« السابقةمتابعة »
This memorable siege has been thought worthy of tpecial mention by Tacitus, and his lively abridgment, as it would appear, of Josephus's detailed narrative, must have served to raise his countrymen's ideas, both of the military prowess and of the powers of endurance of the Jews.
The city was wholly demolished except the three towers Hippicus, Phasaelus, and Mariamne, and so much of the western wall as would serve to protect the legion left there to garrison the place, and prevent any fresh insurrectionary movements among the Jews, who soon returned and occupied the ruins. The palace of Herod on Mount Sion was probably converted into a barrack for their accommodation, as it had been before used for the same purpose. (BelL Jud. vii. 1. § 1, ii. 15. § 5, 17. §§ 8, 9.)
Sixty years after its destruction, Jerusalem was visited by the emperor Hadrian, who then conceived the idea of rebuilding the city, and left his friend and kinsman Aquila there to superintend the work, A. D. 130. (Epiphanius, de Pond, et Mens. §§ 14, 15.) He had intended to colonise it with Roman veterans, but his project wa3 defeated or suspended by the outbreak of the revolt headed by Barcochebas, his son Rufus, and his grandson Romulus. The insurgents first occupied the capital, and attempted to rebuild the Temple: they were speedily dislodged, and then held out in Bethar for nearly three years. [bkthab.] On the suppression of the revolt, the building of the city was proceeded with, and luxurious palaces, a theatre, and temples, with other public buildings, fitted it for a Roman population. The Chronicon Alexandrinum mentions To Boo 5rjuii<na fral To tatarpev Kal To Tpifcd
oav Kal To reTpdyvfjupof Kal rb dwaeKdw\oy To Trplv uvofm^6fifvoy 6vaGa.Qfj.ol Ko! rijy Koopav. A temple of Jupiter Capitolinns, from whom the city derived its new name, occupied the site of the Temple, and a tetrastyle fane of Venus was raised over the site of the Holy Sepulchre. The ruined Temple and city furnished materials for these buildings. The city was divided into seven quarters (ou4<^o5ai),each of which had its own warden (atMpoSapxns). Part of Mount Sion was excluded from the city, as at present, and was "ploughed as a field." (J/i'coA, iii. 12; St. Jerome, Comment in loe.; Ilmerar'mm Hierotol p. 592, ed. Wesseling.) The history of Aelia Capitolina has been made the subject of distinct treatises by C. E. Deyling, "Aeliae Capitolinae Origines et Historia" (appended to his father's Observatlones Sacrae, vol. v. p. 433, &c), and by Dr. Miintcr, late Bishop of Copenhagen (translated by W. Wadden Turner, and published in Dr. Robinson's Bibliotheca Sacra, p. 393, &c), who have collected all the scattered notices of it as a pagan city. Its coins also belong to this period, and extend from the reign of Hadrian to Severus. One of the former emperor (imp. Caes, Tuaian. IiAi'kianvs. Ava., which exhibits Jupiter in a tetrastyle temple, with the legend Col. Ael. Cap.) confirms the account of Dion Cassius (lxix. 12), that a temple to Jupiter was erected on the site of God's tomp'e (Eckhcl, Doct. Num. Vet. pars i. torn. iii. p. 443); while one of Antoninus (aktonisvs. Avo. Pi vs. p. p. Til p. cos. in., representing Venus in a similar temple, with the legend c. A. c or Col. Ael. Cap.) no less distinctly confirms the Christian tradition that a shrine of Venus was erected over the Sepulchre of our Lord. (Vaillant, Numismaia Aerea Im/K-rat. in Col. pt. i. p. 239; Eckhel, /. c. p. 442.)
Under the emperor Coustantine, Jerusalem, which
had already become a favourite place of pilgrimage to the Christians, was furnished with new attractions by that emperor and his mother, and the erection of the Martyry of the Resurrection inaugurated a new aera of the Holy City, which now recovered its ancient name, after it had apparently fallen into complete oblivion among the government officers in Palaestine itself. (Euseb. de Mart. Palaent. cap. ii.) The erectiou of his church was commenced the year after the Council of Kicaea, and occupied ten years. It was dedicated on the tricennalia of the emperor, A. D. 336. (Euseb. Vita Constantmi, iii. 30—40, iv. 40—47.) Under the emperor Julian, the city again became an object of interest to the pagans, and the account of the defeat of Julian's attempt to rebuild the Temple is preserved by Ammianus Marcellinus, an unexceptioual witness (xxiii. 1; all the historical notices are collected by Bishop Warbnrton, in his work on the subject, entitled Julian.) In 451, the see of Jerusalem was erected into a patriarchate; and its subsequent history is chiefly occupied with the conflicting opinions of its incumbents on the subject of the heresies which troubled the church at that period. In the following century (cir. 532) the emperor Justinian emulated the zeal of his predecessor Constantine by the erection of churches and hospitals at Jerusalem, a complete account of which has been left by Procopius. (/>« Aedificiis Just'm ani, v. 6.) In A. r>. 614, the city with all its sacred places was desolated by the Persians under Chosroes II., when, according to the contemporary records, 90,000 Christians, of both sexes and of all ages, fell victims to the relentless fury of the Jews, who, to the number of 26,000, had followed the Persians from Galilee to Jerusalem to gratify their hereditary malice by the massacre of the Christians. The churches were immediately restored by Modestus; and the city was visited by Heraclius (a. D. 629) after his defeat of the Persians. Five years later (a. D. 634) it was invested by the Saracens, and, after a defence of four months, capitulated to the khalif Omar in person; since which time it has followed the vicissitudes of the various dynasties that have swayed the destinies of Western Asia.
It remains to add a few words concerning the modem city and its environs.
V. The Modern Cur.
El-Kodt, the modern representative of its most ancient name Kadcsbah, or Cadytis, "is surrounded by a high and strong cut-stone wall, built on the solid rock, loop-holed throughout, varying from 25 to 60 feet in height, having no ditch." It was built by the sultan Suliman (a.d. 1542), as is declared by many inscriptions on the wall and gates. It is in circuit about 2J miles, and lias four gates facing the four cardinal points. I. The Jaffa Gate, on the west, called by the natives Bab-el-Hallil, i. e. the Hebron Gate. 2. The Damascus Gate, on the north, Bab-el-'Amfld, the Gate of the Column. 3. The St. Stephen's Gate, on the east, Bab-SittiMiryam, St. Mary's Gate. 4. The Sion Gate, on the south, Bab-cn-Nebi Daud, the Gate of the Prophet David. A fifth gate, on the south, near the mouth of the Tyropoeon, is sometimes opened to facilitate the introduction of the water from a neighbouring well. A line drawn from the Jaffa Gate to the Mosk, along the course of the old wall, and another, cutting this at right angles, drawn from the Sion to the Damascus Gate, could divide the city into the four quarters by which it is usually distinguished.
These four quarters are: — (1) The Armenian Quarter at the SW.; (2) the Jew's Quarter at the SE.,—both these being on Mount Sion; (3) the Christian Quarter at the NW.; (4) the Mahometan Quarter, occupying the remainder of the city on the west and north of the great Haram-es-Sherif, the noble Sanctuary, which represents the ancient Temple area. The Mosk, which occupies the grandest and once most venerated spot in the world, is, in its architectural design and proportions, as it was formerly in its details, worthy of its Bite. It was built for Abd-el Melik Ibn-Marwan, of the house of Ommiyah, the tenth kbalif. It was commenced in A. n. 688, and completed in three years, and when the vicissitudes it has undergone within a space of nearly 1200 years are considered, it is perhaps rather a matter of astonishment that the fabric should have been preserved so entire than that the adornment should exhibit in parts marks of ruinous decay.
The Church of Justinian,—now the Mosk ElAksa,— to the south of the same area, is also a conspicuous object in the modern city; and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, with its appendages, occupies a considerable space to the west. The greater part of the remaining space is occupied with the Colleges or Hospitals of the Moslems, in the vicinity of the Mosks, and with the Monasteries of the several Christian communities, of which the Patriarchal Convent of St. Constantine, belonging to the Greeks, near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and that of the Armenians, dedicated to St. James, on the highest part of Mount Sion, are the most considerable.
The population of the modern city has been variously estimated, some accounts stating it as low as 10,000, others as high as 30,000. It may be safely assumed as about 12,000, of which number nearly half are Moslems, the other half being composed of Jews and Christians in about equal proportions. It is governed by a Turkish pasha, and is held by a small garrison. Most of the European nations are there represented by a consul.
VI. Est vinous.
A few sites of historical interest remain to be noticed in the environs of Jerusalem: as the valleys which environ the city have been sufficiently described at the commencement of the article, the mountains may here demand a few words.
The Scopus, which derived its name, as Josephus informs us, from the extensive view which it commanded of the surrounding country, is the high ground to the north of the city, beyond the Tombs of the Kings, 7 stadia from the city (B. J. ii. 19. § 4, v. 2. § 3), where both Cestius and Titus first encamped on their approach to the city (U. cc.): this range is now occupied by a village named Shaphat,— the Semitic equivalent to the Greek O-kottos. On the east of the city is the Mount of Olives, extending along the whole length of its eastern wall, conspicuous with its three summits, of which the centre is the highest-, and is crowned with a pile of" buildings occupying the spot where Helena, the mother of Constantine, built a Basilica in comUiemoration of the Ascension of our Lord. (EuBebius, ViU\ Conxtantini, iii. 12, Laudes, § 9.) A little below the southern summit is a remarkable gallery of sepulchral chambers arranged in a semi
circle concentric with a circular funnel-shaped hall 24 feet in diameter, with which it is connected by three passages. They are popularly called "the Tombs of the Prophets" but no satisfactory account has been given of these extensive excavations. (Plans are given by SchulU, Krafft, and Tobler, in the works referred to below.) Dr. Schultz was inclined to identify this with the rock Trcpttrrfiptoy, mentioned by Josephus in his account of the Wall of Circumvariation (B. J. v. 12), which he supposes to be a translation of the Latin Columbarium, (See Diet. Ant. art. Funus, p. 561, b.)
In the bed of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, immediately beneath the centre summit of Mount Olivet, where the dry bed of the brook Kedron is spanned by a bridge, is the Garden of Gethsemane, with its eight venerable olive-trees protected by a stone wall; and close by is a subterranean church, in which is shown the reputed tomb of the Virgin, who, however, according to an ancient tradition, countenanced by the Council of Ephesus (a. D. 431), died and was buried in that city. (Labbe, Concilia, torn. iii. col. 573.)
A little to the south of this, still in the bed of the valley, are two remarkable monolithic sepulchral monuments, ascribed to Absalom and Zechariab, exhibiting in their sculptured ornaments a mixture of Doric, Ionic, and perhaps Egyptian architecture, which may possibly indicate a change in the original design in conformity with later taste. Connected with these are two series of sepulchral chambers, one immediately behind the Pillar of Absalom, called by the name of Jehoshaphat; the other between the monoliths, named the Cave of St. James, which last is a pure specimen of the Doric order. (See A General View in Holy City, vol. ii. p. 449, and detailed plans, Sec in pp. 157, 158, with Professor Willis's description.)
To the south of Mount Olivet is another rocky eminence, to which tradition has assigned the name of the Mount of Offence, as " the hill before Jerusalem" where king Solomon erected altars for idolatrous worship (1 Kings, xi. 7). In the rocky base of this mount, overhanging the Kedron, is the rockhewn village of Siloara, chiefly composed of sepulchral excavations, much resembling a Columbarium, and most probably the rock Peristerium of Josephus. Immediately below this village, on the opposite side of the valley, is the intermitting Fountain of the Virgin, at a considerable depth below the bed of the valley, with a descent of many steps hewn in the rock. Its supply of water is very scanty, and what is not drawn off here runs through the rocky ridge of Ophel, by an irregular passage, to the Pool of Si loan i in the mouth of the Tyropoeon. This pool, which is mentioned in the New Testament (St. John, ix. 7, &c.), is now filled with earth and cultivated as a garden, a small tank with columns built into its side serves the purpose of a pool, and represents the "quadriporticum" of the Bordeaux Pilgrim (a. D. 333), who also mentions "Alia piscina grandis foras." This was probably identical with Hezekiah's Pool "between the two walls" (Is. xxii. 11), as it certainly is with the "Pool of Siloah by the king's garden" in Neliemiah (iii. 15, ii. 14; comp. 2 Kings, xxv. 4. The arguments are fully stated in the Holy City, vol. ii. pp. 474—480. M. de Saulcy accepts the identification.) The kings gardens arc still represented in a verdant spot, where the concurrence of the three valleys, Ilinnoiu Jehoshaphat, and Tyropouon, forms a small plain, which is cultivated by the villagers of Siloam.
In the mouth of the southern valley which forms the continuation of these three valleys towards the Dead Sea, is a deep well, variously called the Well of Nehemiah, of Job, or Joab; supposed to be identical with Enrogel, "the well of the spies," mentioned in the borders of Judah and Benjamin, and elsewhere (Josh, xv. 7, xviii. 16; 2 Sam. xviL 17; 1 Kings, i. 9).
On the opposite side of the valley, over against the Mount of Offence, is another high rocky hill, facing Mount Sion, called the Hill of Evil Council, from a tradition that the house of Annas the highpriest, father-in-law to Caiaphas (St. John, xviii. 13, 24), once occupied thiB site. Thero is a curious coincidence with this in a notice of Josephus, who, in his account of the wall of circumvallation, mentions the monument of Ananus in this part (v. 12. § 2); which monument has lately been identified with an ancient rock-grave of a higher class,—the Aceldama of ecclesiastical tradition,—a little below the ruins on this hill; which is again attested to be "the Potter's Field," by a stratum of white clay, which is still worked. (Schultz, Jerusalem, p. 39.)
This grave is one of a series of sepulchres excavated in the lower part of this hill ; among which are several bearing Greek inscriptions, of which all that is clearly intelligible are the words THC. AriAC. CIdtfN., indicating that they belonged to inhabitants or communities in Jerusalem. (See the Inscriptions iu Krafft, and the comments on his deciphermeuts in the Holy City, Memoir, pp. 56 —60).
Higher up the Valley of Hinnom is a large and very ancient pool, now called the Sultan's (Birket-esSultan), from the fact that it was repaired, and adorned with a handsome fountain, by Sultan Suliman Ibn. Selim, 1520—1566, the builder of the present citywall. It is, however, not only mentioned in the mediaeval notices of the city,but is connected by Nehemiah with another antiquity in the vicinity, called En-nebi Daid. On Mount Sion, immediately above, and to the east of the pool, is a large and irregular mass of building, supposed by Christians, Jews, and Moslems, to contain the Tomb of David, and of his successors the kings of Judah. It has been said that M. de Saulcy lias attempted an elaborate proof of the identity of the Tombs of the Kings, at the head of the Valley of Jehoshaphat, with the Tomb of David. His theory is inadmissable ; for it is clear, from the notices of Nehemiah, that the Sepulchres of David were not far distant from the Pool of " Siloah," close to " the pool that was made,"and, consequently, on that part of Mount Sion where they are now shown. (ATehem. iii. 16 —19.) The memory of David's tomb was still preserved until the destruction of Jerusalem (Josephus, Ant. xiii. 8. § 4, xvi. 7. § 1; Acts, ii. 29), and is noticed occasionally in the middle ages. (See Holy City, vol. ii. pp. 505 — 513.) In the same pile of buildings, now occupied by the Moslems, is shown the Coenaculum where our Lord is 6aid to have instituted the Last Supper. Epiphanius mentions that this church was standing when Hadrian visited Jerusalem (Pond, et Mens. cap. xiv.), and there St. Cyril delivered some of his catechetical lectures (Cateck. xvi. 4). It was in this part of the Upper City that Titus spared the houses and city wall to form barracks for the soldiers of the garrison. (Vide sup.)
Above the Pool of the Sultan, the Aqueduct of Pontius Pilate, already mentioned, crosses the Valley
of Hinnom on nine low arches; and, being carried along the side of Mount Sion, crosses the Tyropoeon by the causeway iDto the Haram. The water is conveyed from Etham, or the Pools of Solomon, about two miles south of Bethlehem. (Josephus, B. J. ii. 9. §4)
The mention of this aqueduct recalls a notice of Strabo, which has been perpetually illustrated in the history of the city; via., that it was trris fitv tfivipov
(ktus 5e wavTfktoS SitynpSv airrb fitv tt>vb'povJ
T^]v 5e Kvk\u' xt&Pav ^Xov Airtrpav Kal &vvbpov. (xvi. p. 723.) Whence this abundant supply was derived it is extremely difficult to imagine, as, of course, the aqueduct just mentioned would be immediately cut off in case of siege; and, without this, the inhabitants of the modem city are almost entirely dependent on rain-water. But the accounts of the various sieges, and the other historical notices, as well as existing remains, all testify to the fact that there was a copious source of living water introduced into the city from without, by extensive subterranean aqueducts. The subject requires, and would repay, a more accurate and careful investigation. (See Holy City, vol. ii. p. 453—605.)
Besides the other authorities cited or referred to in the course of this article, the principal modern sources for the topography of Jerusalem are the following:— Dr. Robinson's Biblical Researches, vols, i. and ii; Williams's Holy City; Dr. Wilson's Lands of the Bible; Dr.E. G. Schultz, Jerusalem; W. Kraft, Die Topographic Jerusalem*; Carl Hitter, Die Erdkunde von Asien, <f&, Palastina, Berlin, 1852, pp. 297 — 508: Dr. Titus Tobler, Golgotha, 1851; Die Siloahquelle und die Oelberg, 1852; Denkblatter aug Jerusalem, 1853; F. de Saulcy,Voyage autour de la Mer Morte, torn. 2. [G. W.]
IGILG1LI (^lyt\yt\l, PtoL: Jye/t), a sea-port of Mauretania Caesariens'is, on the Sinus Numidicus, made a Romnn colony by Augustus. It stands on a headland, on the E. side of which a natural roadstead is formed by a reef of rocks running parallel to the shore; and it was probably in ancient times the emporium of the surrounding country, (/.in. Ant. p. 18; Plin. v. 2. s. I; Ptol. iv. 2. §11; Ainmian. Marc. xxix. 5; Tab. Peut.; Shaw, Travels, p.45; Barth, Wanderungen, (fc, p. 66.) [P.S.]
IGILIUM (Giglio), an island oiT the coast of Etraria, directly opposite to the Mons Argcntarius and the port of Cuea. It is, next to Ilva, the most considerable of the islands near the coast of Etruria, being 6 miles long by about 3 in breadth, and consists of a group of mountains of considerable elevation. Hence Kutilius speaks of its " silvosa cacuminal (Itin. i. 325.) From that author we learn that, when Rome was taken by Alai ic (a. D. 410), a number of fugitives from the city took refuge in Igilium, the insular position of which afforded them complete security. Caesar also mentions it, during the Civil War, in conjunction with tiie neighbouring port of Coea, :is furnishing a few vessels to Domitius, with which that general sailed for Massilia. (Caes. B. C. i. 34; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7. tj 19.) It is evident, therefore, that it was inhabited in ancient as well as modern times. [E. H. B.J IGLETES, IGNE'TES. [hispania.] IGULLIO'XES, in European Sarmatia, mentioned by Ptolemy as lying between the Stavani and Coistoboci, and to the cast of the Venedi (iii. 5. § 21). Now the Stavani lay south of the Gulindae and Sudini, populations of which the locality is known to be that of the Galinditae and Sudovitae of the middle ages, i. e. the parts about the Spirding-see in East Prussia. This would place the Iguiliones in the southern part of Lithuania, or in parts of Grodno, Podolia, and Volhynia, in the country of the Jazicingi of the thirteenth century, — there or thereabouts. Zeuss has allowed himself to consider some such form as 'iTvy-yfeupey as the truer reading; and, so doing, identifies the names, as well as the localities, of the two populations (Trvyyiiw, Jacwing),—the varieties of form being very numerous. The Jacwings were Lithuanians—Lithuanians as opposed to Slavonians; and in this lies their ethnological importance, inasmuch as the southward extension of that branch of the Sarmatian stock is unde tern lined. (See Zeuss, s. v. Jazwingi.) [R. G. L.]
IGU'VIUAI ( lyovior: £M.Iguvinus: Gut>bio),nn ancient and important town of Umbria, situated on the W. slope of the Apennines, but not far from their central ridge, and on the lcit of the Via Flaminia. Its existence as an ancient Umbrian city is sufficiently attested by its coins, as well as by a remarkable monument presently to be noticed; but we find no mention of it in history previous to the period of its subjection to Home, and we only learn incidentally tram Cicero that it enjoyed the privileged condition of a " foederata civitas," and that the terms of its treaty were of a highly favourable character. (Cic. pro lialb. 20, where the reading of the older editions, "Fulginatium," is certainly erroneous: see Orelli, ad /oc.) The first mention of its name occurs in Livy (xlv. 43, where there is no doubt we should read Iguvium for " Igiturvium ") as the place selected by the Roman senate for the confinement of the Illyrian king Gentius and his sons, when the people of Spoletium refused to receive them. Its natural strength of position, which was evidently the cause of its selection on this occasion, led also to its bearing a conspicuous part in the beginning of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey, when it was occupied by the praetor Minucius Thennus with five cohorts; but on the approach of Curio with three cohorts, Thennus, who was apprehensive of a revolt of the citizens, abandoned the town without resistance. (Caes. B. C. i. 12; Cic. ad Att. vii. 13, b.) Under the Roman dominion Iguvium seems to nave lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town: we find it noticed in an inscription as
1 one of the " xv. populi Umbriae n (Orell. hiscr. 98), as well as by Pliny and Ptolemy (Plin. iii. 14. e. 19; Ptol. iii. I. § 53), and it is probable that in Slrabn also we should read 'lyotiiov for the corrupt name *lrovpov of the MSS. and earlier editions. (Strab. v. p. 227; Cluver. ItaL p. 626.) But its secluded position in the mountains, and at a distance of some miles from the line of the Via Flaminia, was probably unfavourable to its prosperity, and it does not seem to have been a place of much importance. Silius Italicus speaks of it as very subject to fogs (viii. 459). It early became the sec of a bishop, and retained its episcopal rank throughout the middle ages, when it rose to be a place of considerably moie importance than it had enjoyed under the Roman empire.
The modern city of Gvbbio contains no ruins of ancient date; but about 8 miles to the E. of it, at a place now called La Schieggia, on the line of the ancient Flaminian Way, and just at the highest point of the pass by which it crosses the main ridge of the Apennines, some vestiges of an ancient temple are still visible, which are supposed with good reason to be those of the temple of Jupiter Apenninus. This is represented in the Tabula Peutingcrinna as existing at the highest point of the pass, and is noticed also by ClaudUn in describing the progress of Honorius along the Flaminian Way. (Claud ian, de VI. Cons. lion. 504; Tab. Pent.) The oracle consulted by the emperor Claudius "in Apennino** (Treb. Poll. Claud. 10) may perhaps have reference to the same spot. Many bronze idols and other small objects of antiquity have been found ne-ir the ruins in question; but a far more important discovery, made on the same site in 1444, was that of the celebrated tables of bronze, commonly known as the Tabulae Eugubinae, which are still preserved in the city of Gubbio. These tobies, which are seven in number, contain long inscriptions, four of which are in Etruscan characters, two in Latin, and one partially in Etruscan and partially in Latin characters; but the language is in all cases apparently the same, and is wholly distinct from that of the genuine Etruscan monuments on the one hand, as well as from Latin on the other, though exhibiting strong traces of affinity with the older Latin forms, as well as with the existing remains of the Oscan dialects. There can be no doubt that the language which we here find is that of the Umbrians themselves, who are represented by all ancient writers as nationally distinct both from tho Etruscans and the Sabellian races. The ethnological and linguistic inferences from these important monuments will be more fully considered under the article Umuiua. It is only of late years that they have been investigated with care; early antiquaries having formed the most extravagant theories as to their meaning: Lanzi had the merit of first pointing out that they evidently related only to certain sacrificial and other religious rites to be celebrated at the temple of Jupiter by the Iguvians themselves and some neighbouring communities. The interpretation has since been carried out, as far as our imperfect knowledge will permit, by Lepsius, Grotefend, and still more recently in the elaborate work of Aufreeht and Kirchhoff. (Lanzi, Saggio di Lingua Ktrmcay vol. iii. pp. 057—768; Lp[;sius, de Tabulis Engubinis, 1833 ; Inscriptions* Umhricae et Oscae, Lips. 1841; Grotefend, Ihulimentn Linguae Vmbricae, Hannov. 1835—1839; Aufreeht u. KirchhofF, Vie Uinbrisch.cn Sprach. Penknuder, 4to. Berlin, 1849.) In the still im
perfect state of our knowledge of the inscriptions in question, it is somewhat hazardous to draw from them positive conclusions as to proper names; but it seems that we may fnirly infertile mention of several small towns or communities in the immediate neighbourhood of Iguvium. These were, however, in all probability not independent communities, but pagi, or villages dependent upon Iguvium itself. Of this description were: Akerunia or Acerronia (probably answering to the Latin Aquilonia), Clavernia (in Lat. Clavenna), Cnria or Cureia, Casihnn, Juviscum, Museia, Pieriuin (?), Tarsina, and Trebla or Trepla. The last of these evidently corresponds to the Latin name Trebia or Trebula, and may refer to the Urnbrian town of that name: the Cureiati of the inscription are evidently the same with the Curiates of Pliny, mentioned by him among the extinct communities of Umbria (Plin. iii. 14. s. 19); whilo the names of Museia and Casilum are said to bo still retained by two villages called Museia and Casilo in the immediate neighbourhood of Gvbbio. Chtaserna, another neighbouring village, is perhaps the Claverna of the Tables.
The coins of Iguvium, which are, of bronze, and of large size (so that they must be anterior to the reduction of the Italian As), have the legend iKVVtNr, which is probably the original form of the name, and is found in the Tables, though we here meet also with the softened and probably later form " Ijovina" or" Iiovina." '[E. H. B.]
ILA, in Scotland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 5) as the first river south of the Berubium Promontorium = Firth of Dornoch. [R. G. L.]
ILARAU'GATAE. [hispania; Ilergetks.]
ILARGUS, a river of Rhaetia Secunda, flowing from west to east, and emptying itself into the Danube. (Pedo Albinov. Eleg. ad Liv. 386, where the common reading is Itargus; others read Isargus, and regard it as the same as the river Atagis ("Arayu) mentioned by Strabo, iv. p. 207, with Groskurd's note, vol. i. p. 356.) It would, however, appear that Uargus and Isargus were two different rivers, since in later writers we find, with a slight change, a river Ililara (Vita S. Magni, 18), answering to the modern liter, and another, Ysarche (Act. S. Cassiani, ap. Resch. Annal. Sabion. iv. 7), the modern Eisach, which flows in a southern direction, snd empties itself into the Athesis. [L. S.]
ILA'TTIA ('IAorrfa, Polyb. ap. Steph. B. s. v.), a town of Crete, which is probably the same as the Eijltus of Pliny (iv. 12). Some editions read Clatus, incorrectly classed by him among the inland towns. (Hock, Kreta, vol. i. p. 432.) [E. B. J.]
ILERCA'OiSES ('I\fproves, Ptol. ii. 6. §§ 16, 64; Ilercaonenses, Liv. xxii. 21; Illurgavonenses, Caes. B. C. i. 60: in this, as in so many other Spanish names, the c and g are interchangeable), a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, occupying that portion of the sea-coast of Edetania which lay between the rivers Uduba aud Iberus. Their exact boundaries appear to have been a little to the N. of each of these rivers. They possessed the town of Dertosa (Tortosa), on the left hank of the Iberus, and it was their chief city. [dertosa ] Their other towns, according to Ptolemy, were: — An Era ("AStgo: Amposta ?), Tiariuua (TiapwvXia: Tcari Julienses, ap. PUn. iii. 3. s. 4: Iraggnera),
Bircargis (BiffKapyis; Biscargitani civ. Bom., Plin.: Berrus), Sigarra (Ziyafip'a: Segarra, Marca, Hup. ii. 8), Carthago Vetus (Kapxifiwv iraXatd; Carta Vieja, Marca, ibid.), and Tiikava (Stava). Ukert also assigns to them, on the N. of the Iberus, Traja Capita, Oleastrum, Tarraco, and other places, which seem clearly to have belonged to the Cosetani. The name of their country, Ilkrcavonia, occurs on the coins of their city Ibera. [P. S.]
ILERDA ('IAe'poa, and rarely E/Aepoa; Hilerda, Auson. Epist. xxv. 59: Eth. 'lAcpSfTcu, Ilerdenses: Lerida), the chief city of the Ilergetes, in Hispania Tarraconensis, is a place of considerable importance, historically as well as geographically. It stood upon an eminence, on the right (W.) bank of the river Sicoris (Segre), the principal tributary of the Ebro, and some distance above its confluence with the Cinoa (Ctnca); thus commanding the country between those rivers, as well as the great road from Tarraco to the N\V. of Spain, which here crossed the Sicoris. (Itin. Ant. pp. 391, 452.) Its situation (propter ipshts loci opportimitatem, Caes. B. C. i- 38) induced the legates of Pompey in Spain to make it the key of their defence against Caesar, in the first year of the Civil War (b. C. 49). Afranius and Pctreius threw themselves into the place with five legions; and their siege by Caesar himself, as narrated in his own words, forms one of the most interesting passages of military history. The resources exhibited by the great general, in a contest where the formation of the district and the very elements of nature seemed in league with his enemies, have been compared to those displayed by the great Duke before Badajoz; but no epitome can do justice to the campaign. It ended by the capitulation of Afranius and Petreius, who were conquered as much by Caesar's generosity as by his strategy. (Ca'es. B. C. i. 38, et seq.; Flor. iv. 12; Appian, B. C. ii. 42; Veil. Pat. ii. 42; Suet. Caes. 34; Lucan, Pharsal iv. 11, 144.) Under the empire, Ilerda was a very flourishing city, and a municipium. It had a fine stone bridge over the Sicoris, on the foundations of which the existing bridge is built. In the time of Ausonius the city had fallen into decay; but it rose again into importance in the middle ages. (Strab. iii. p. 161 ; Horat. Epist. i. 20. 13; coins, ap. Florez, Med. ii. pp.451, 646, iii. p. 73; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 44, Suppl. vol. i. p. 89; Sestini, pp. 161, 166; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 51.) [P. S.]