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invaded and conquered their country. Maroboduus fled, and demanded the protection of Tiberias, who offered to him a safe retreat in Italy. He there spent the remaining eighteen years of his life, while the throne of the Marcomanni was left to Catualda. [Diet, ofBiogr. art. Ma Robodous.] Bat the latter, too, was soon expelled by the Hermunduri, and ended his life in exile. (Tac. Ann. ii. 62, 63.) The Marcomanni, however, like the Quadi, continued to be governed by kings of their own, though they were not quite independent of the Romans, who often supported them with money and more rarely with troops. (Tac. Germ. 42.) They appear to have gradually extended their dominion to the banks of the Danube, where they came into hostile collision with the Romans. The emperor Domitian demanded their assistance against the Dacians, and this being refused, he made war against them. But he was defeated A. D. 90, and obliged to make peace with the Dacians. (Dion Cass. lxvii. 7.) Trajan and Hadrian kept them in check; but in the reign of M. Aurelius hostilities were recommenced with fresh energy. The Marcomanni, allied with the Quadi and others, partly from hatred of the Romans, and partly urged on by other tribes pressing upon them in the north and east, invaded the Roman provinces A. D. 166; and thus commenced the protracted war commonly called the Marcomannic or German War, which lasted until the accession of Commodus, A. D. 180, who purchased peace of them. During this war, tho Marcomanni and their confederates advanced into Rhaetia, and even penetrated as far as Aquileia. The war was not carried on uninterruptedly, but was divided into two distinct contests, having been interrupted by a peace or truce, in which the places conquered on both sides were restored. The second war broke out towards the end of the reign of M. Aurelius, about A. D. 178. (Dion Cass. Fragm. lib. lxxL, Ixxii., lxxvii. pp. 1178, foil., 1305, ed. Reimar.; Eutrop. viii. 6; J. Capitol, if. Anton. Philoe. 12, &c, 17, 21,22, 25, 27; Amm. Marc. xix. 6; Herodian, L init.) In consequence of the pusillanimity of Commodus the Marcomannians were so much emboldened, that, soon after and throughout the third century, they continued their inroads into the Roman provinces, especially Rhaetia and Noricum. In the reign of Aurelian, they penetrated into Italy, even as far as Ancona, and excited great alarm at Rome. (Vopisc Awel. 18,21.) But afterwards they cease to act a prominent part in history. Their name, however, is still mentioned occasionally, as in Jornandcs (22), who speaks of them as dwelling on the west of Transylvania. (Comp. Amm. Marc xxii. 5, xxix. 6, xxxi. 4.) In the Notitia Imperii, we have mention of " Honoriani Marcomanni seniores" and "juniores" among the Roman auxiliaries. The last occasion on which their name occurs is in the history of Attila, among whose hordes Marcomanni are mentioned. (Comp. Wilhclm, Germanien, p. 212, foil.; Zenss, Die Deuttchen, p. 114, foil.; Latham, Tacit. Germ. Prolog, p. 53, foil.) [L. S.]

MARDENE. [mardybne.]

MARDI. [amabdi.]

MARDI, a branch of this powerful and warlike people were found in Armenia to the E. of Afarikutan (lake Vin). (Ptol. v. 13. § 20; Tac Ann. xiv. 23; comp. Anqnetil Duperron,Mem. de VAcad. det Inter, vol. xiv. p. 87.) [E. B. J.]

MARDYEUE (MopJwnTf, Ptol. vi. 4. § 3), a district of ancient Persis, which, according to Ptolemy, extended to the sea-coast The name is

probably derived from some of the far extended nomade tribes of the Mardi or Amardi. (Herod, i. 125; Strab. xi. p. 524.) [V.]

MARDYE'Nl (Map5</nra(, Ptol. vi. 12 § 4), a tribe who occupied the lower part of the Sogdian mountains in Sogdiana. There can be no doubt that these people are the remains of a once very numerous race, whose traces we find spread over a wide extent of country from the Caspian to the Pereian Gulf, and from the Ox us to the Caspian. We find the names of these tribes preserved in different authors, and attributed to very different places. Hence the presumption that they were to a great extent a nomade tribe, who pressed onward from the N. and E. to the S. Thus we find them under the form of Mardi in Hyrcania (Diod. xviL 76; Arrian, A nab. iii. 24, iv. 18; Dionys. Perieg. v. 732; Curt. vi. 5), in Margiana according to Pliny (vi. 16. s. 13), in Persia (Herod, i. 125; Strab. xi. p. 524; Ptol. vi. 4. § 3; Curt. v. 6), in Armenia (Ptol. v. 13; Tacit Ann. xiv. 23), on the eastern side of the Pontus Euxinus (Plin. vi. 5), under the form Amardi in Scythia intra Imaum (Mela, iii. 5, iv. 6; Plin. vi. 17. s. 19), and lastly in Bactriana. (Plin. vi. 16. s. 18.) [V.]

MAKEIA or MA'REA (Mapte, Herod, ii. 18,30; Kapela, Thucyd. i. 104; Md>tia, Steph. Byx. #.».; Mapla, Diod. ii. 68 ; IluAai Mdptia Ktopn, Ptol. iv. 5. § 34), the modern Mariouth, and the chief town of the Mareotic Nome, stood on a peninsula in the south of the lake Mareotis, nearly due south of Alexandria, and adjacent to the mouth of the canal which con. nected the lake with the Canonic arm of the Nile. Under the Pharaohs Mareia was one of the principal frontier garrisons of Aegypt on the side of Libya; but from the silence of Herodotus (ii. 30) we may infer that the Persians did not station troops there. In all ages, however, until it was eclipsed by the neighbouring greatness of Alexandreia, Mareia, as the nearest place of strength to the Libyan desert, must have been a town of great importance to the Delta. At Mareia, according to Diodorus (ii. 681), Amasia defeated the Pharaoh-Apries, Hofra, or Psammet ichus; although Herodotus (ii. 161) places this defeat at Momemphis. (Herod, ii. 169.) At Mareia, also, according toTbucydides (i. 104; comp. Herod, iii. 12), Inarus, the son of Psammetichus, reigned, and organised the revolt of Lower Aegypt against the Persians. Under the Ptolemies, Mareia continued to nourish as a harbour; but it declined under the Romans, and in the age of the Antonines—the second century Aj>. —it had dwindled into a village. (Comp.Atben.L25, p. 33, with Eustath. ad Homer. Odyss. ix. 197.)

Mareia was the principal depSt of the trade of the Mareotic Lake and Nome. The vineyards in its vicinity produced a celebrated wine, which Athenacns (i c.) describes as " remarkable for its sweetness, white in colour, in quality excellent, light, with a fragrant bouquet: it was by no means astringent, and did not affect tho head." (Comp. Plin. xiv. 3; Strab. xvii. p. 796.) Some, however, deemed the Mareotic wine inferior to that of Anthylla and Tenia; and Columella (ft. ft. iii. 2) says that it was too thin for Italian palates, accustomed to the fuller-bodied Falemian. Virgil (Georg. ii. 91) describes tho Mareotic grape as white, and growing in a rich soil; yet the soil of the vineyards around the Mareotic Lake was principally composed of gravel, and lay beyond the reach of the alluvial deposit of the Nile, which is ill suited to viticulture. Strabo (xvii. p. 799) ascribes to the wine of Mareia the additional merit of keeping well to a great age; and Horace ( Od. i. 37) mentions it as a favourite beverage of Cleopatra.

Mareia, from its neighbourhood to Alexandreia, was so generally known to Roman travellers, that among the Latin poets, the words Mareia and Mareotic became synonymous with Aegypt and Aegyptian. Thus Martial (Ep. xiv. 209) calls the papyrus, "cortex Mareotica" (comp.ii Ep.'ii 42): and Gratius (Cyntgetic. v. 313) designates Aegyptian luxury as Mareotic: and Ovid (Met. ix. v. 73) employs "arva Mareotica" for Lower Aegypt. [W. B. D.] MAREOTIS or MARK I'A (fi Maptaris or Mapci'a Xl/wT), Strab. xvii. pp. 789 — 799; Mct/ifia, Steph. B. t. v.; Mareotis Libya, Plin. v. 10. s. 11; Justin, xi. 1), the modern Birktt-tUMariout, was a considerable lake in the north of the Delta, extending south-westward of the Canopic arm of the Nile, and running parallel to the Mediterranean, from which it was separated by a long and narrow ridge of sand, as far as the tower of Perseus on the Plinthinetic bay. The extreme western point of the lake was about 26 miles distant from Alexandreia; and on that side it closely bordered upon the Libyan desert At its northern extremity its waters at one time washed the walls of Alexandreia on their southern side, and before the foundation of that city Mareotis was termed the Lake above Pharus. In breadth it was rather more than 150 stadia, or about 22 English miles, and in length nearly 300 stadia, or about 42 English miles. One canal connected the lake with the Canopic arm of the Nile, and another with the old harbour of Alexandreia, the Portus Eunostus. [ AlexAptoreia.] The shores of the Mareotis were planted with olives and vineyards ; the papyrus which lined its banks and those of the eight islets which studded its waters was celebrated for its fine quality; and around its margin stood the country-houses and gardens of the opulent Alexandrian merchants. Its creeks and quays were filled with Nile boats, and its export and import trade in the age of Strabo surpassed that of the most flourishing havens of Italy.

Under the later Caesars, and after Alexandreia was occupied by the Arabs, the canals which fed the lake were neglected, and its depth and compass were materially reduced. In the 16th century A. D. its waters had retired about 2 miles from the city walls; yet it still presented an ample sheet of water, and its banks were adorned with thriving date-plantations. The lake, however, continued to recede and to grow shallower; and, according to the French traveller Savary, who visited this district in 1777, its bed was then, for the most part, a sandy waste. In 1801 the English army in Aegypt, in order to annoy the French garrison in Alexandria, bored the narrow isthmus which separates the Birket-el-Mariout from the Lake of Madieh or Aboukir, and re-admitted the sea-water. About 450 square miles were thus converted into a salt-marsh. But subsequently Mehemet Ali repaired the isthmus, and again diverted the sea from the lake. It is now of very unequal depth. At its northern end, near Alexandreia, it is about 14 feet deep, at its opposite extremity not more than 3 or 4. Westward it forms a long and shallow laeonn, separated from the sea by a bar of saad, and running towards Libya nearly as far as the Tower of the Arab*. The lands surrounding the ancient Mareotis were designated as the Mareotic Nome (Mapturrris NJ^os, Ptol. iv. 5. §§ 8, 34); but this was probably not one of the established Nome* or Pharannic Aegypt. [W. B. D.]

MARKS (Maptj) t tribe on the coast of Pomus,


in the neighbourhood of the Mosynoeci. (llciat. Fragm. 192; Herod, iii. 94.) Their armour, when serving in the army of Xerxes, is described by Herodotus (vii. 79) as having consisted of helmets of wicker-work, leather shields, and javelins. Later writers do not mention this tribe. [L. S.]

MARESHAH (Mopnffo, LXX., Euseb.; MopiWo, Joseph.), a city of Judah, "in the valley," enumerated with Keilah and Achzib in Joshua (xv. 44). In Micah (i. 15), where it is again joined with Achzib, the LXX. have substituted Aax'li. Lachish, however, is found in the list of Joshua, independent of Maresha (xv. 39), Bo it could not be a synonym fur Mareshah. It was one of the cities fortified by ltehoboam against the Philistines and Egyptians (2 Chnm. xi. 8); and there it was that Asa encountered Zerah the Ethiopian, "in the valley of Zephathah at Mareshah" (xiv. 9), and gained a signal victory over him. In the time of Judas Maccabaeus it was occupied by the Idumaeans (2 Maccab. xii 35), but Judas took and destroyed it (Joseph. Anl, xii. 8. § 6.) Only a few years later it is again reckoned to Idumaea; and Hyrcanus I. took it, and compelled its inhabitants, in common with the other Idumaeans, to practice circumcision, and conform to the law, as a condition of remaining in that country (xiii. 9. § 1, 15. § 4). It was one of the cities restored to Aretas king of Arabia by Hyrcanus II., as the price of his services (xiv. 1. § 4): soon after which it was rebuilt by Gahinius (5. § 3); shortly after sacked and destroyed by the Parthians in their invasion of the country, in the time of Herod the Great (xiv. 13. § 9); and probably never recovered its former importance, as this is the latest historical notice. It is placed by Eusebius and St. Jerome 2 miles from Eleutheropolis; it was then a ruin. Dr. Robinson conjectures that "Eleutheropolis (at first Betogabra) had sprung up after the destruction of Maresha, and had been built with its materials," and that "the foundations which he discovered on the south-eastern part of the remarkable tell, south of the place, were remains of Maresha. The spot is admirably adapted for a fortress; it lies about a Roman mile and a half from the ruins of Beit Jebrin." There are no other ruins in the vicinity. (Bid. Res. vol. ii. pp. 422, 423.) [G. W.]

MAREU'RA or MALTHUTSA (Mooeoopa /inToovoau ii Kal MaAfovoa KaKuvptrrj, Ptol. vii. 2. § 24), a place of some importance in the upper part of the Aurea Chersonesus in India extra Gangem. It is not possible now to identify it with any existing place. [V.]

MATtGANA or MATK3ALAE (Mdpyava, Mod.; yiupryavus, Xen.; MapydKai, Strab.; Mdpyaia, Steph. B. ». v.), a town in the Pisatis, in the district Amphidolia, was supposed by some to be the Homeric Aepy. (Strab. viii. p. 349.) The Eleians were obliged to renounce their supremacy over it by the treaty which they made with Sparta in B. c. 400 (Xen. Bell. iii. 2. § 30), on which occasion it is called one of the Triphylian towns: as to this statement, see Letrini. It is mentioned as one of the towns taken by the Arcadians in their war with the Eleians in B. c. 366. (Xen. Hell. vii. 4. § 14; Diod. xv. 77.) Its site is uncertain, but it was prohably east of Letrini. Leake places it too far north, at the junction of the Ladon and the Peneius, which is in all probability the site of the Eleian Pylos. (Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 219; Boblaye, liecherches, r/c. p 130; Curtius, Pelopmi. nesot. vol. i. p. 73.)


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MARGIA'NA ($ Mnp7iaW>, Strab. xi. p. 516, PtoL vi. 10; Plin. vi. 16. s. 18), a district of considerable extent in the western part of Central Asia, which was bounded on the W. by Hyrcania, on the N. by Scythia and the Oxus as far as Bactriana, on the E. by Bactriana, and on the S. by Ariana. At present the country is called Khordgan, and comprehends also some part of the territory occupied by the Turkoman tribes. Like most of the districts at a great distance from Greece or Rome, it was bnt partially known to the ancients; hence its limits are variously stated by ancient authors. Thus Strabo makes it the province next to Parthia, to the N. of the Sariphi mountains, and gives the same boundaries to the W., N., and E. as the other geographers (xi. p. 516). Pliny places it in the same direction, but adds that a desert of 120 M.P. must be crossed before it could be reached (vi. 16. s. 18). Both Strabo and Pliny speak of the great fertility of its land, and the fineness of its climate; the former stating that the vines were often so large that a man could not embrace their stems in his arms; the latter, that it was the only district in that part of the world which produced grapes. The accounts of the ancients are in this particular confirmed by modern and by Mubammedan writers. According to the latter, it would seem to have comprehended the territory from Bunjurd on the west, to Men and the Murgh-db in the east, a tract remarkable for its beauty and fertility. (Wilson, Ariana, p. 149.) The principal river of Margiana, from which, too, it probably derived its name, was the Margus (now Murgh-db"). Various races and tribes are noticed in different authors as occupying parts of Margiana. All of them may be considered as of Scythian or Tatar origin;— indeed, in this part of Asia, the population has remained nearly the same to the present day which it was in the classical times. The principal of these were the Derbiccae or Derbices (Steph. p. 23; Strab. xi. p. 508; Dionys. v. 734), who lived to the N. near the mouth of the Oxus; the Massagetae, the Parni, and the Daae, who lived to the S. of the former along the Caspian and the termination of the Margus, which loses itself in the sands before it reaches the Caspian; and the Tapuri and Harol The chief towns were, Antiocheia Maeotan'a (certainly the present Men), Nisaea or Nesaea, Ariaca, and Jasonium. [See these places under their respective names.] [V.]

MARGIDUNUM, in Britain (/tin. Anton, pp. 477, 479). It is supposed by Camden, Stnkeley, Horseley, and others, to have been situated at or near East Bridgeford, about eight miles from WUloughln/.' [C. R. S.]

MARGUM or MARGUS (Mdpyov, Mapyas), also railed MURGUM, a city of Moesia, at the confluence of the Margus and Danube. It was termed " Margum planum " on account of the level character of the surrounding country. (Jornand. de Reb. Get. c. 58.) It was here that the emperor Carinus was totally defeated by Diocletian. (Eufrop. ix. 13, x. 20 ; IL Ant. p. 132; It. Hierog.v. 564.) [A.L.]

MARGUS QAipyos, Strab. vii. p. 318 ; Margis, Plin. iii. 26. s. 29), an important river of Moesia, which flows into the Danube, near the town of Margum, now the Morava. Strabo says (/. c.) that it was also called Bargus, and the same appears in Herodotus (iv. 44) under the form of Brongus (BpoyyoO- It la tne "ame river as the Moschius (MoVxiot) of Ptolemy (iii. 9. § 3). [A. L.]

MARGUS (Mo>vos, Strab. xi. p. 516; PtoL vu 10. §§ 1, 4), the chief river of the province of Margiana, which in all probability derives its nam from it,—now the Murgh-ab or Mens Hud. It is said by Ptolemy to have taken its rise in the Sariphi mountains (now ffazardi), a western spur of the great range of the Paropamisus, and, after a northern course and a junction with another small stream, to have flowed into the Oxus. The travels of Sir Alexander Burnes have demonstrated that the Murgh-db no longer reaches the Oxus, but is lost in the sands about 50 miles NW. of Merc (Burnes, vol. ii. p. 35) ,* but it is probable that as late as the time of Ihn Haukal (about A. D. 950) it still flowed into the Jihou (De Sacy, Mfm. sur deux Prov. de la Perse, p. 22). The Margus passed by and watered Antiocheia Margiana, the capital of the province. C^'*]

MARIABA (Mapi'oSa). There seem to have been several cities of this name in Arabia, as there are still several towns or sites of the name, scarcely modified. How many distinct cities are mentioned by the classical geographers, antiquarians are not agreed, and the various readings have involved the question in great perplexity. It will be well to eliminate first those of which the notices are most distinct.

1. The celebrated capital of the Sabaei in Yemen, is known both in the native and classical writers. It is called the metropolis of the Sabaei by Strabo (xvi. 4. § 2). which tribe was contiguous to that of the Minaei, who bordered on the Red Sea on one side, and to the Catabaneis, who reached to the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. [sabaei; Minaei; CaTabaki.] It was situated on a well-wooded mountain, and was the royal residence. It seems difficult to imagine that this was distinct from the Mariaba of Pliuy, who, however, assigns it to the Atramitae, a biancli of the Sabaei, and places it on a bay 94 M. P. in circuit, filled with spice-bearing islands; while it is certain that the Mariaba of the Sabaeans was an inland city. It is beyond all donbt the Maarib of the Arabian historians, built according to their traditions by 'Abd-schems, surnamed Saba, third only in succession from the patriarch Koktan or Joktan, son of Eber. Abulfeda says that this city was also called Saba; and that, in the opinion of some. Maarib was the name of the royal residence, while the city itself was called Saba. Its founder also constructed the stupendous embankment so renowned in history, forming a dam for confining the water of seventy rivers and torrents, which he conducted into it from a distance. (Abulfeda, ffisloria Ante-Islamica, lib. iv. ap. init.) The object of this was not only to supply the city with water, but also to irrigate the lands, and to keep the subjugated country in awe, by being masters of the water. The water rose to the height of almost 20 fathoms, and was kept in on every side by a work so solid, that many of the inhabitants had their houses built upon it. It stood like a mountain above the city, and no danger was apprehended of its ever failing. The inundation of E]-Arem {the mound) is an aera in Arabic history, and is mentioned in the Koran as a signal instance of divine judgment on the inhabitants of this city for their pride and insolence. A mighty flood broke down the mound by night, while the inhabitants were asleep, and carried away the whole city, with the neighbouring towns and people. (Sale, Koran, cap. 34, vol. ii. p. 289, notes, and Preliminary discourse, sect. 1. vol. i p, IS; Questions Proposees, par M. Michaelis, pp. 183— 188.) Tins catastrophe seems to have happened about the time of Alexander the Great, though some chronologies place it subsequently to the Christian aera. Sale places the city three days' journey from Sanaa (note, in loc. eft). The notion of the identity of Mareb with Sheba, mentioned by Abulfeda, is still maintained by some natives; and Niebuhr quotes for this opinion a native of the town itself (Description de VArabie, p. 252), and justly remarks that the existence of the remains of the famous reservoir of the Sabaeans in the vicinity of Mareb serves to identify it with the capital of the Sabaeans. To account for the capital not bearing the name of the tribe, as was usual, he suggests that the Sabaeans may have derived their name from another town, and then have built this stupendous reservoir near Mariaba, and there have fixed the residence of their kings. But a fact elsewhere mentioned by him, will perhaps lead to a more satisfactory solution. It seems that the great reservoir is not situated before Mareb, nor close to it, but at the distance of an hour, and on the side of it. This may account for its preservation on the bursting of the embankment. May not the inundation have occasioned the utter destruction of the neighbouring city of Sheba, as the traditions relate, while the royal residence at Mareb escaped, and formed the nucleus of the modern town? We have seen from Abulfeda that some native authorities maintain that Maarib was the royal residence, while the capital itself was called Saba. The name Mariaba (al. Mariva) signifying, according to the etymology of Pliny, "dominos omnium," would well suit the residence of the dominant family (vi. 28. § 32).

Mareb is now the principal town of the district of Dsorf, 16 German leagues ENE. of Sana, containing only 300 houses, with a wall and three gates; and the ruins of a palace of Queen Balkis are there shown. The reservoir is still much celebrated. It is described by a native as a valley between two chains of mountains, nearly a day's journey in length (=5 German leagues). Six or seven small streams, flowing from the west and south, are united in this valley, which contracts so much at its east end, by the convergence of the mountains, that it is not more than 5 or 6 minutes wide. This space was closed by a thick wall, to retain the superfluous water during and after the rains, and to distribute it over the fields and gardens on the east and north by three sluice-gates, one over the other. The wall was 40 or 50 feet high, built of enormous blocks of hewn stone, and the ruins of its two sides still remain. It precisely resembles in its construction the Bends, as they are called, in the woods of Belgrave, near Bukderie, on the Bosphorus, which snpply Constantinople with water, only that the work at Mareb is on a much larger scale. (Niebuhr, I. c. pp. 240, 241.)

2. Mariaba Baramalacum. A city of this name in the interior of Arabia is mentioned with this distinguishing appellation by Pliny (vi. 32) as a considerable town of the Charmaei, which was one division of the Minaei: he calls it "oppiduni xvi. mill. pass. . . .. et ipsum non spernendum." It is supposed by some to be identical with the Baraba metropolis (BipaSa al. Maliipa nirrp&itoKis) of Ptolemy (vi. 15, p. 155), which he places in long. 76°, lat. 18° 20'. Forster has found its representative in the modern Tar aha, whose situation corresponds sufficiently well with

the Baraba metropolis of Ptolemy (Geog. of Arabia, vol. i. p. 135, ii. p. 256); but his account of the designation Baramalacum (quasi Bar-Amalacum, equivalent to " Merab of the sons of Amelek") is inadmissible according to all rules of etymology (vol. ii. pp. 43,47). Taraba, pronounced by the Bedouins Toroba, is 30 hours (about 80 miles) distant from Tanfin the JTedjae, still a considerable town, "as large as Tayf, remarkable for its plantations, which furnish all the surrounding country with dates; and famous for its resistance against the Turkish forces of Mohammed Ali, until January, 1815, when its inhabitants were compelled to submit. Taraba is environed with palmgroves and gardens, watered by numerous rivulets." (Burckhardt, Travels in Arabia, Appendix, No. iv. p. 451.) A more probable derivation of Baramalacum from Bahr-u-malkim - the Royal Lake, would identify it with the preceding, No. 1. (Vincent, Periplus, p. 307.)

3. Mabiaba, another inland city of Arabia, is mentioned also by Pliny (I c.) as the capital of the Calingii, 6 M.P. in circumference, which was; according to him, one of the eight towns taken and destroyed by Aelius Gallus. He has perhaps confounded it with the Marsyabae which Strabo fixes as the limit of his expedition, and the siege of which he was forced to abandon; but it was remarked before that this name was according to Pliny equivalent to metropolis, — though the etymology of the name is hopelessly obscure: — so that it is very possible that, besides the Marsyabae mentioned by Strabo, a Mariaba may have fallen in with the line of that general's march, either identical with one of those above named, or distinct from both; possibly still marked by a modern site of one of several towns still preserving a modification of the name, as EU Marabba, marked in Kiepert's map in the very heart of the country of the Wahibites; and a Merab marked by Arrowsmith, in the NE. of the Nedjd country. [marsyabae.] [G. W.l

MARIAMA (Mapio^io), an inland city of Arabia, mentioned only by Ptolemy (vi. 15), who places it in long. 78° 10' and lat. 17° 10', and therefore not far south-east from his Baraba or Maraba metropolis [mariaba, 2]. Mannert (Geographic, pt, vi. vol. i. p. 66) suggests its identity with Maribba, marked in Niebuhr's map towards the north-east of Yemen, which is, however, the name of a district, not of a town, its capital being named Aram (Description de VArabie, p. 228); but this would not agree with the position above assigned to Mariaba Baramalacum. (Ritter, Erdkmule von Arabien, vol. i. p. 283.) [marsyabae.] [G. W.]

MARIAMME (Mapidn/iri), a city of Syria, subject to Aradns, and surrendered with Aradus and its other dependencies, Marathus and Sigon, to Alexander the Great by Straton, son of Gerostratus, king of Aradus. (Arrian, ii. 14. § 8.) It is placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotis (v. 15), and by Hierocles in the second eparchy of Syria (apud Wesseling, Itineraria, p. 712). [G. W.]

MARIANA (MapioWj, Ptol.), a city on the E. coast of Corsica, which, as its name imports, was a Roman colony, founded by the celebrated C. Marius. (Plin. iii. 6.8. 12; Ptol. iii. 2. § 5; Mel. ii. 7. § 19; Senec. Cons, adilelv. 8.) Nothing more is known of its history, but it is recognised as holding colonial rank by Pliny and Mela, and appears to have been one of the two principal cities in the island. It is a plausible conjecture of Cluvcrius that it was founded on the site previously occupied by the Greek city of Nicaea mentioned by Dioilorus (Diod. V. 18; Cluver. Sicil. p. 508). Its name is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 85), which erroneously reckons it 40 miles from Aleria; the ruins of Mariana, which are still extant under their ancient name at the mouth of the river Goto, being only about 30 miles N. of those of Aleria. They are 15 miles S. of the modern city of Bastia. The ancient remains are inconsiderable, bnt a ruined cathedral still marks the site, and gives title to the bishop who now resides at Bastia. (Rampoldi, Viz. Geogr. vol. ii. p. 589.) [E. H.B.]

MARIA'NA FOSSA. [fossa Mariaka.]

MARIANDY'NI (Mopu^oW, Mopioi'orji.of, or Ma: in aucient and celebrated tribe in the

north-east of Bithynia, between the rivers Sangarius and Billaeus, on the east of the tribe called Thyni or Bithyni. (Scylax, p. 34; Plin. vi. 1.) According to Scylax, they did not extend as far west as the Sangarius, for according to him the river Hypius formed the boundary between the Bithyni and'Mariandyni. Strabo (vii. p. 295) expresses a belief that the Mariandyni were a branch of the Bithynians, a belief to which he was probably led by the resemblance between their names, and which cannot be well reconciled with the statement of Herodotus (iii. 90), who clearly distinguishes the Mariandyni from the Thracians or Thyni in Asia. In the Persian army, also, they appear quite separated from the Bithyni, and their armour resembles that of the Paphlagonians, which was quite different from that of the Bithyni. (Herod, vii. 72, 75; comp. Strab. vii. p. 345, xii. p. 542.) The chief city in their territory was Heraclea Pontica, the inhabitants of which reduced the Mariandyni, for a time, to a state of servitude resembling that of the Cretan Mnoae, or the Thessalian Penestae. To what race they belonged is uncertain, though if their Thracian origin be given up, it must probably be admitted that they were akin to the Paphlagonians. In the division of the Persian empire they formed part of the third Persiau satrapy. Their country was called Mariandynia (MaptavSvvla, Steph. B. $. r.), and Pliny speaks of a Sinus Mariandynus on their coast. (Comp. Hecat, Fragm. 201; Aeschyl. Pen. 932 ; Xen. Anab. vi 4. § 4, Cyrop. i. 1.

4; Ptol. v. 1. § 11; Scymn. Fragm. 199; ionys. Perieg. 788; Mela. i. 19; Atheu. xiv. p. 620; ApoUon. Argon, ii. 724; Constant. Porph. Them. i. 7.) [L. S.]

MARIA'NUS MONS (to Mopiovoi' Spot, PtoL ii. 4. § 15; Mons Mariorum, It Anton, p. 432: Sierra Moreno), a mountain in Hispania Baetica, properly only a western offshoot of the Orospeda, and probably the mountain which Strabo describes, (iii. p. 142), without mentioning its name, as running parallel to the river Baetis, and full of mines. Hence Pliny (xxxiv. 2) speaks of "aes Marianuin, quod et Cordubense dicitur." The eastern part of this mountain was called Saltus Castulonensis. [castulo.]

MARI'CAE LUCUS. [lihis-j

MARIDE (Ammian. xviii. 6), a castle or fortified town in Mesopotamia, mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in his account of Constantius. There can be no doubt that it is the same as the present Mardin, which is seated on a considerable eminence looking southward over the plains of Mesopotamia. [V.]

MARIDUNUM (MopHouiw, Ptol. ii. 3. § 83), in

Britain, a town in the country of the Demetae, now Carmarthen. In the time of Giraldus Cambrensis the Roman walls were in part standing ("est oritur haec urbs antiqun coctilibus muris partem adhuc extantibus egregie clausa," /tin. Camb. lib. i. c 10). ["C.R. S.J

MARINIA'NA,also called UxvKl\^\{Tt.Hierot. p. 562), a town in Pannonia, on the frontier between Upper and Lower Pannonia, on the road from Jovia to Mursa. (It. Ant. p. 130.) It is possible that the place may have been the same as the one called by Ptolemy (ii. 14. § 6) Mayviava. (Comp. Geogr. Rav. iv. 19, and Tab. Peut.) [L. S.]

MARIO'NIS (Map*a>pls). Two towns of this name are mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 27) in the northwest of Germany. As the name seems to indicate a maritime town, it has been inferred that one of them was the modern Hamburg, or Marne at the mouth of the Elbe, and the other Lubech or Wismar. But nothing certain can be said about the matter. [L. S.] MARIS. [marisus.]

MARISUS (Mapmos, Strab. vii. 304; M<fp.v, Herod, iv. 49; Marisia, Jornand. de Reb. Get. 5; Geogr. Rav.), a river of Dacia. which both Herodotus (I. c.) and Strabo (i. c.) describe as falling into the Danube; it is the same as the Maroseh, which falls into the Theiss. (Heeren, Asiat. Xations, vol. ii. p. 10, trans.; Schafarik, Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 507.) [E. B. J.]

MARITHI MONTES (to Mopifla or Miptd* Sp7j), a mountain chain in the interior of Arabia, the middle of which is placed by Ptolemy, who alone mentions them, in long. 80° 30', lat. 21° 30', and round which he groups the various tribes of this part of the peuinsula, viz., the Melangitae (MeAoyyirai) and Dachareni (al. Dachnremoizae, AaxapV' rot), on the north; the Zeritae (Zeipireu), Blinluei (bajovaguoi), and Omauitae ('O.uaryiciTat), on the south; to the east of the last were the Cattabeni, extending to the Montes Asaborum. [mblaxes Montes.] (Ptol. vi. 7. § 20.) They appear to correspond in situation with the Jebel 'A thai, on the south of Wady-el-Aftan, in Bitter's map. (Forster, Geog. of Arabia, vol. ii. p. 266.) [G. W.] MARI'TIMA, a town of Gallia Narbonensis on the coast. Mela (ii. 5) says, that "between Massilia and the llhodanus Maritima was close to the Avaticorum sta^num ; " and he adds that a "fossa" discharges a part of the lake's water by a navigable mouth. Pliny in a passage before quoted [fossa MaRiana. Vol.1, p. 912], also calls" Maritima a town of the Avatici, above which are the Cainpi Lapidei." Ptolemy (ii. 18. § 8) places Maritima of the Avatici east of the eastern branch of the Rhone, and he calls it Colonia. The name is Avatici in the Greek texts of Ptolemy that are now printed, but it id Anatili in the Latin text of Pirckeym, and perhaps in other Latin texts. It does not seem certain which is the true reading. Walckenaer (67eoo. c*c. vol. i. p. 188) assumes that Anatili is the true reading in Ptolemy.

D'Anville concludes that Maritima was between Marseille and the canal of Marius, and that Martigues is the site; but there is no reason for fixing on Mar tigues, except that it is between the Rhone and Marseille, and that there is some little resemblance between the two names. It is said that no traces of remains have been found at MartigHe.% j which, however, is not decisive against, it, if it is 1 true; and it is not true. Martitjnes is near the outlet of the E'tting de Bwe. Walckeimer observes, that

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