanias, to have been a little further removed from the plain than the marsh and salt lake. Hence they may be placed in Mt. Koraki.

The exact ground occupied by the Greek and Persian armies at the battle of Marathon can only be a matter of conjecture. Col. Leake, whose account is both probable and consistent, though Mr. Finlay differs from him, supposes that the Athenian camp was in the valley of Vrand near its opening into the plain; that on the day of battle the Athenian line extended from a little in front of the Heracleium, at the foot of Mt. Argaliki, to the bend of the river of Marathona, below the village of Seferi; and that the Persians, who were 8 stadia in front of them, had their right resting on Mt. Koraki, and their left extending to the southern marsh, which prevented them from having a front much greater than that of the Athenians. (See Plan, AA, ISC.) When the Persians defeated the Athenian centre, they pursued the latter up one or both of the two valleys on either side of Mt.

Kotrdni, since Herodotns says that the pursuit continued quite into the interior ({s Tv utaoyatav). Nearly at the same time the Persian left and right were defeated; but instead of pursuing them, the Athenians returned towards the field to the aid of their own centre. The Persian right fled toward* the narrow pass leading into the plain of Tricory thus; and here numbers were forced into the marsh, as Pausanias relates.

(Leake, The Demi of Attica, vol. ii. pp. 77, 203, originally published in Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature, 1829, vol. ii.; Finlay, Ibid. vol. iii. p. 363: Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, p. 44; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. i:. p. 101; Thirlwall, Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 239: Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 466; Mure, Hisu of Greek Literature, vol. iv. pp. 510, 549, 550; Blakesley's Herodotus, vol. ii. p. 178.)

[graphic][graphic][merged small]

A A. Position of the Orrokf on the day of the battle. IB. Do. Pcriiani do.

1. Mt. ArgaTtki.

2. Mt. A/orismd.

3. Aft. Kotrlmi.

4. Mt. Kordtt.

5. Mt. Dhrakontra.

6. Small Marsh.

7. Great Marsh.

8. Fountain Macarla.

9. Salt lake of Dhrakontra 10. Herarlelum.

MARATHUS (MdV»8oJ: Eth. MopoffuraTor al. Mopaftjros), a city on the coast of Syria, north of Aradus, placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cas■iotis, which extended as far north as Antioch. It is joined with Enydra, and was a ruin in Strata's time. It was on the confines of Phoenice, and the

11. Temple of Athena Hellotla?

12. Village ot" Lower Suit.

13. Sord: tumulus of Athenians.

14. Pgrgo: tomb of Mlltiadei.

Roads: —

a a. To Athens, between Mts. Pentelicus and 1 ly.

mettus through Pallene. s b. To Athens, through Crphisia. cc. I'o Athens, through Aphidna. d d. To Rhamnus.

district was then under the dominion of the Aradians (Strab. rvi. p. 753; comp. Plin. v. 20), who had been foiled in a former attempt to reduce it to their power. The story, as given in a fragment of Diodorus (lih.xxxiii. vol. x. p. 76—78,ed. Bipont; vol. ii.p. 593, ed. Wess.),is as follows. The people of Aradus having seized wlrst they considered a favourable opportunity for the destruction of the people of Marathus, sent privately to Ammonius, prime minister of Alexander Balas, the king of Syria, and bribed him with the offer of 500 talents to deliver up Marathus to them. The unfortunate inhabitants of the devoted city attempted in vain to appease their enemies. The Aradians violated the common laws of suppliants, broke the very ancient images of the local deities, —which the Maratheni had brought to add solemnity to their embassy,—stoned the ambassadors, and cast them into prison: according to another account, they murdered some, and forged letters in their names, which they sealed with their seals, promising succour to Marathus, with a view of introducing their troops into the city under this pretence. But discovering that the citizens of Marathus were informed of their design, they desisted from the attempt. The facts of its final subjugation to Aradus are not preserved. Pliny (v. 20) places Marathus opposite to the island of Aradus, which he says was 200 passus (= 1000 Roman feet) from the coast. Diodorus (L c.) states the distance between Aradus and Marathus to be 8 stadia; which need not be inconsistent with the statement of Pliny, as the latter may be supposed to measure to the point on the mainland nearest to Aradus, the former the distance between that island and the town of Marathus. The fact, however, is, that even the statement of Diodorus ia too short for the nearest point on the coast; for this island is, according to Maundrell (March 7, p. 19), "about a league distant from the shore." And Pococke, who crossed the strait, says "it is reckoned to be about two miles from the continent. (Observations on Syria, p. 201.) The 20 stadia of Strabo is therefore much more correct than either of the other authorities. He says that the island lay off an exposed coast (baxuioovs Kal AAijieVou), between its port(Caranus feye Carnos)and Marathus: and what was the respective situation of these towns he intimates in another passage, where, reckoning from the north, he enumerates Balanaea, Carnos, Enydra, Marathus. Pococke takes Tortosa to be "without doubt Caranns (Camos) the port of Aradus on the continent;" and as this is two miles north of Aradus, he properly looks for Marathus to the south,—identifying Enydra with Em-eUBye (the Serpent's Fountain), "directly opposite to Aradus (p. 203), and suggesting that some ruins which he observed on a raised ground, at the northern extremity of a plain, about 7 miles south of Tortosa, "might possibly be Marathus" (p. 204). These conjectures may be admitted with some slight modifications. Thus, e. g., instead of identifying Tortosa with Camos, this naval arsenal of the Arvadites must be placed about 2} miles north of Tortosa, where a late traveller has discovered "extensive ruins, called by the Arab peasants Carnoon, — the site, doubtless, of the Carnos or Caranus of the ancionts. The people from Arvad still quarry stones from these ruins; and below it, on the north, is a small harbour, which appears to have been fortified like that of Tortosa." (Thompson, in Bibtiotheca Sacra, vol. v. p. 254.) A fresh-water spring in the sea, is mentioned by Strabo; and a mile to the south, between Carnoos and Tortosa, "a few rods from the shore, an immense fountain, called 'Ain Ibrahim (Abraham's fountain), boils up from the bottom." Tortosa, then, will be, as many mediaeval writers maintained, Antaradus, which "Arabic geographers write Antartfls and An tarsus; whence

the common Arabic name Tortus, in Italian Tortota" (I.e. p.247, n. 1). 'Ain-el-Utyeh, written by Pococke Ein-eUHye, is certainly the Enydra of Strabo; the geographer, or his informant, having in this, as in so many other instances, retained the first half of the native name, and translated the latter half,—En being the usual Greek and Latin equivalent for the Semetic 'Ayn= fountain, and the hydra a sufficiently close representative of the Semetic Biyeh = serpent. South of this fountain are very extensive quarries, five or six miles to the south of Tortosa. "This neighbourhood is called by the Arabs Amreed or Afaabed Amreet' the fane of Amreet.' This name the Greeks probably changed into Marathus, and the old vaults, foundations, sarcophagi, &c, near 'Ain-eUBiyth (Serpent's Fountain), may mark the precise locality of ancient Marathus." (Thompson, I c p. 250.) Pococke describes here a rock-hewn temple, and monolithic house and chambers; besides a kind of semicircle, which he thinks "might serve for some sports to divert the people of Aradus and Antaradus, or of the ancient Marathus, if that was near. It was probably a circus" (p. 203).

It was the more necessary to identify these sites, as D'Anville placed the ancient Marathus at the modem Afarakiah, which is, doubtless, the representative of " Mutatio Maraccas" of the Jerusalem Itinerary, on the confines of Syria and Phoenice, 13 MP. south of Balaneas (now Baneas), and 10 M. P. north of Antaradus: and this error is perpetuated in Arrowsmith's map. [G. W.J

MARATHUS (MipaBos). 1. A small town in Phocis, near Anticyra, mentioned only by Strabo (ix. p. 423). Perhaps represented by the remains at Sidhiro-kafkhuf. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 549.)

2. A town of Acarnania, of unknown site, mentioned only by Stcphanus B. (s. v.)

MARATHUSA, an inland city of Crete.mentioned by Pliny (iv. 12; comp. Tzschucke, ad Pomp. MeL ii. 7. § 13; Hock, Kreta, vol. L p. 434.) [E.B. J.]

MARATHUSSA (MapiBovaoa), a small island of the Aegaean sea, off the coast of Ionia, neai Clazomenae. (Thuc. viii. 31 ; Plin. v. 31. s. 38.

MARCI, a place mentioned in the Not. Imp. as on the Saxon shore, and as a station of some Dalmatian cavalry under the command of the general of Belgica Secnnda. D'Anville supposes, with De Valois, that it may be Mark between Calais and Granetinet: but the site is uncertain. [G. L.]

MARCIAE. [gallaecia, p. 934, b.J

MARCIA'NA SILVA, a mountain forest in the south-west of Germany, probably the whole or a portion of what is now called the Black Forest (Amm. Marc xxi. 8; Tub. renting.) The origin of the name is not known, Cluver regarding Marciana as a corruption of schwarz, and others connecting it with marsh and march, which is still used in the Black Forest as a name for a moor. [L. S.]

MARCIANO'POLIS (MafwciavoiiroXis, Procop. de Aed. iv. 7), a city of Moesia, 18 M. P. from Odessus (Varna) (Bin. Anton. ;Peut.Tab.;H\eroc\.), which derived its name from Marciana, sister of Trajan. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 6. § 12; Jornand. de Reb. Get 16.) Claudius II. signally defeated the Goths in several battles near this town. (Trebell. Poll. Claud. 9; Zozim. i. 42.) Gibbon (c. xxvi.; comp. Le Beau, Bos Empire, vol. iv. p. 106; Greenwood, Bittory of the Germans, London, 1836, p. 329 Art de Vir. let Dates, vol. L p. 358) has told the story of the accidental quarrel between the Visigoth Fritigern and the Roman governor of Marcianopolis,'

Lupicinus,— which became the signal of a long and destructive war. (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 5. § 4, Zozim. iv. 10,11.) Marcianopolis afterwards became Peristhlava or Presthlava (ntpur9\iSa), the capital of the Bulgarian kingdom, which was taken A. D. 971 by SwiatoslaS* the Russian, and again reduced by John Zimisces, when 8500 Russians were put to the sword, and the sons of the Bulgarian king rescued from an ignominious prison, and invested with a nominal diadem. (Gibbon, c. lv.; Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. ii. pp. 187, foil. 216; Finlay, Byzantine Empire, pp. 408—413.) The site of the ancient town must be sought for in the neighbourhood of I'ravadi. For coins of Marcianopolis, both autonomous and imperial, see Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 15. [E. B. J.]

MARCILIA'NA, a station on the ViaPopillia, in Lucania, where, according to the Tabula, that road (which led directly S. from Campania into Bruttium) was joined by a branch from Potentia. The name is corrupted both in the Tabula and in the Antonine Itinerary; but there can be no doubt that the place meant is the same called by Cassiodorus "Maroilianum," which was a kind of suburb of the town of Consilinum, where a great fair was annually held. (ftin.Ant. p. 110; Tab. PeuL; Cassiod. Varr. viii. 33.) The site is still called Marciliana, in the valley of the Tanagro, between La Sala tiudPadula. (Romanelli, voL L p. 405.) [E. H. B.]

MABCPNA (Mn»"m), a town of Campania, in the district of the Picentini, situated on the N. shore of the gulf of Posidonia, between the Sirenusae Insulae and the mouth of the Silarus. (Strab.v. p.251.) It is mentioned by no writer except Strabo, who tells us that it was a colony founded by the Tyrrhenians, but subsequently occupied, and in his day still inhabited, by the Samnites. As he adds that the distance from thence through Nuceria to Pompeii was not more than 120 stadia (15 Roman miles), he appears to have regarded this as the point from whence the passage of the isthmus (as he calls it) between the two bays began; and it may therefore be placed with some plausibility at Vietri. (Cluver, JtaL p. 1190; Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 614.) Some ancient remains have been discovered there, though these may seem to indicate the site of Roman villas rather than of a town. [E. H. B.]

MAUCIUS MONS (to Mdfwiov «poi) was, according to Plutarch, the name of the place which was the scene of a great defeat of the Volscians and Latins by Camillus in the year after the taking of Rome by the Gauls B.C. 389. (Plut. CamilL 33, 34.) Diodorus, who calls it simply Marcius or Marcium (to KaKovfitvov Mapmov, xiv. 107), tells us it was 200 stadia from Rome; and Livy, who writes the name " ad Mecium," says it was near Lanuvium. (Liv. vi. 2.) The exact site cannot be determined. Some of the older topographers speak of a hill called Colle Marm, but no such place is fonnd on modem maps; and Gell suggests the Colle di Due Torri as the most probable locality. (Gell, J op. o/Rome, p 311.) [E.H.B.]

MARCODAVA (MopmfJai/o, Ptol. iii. 8. § 7), a town of Dacia, the remains of which have been found near Thorda. (Sestini, Viaggio, p. 105.) [E.B.J.]

MARCODU'RUM, in North Gallia. Some of the cohorts of the Ubii were cut to pieces by the troops of Civi 1 is at Marcodurum, which as Tacitus observes (Ilisi. iv. 28) is a long way from the bank of the Rhine. The termination durum indicates a place on a river; and Marcodurum seems to be Duren on the

Roer. The Frank kings are said to have had a palace there, named Duria Villa or Dura. [G. L.]

MARCOMAGUS, a place in North Gallia on a road from Augusta Treviroram (Trevet) to Agrippina Civitas (Cologne). It appears both in the Antonine Itin. and in the Table. Marcomagus is Marmagen. It is 28 or 31 M. P. from Cologne, for the numbers are not certain. [G. L.]

MARCOMANNI (Mapitoiidvvot, Mapnopiidvot, or MapKoutwot), a name frequently occurring in the ancient history of Germany, sometimes as a mere appellative, and sometimes as a proper name of a distinct nation. Its meaning is border-men or march-men, and as such it might be applied to any tribe or tribes inhabiting and defending a border country. Hence we must be prepared to find Marcomanni both on the western and southern frontiers of Germany; and they might also have existed in the east, or on any other frontier. Marcomanni are first mentioned in history among the tribes with which Ariovistus had invaded Gaul, and which were defeated and driven back across the Rhine by J. Caesar, B. c 58 (Caes. Bell Gall i. 51). These Marcomanni, therefore, appear to have been the marchmen on the Rhenish frontier, perhaps about the lower part of the Main. They are again mentioned during the campaigns of Drusus in Germany, from B. c. 12 to 9, by Floras (iv. 12), who seems to place them somewhat further in the interior. Only a few years later, we hear of a powerful Marcomannian kingdom in Boiohemum or Bohemia, governed by Marobodnus; and we might be inclined to regard these Marcomanni as quite a different people from those on the Rhine and Main,— that is, as the marchmen on the southern frontier,— were it not that we are expressly told by Tacitus (Germ. 42), Patercnlns (ii. 108), and Strabo (vii, p. 290), that their king Maroboduus had emigrated with them from the west, and that, after expelling the Celtic Boii from Bohemia, he established himself and his Marcomanni in that country. (Comp. Ptol. it 11. § 25.) If we remember that the kingdom of the Marcomanni in Bohemia was fully organised as early as A. D. 6, when Tiberius was preparing for an expedition against it, it must be owned that Maroboduus, whose work it was, must have been a man of unusual ability and energy. Henceforth the name of the Marcomanni appears in history as a national name, though ethnologically it was not peculiar to any particular tribe, but was given to all the different tribes which the Marcomannian conqueror had united under his rule. The neighbouring nations whom it was impossible to subdue were secured by treaties, and thus was formed what may be termed the great Marcomannic confederacy, the object of which was to defend Germany against the Romans in Pannonia. But the Marcomanni soon also came into collision with another German confederation, that of the Cherusci, who regarded the powerful empire of Maroboduus as not less dangerous to the liberty of the German tribes than the aggressive policy of the Romans. In the ensuing contest, A. D. 17, the Marcomanni were hnmbled by the Cherusci and their allies, and Maroboduus implored the assistance of the emperor Tiberius. The aid was refused, but Drusus was sent to mediate peace between the hostile powers. (Tac. Ann. ii. 45, 46.) During this mediation, however, the Romans seem to have stirred up other enemies against the Marcomanni; for two years later, I A.D. 19, Catualda, a young chief of the Gothones,

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