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Kdetani and Cr.i.TinnBi on the S., the Vasconks on the W., on the N. and NE. the small peoples at the foot of the Pyrenees, as the Jaccetani, CasTellani, Ausetani, and Cebbetani, and on the SE. the Cosetani. Besides Ilerda, their chief cities were: — the colony of Celsa ( Velilia, near Xelsa), Osca (Huesca), famous in the story of Sertorius; and Athanagia, which Livy (xxi. 61) makes their capital, but which no other writer names. On the great road from Italy into the N. of Spain, reckoning from Tarraco, stood Ilerda, 62 M. P.; Tolous, 32 M. P., in the conventus of Caesaraugusta, and with the civitas Romana(Plin.); PerTusa, 18 M. P. (Periusa, on the Alcanadre); Osca, 19 M. P., whence it was 46 M. P. to Caesaraugusta ([tin. Ant. p. 391).

On a loop of the same road, starting from Caesaraugusta, were:—Gallicum, 15 M. P., on the river Galileos (Zunra, on the Gallego); Bortinae, 18 M. P. (Bovprlva, PtoL: Torinos); Osca, 12 M. P.; Caps, 29 M.P.; MesdiCuleia, 19 M. P. (probably Momoti); Ilerda, 22 M. P. (/<m. Ant. pp. 451, 452). On the road from Caesaraugusta, up the valley of the Gallicus, to Benearnum (Orthes) in Gallia, were, Forum Gallorum, 30 M. P. (Gurrca), and Ebellinum, 22 M. P. (Beilo), whence it was 24 M. P. to the summit of the pass over the Pyrenees (/fin. Ant. p. 452). Besides these places, Ptolemy mentions Bergusia Bepyovffia: Ralnguer), on the Sicoris; Brrgidum (Bfp^iSoy); Eroa (*£p7o); Succosa (%ovkku(to); Gallica Flavia (riMiica Q\aovla: Fraga .»); and Orgia ('flpicla, prob. Orgagna), a namo also found on coins (Sestini, Med. Isp. p. 99), while the same coins bear the name of Aesonks, and inscriptions found near the Sicoris have Absokensis and Jessohrnsis (Muratori, Nov. The*, p. 1021, Nor. 2, 3; Spon, Mite. Erud. Ant. p. 188), with which the Gkssorienses of Pliny may perhaps have some connection. Bersical is mentioned on coins (Sestini, p. 107), and Octogesa (prob. La Granja, at the confluence of the Segre and the Ebro) by Caesar (B. C. i. 61 ; Ukert, vol. ii. pt. I. pp. 450—453). [P. S.]

ILE'SIUM. [eilestcm.]

I'LICI or IL'I.ICI (/(in. Ant. p. 401 ; 'lMxias t) "iaaikis, Ptol. ii. 6. § 62: Elche), an inland city of the Contestani, but near the coast, on which it had a port ('lWiKiravbs \ifir)v, Ptol. L c. kj 14), lying just in the middle of the Kay formed by the Pr. Saturn) and Dianium, which was called Illicitanus Sinus. The city itself stood at the distance of 52 M. P. from Carthago Nova, on the great road to Tarraco (/(in. Ant. p. 401), and was a Colonia immunis, with the jus Italieum (Plin. iii. 3. 8. 4; raulus, Dig. viii. de Cens.). Its coins are extant of the period of the empire (Florez, Med. de Esp. vol. ii. p. 458; Sestini, p. 166; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 45, Suppl. vol. i. p. 90; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 51). Pliny adds to his mention of the place: in earn conlribuuntur Icositani. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. pp. 402, 403.) [P. S.]

ILIENSES ('ttieif, Pans ), a people of the interior of Sardinia, who appear to have been one Of the most considerable of the mountain tribes in that island. Mela calls them "antiquissimi in ea populornm" and Pliny also mentions them among the "celebcrrimi populorum" of Sardinia. (Mel. ii. 7. § 19; Plin iii. 7. s. 13.) Pausanias, who terms them *IAicif, distinctly ascribes to them a Trojan origin, and derives them from a portion of the com

paniom of Aeneas, who settled in the Island, and remained there in quiet until they were compelled by the Africans, who subsequently occupied the coasts of Sardinia, to take refuge in the more rugged and inaccessible mountain districts of the interior. (Paus. x. 17. § 7.) This tale has evidently originated in the resemblance of the name of Ilicnses, in the form which the Romans gave it, to that of the Trojans; and the latter part of the story was invented to account for the apparent anomaly of a people that had come by sea dwelling in the interior of the island. What the native name of the Ilienscs was, we know not, and we are wholly in the dark as to their real origin or ethnical affinities: but their existence as one of the most considerable tribeB of the interior at the period of the Roman conquest, iB well ascertained ; and they are repeatedly mentioned by Livy as contending against the supremacy of Rome. Their first insurrection, in B.C. 181, was repressed, rather than put down, by the praetor MiPinarius; and in B.C. 178, the Ilicnses and Balari, in conjunction, laid waste all the more fertile and settled parts of the island; and were even able to meet the consul Ti.Sempronius Gracchus in a pitched battle, in which, however, they were defeated with heavy loss. In the course of the following year they appear to have been reduced to complete submission; and their name is not again mentioned in history. (Liv. xl. 19,34, xli. 6,12, 17.)

The situation and limits of the territory occupied by the Ilienses, cannot be determined: but we find them associated with the Balari and Corsi, as inhabiting the central and mountainous districts of the island. Their name is not found in Ptolemy, though he gives a long list of the tribes of the interior.

Many writers have identified the Ilienses with the Iolacnses or Iolai, who are also placed in the interior of Sardinia; and it is not improbable that they were really the same people, but ancient authors certainly make a distinction between the two. [E. H. B.]

ILIGA. [helice.]

PUPA. 1. ("lAiira, Strab. iii. pp. 141, seq.; 'IAAhra t) Atura ntyfan, Ptol. ii. 4. § 13; Ilipa cognomine Ula, Plin. iii. 1. s. 3, according to the corrupt reading which Sillig's last edition retains for want of a better: some give the epithet in tho form Ilpa: Harduin reads Ilia, on the authority ot an inscription, which is almost certainly spurious, ap. Grater, pp. 351,305, and Muratori, p. 1002), a city of the Turdetani, in Hispania Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Uispalis. It stood upon the right bank of the Baetis (Guadalquivir), 700 stadia from its mouth, at the point up to which the river was navigable for vessels of small burthen, and where the tides were no longer discernible. [baetis.] On this and other grounds it has been identified with the Roman ruins near Penafior. There were great silver mines in its neighbourhood. (Strab. I. a, and pp.174,175; Plin. i.e.; Ttin.AnL p. 411; Liv. xxxv. 1; Florez, Etp. S. vol. vil,

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p. 222, vol. ix. p. 24, vol. xii. p. 82; Morales, Antig. p. 88; Mentelle, Esp. Anc. p. 243; Coins ap. Florez, Med. de Esp. vol. ii. p. 468, vol. iii. p. 79 ; Mionnet. vol. i. p. 15, Suppl. vol. i. p. 28; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 22; Ukert, vol.ii. pt. 1. p. 374.)

2. [ilipla.] [P.S.]

I'LIPLA (Coins; Iijpa, Itm. Ant p. 432; probably the 'IAAiVouAa of Ptol. ii. 4. § 12: Miebla), a city of the Turdetani, in the W. of Hispania Baetica, on the high road from Hispalis to tlie mouth of the Anas. (Caro, Antig. Hisp. iii. 81; Cuius ap. Florez, Med. vol. ii. p. 471; Mionnet, Toi. i. p. 16, Suppl. voL i. p. 29; Sestini, p. 53; Eckhel, vol. L p. 22.) [P. S.]

ILI'PULA. 1. Surnamed Laus by Pliny (iii. 1s. 3), and Magha by Ptolemy ('lAAbrouAo fj.eyiX.-n, ii. 4. § 12), a city of the Turduli, in Baetica, between the Baetis and the coast, perhaps Loxa. (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 363.)

2. Mikok (prob. Olvera or Lepe di Rondo, near Carmma), a tributary town of the Turdetani, in Hispania Baetica, belonging to the conventus of Hispalis. (Plin. iiL 1. s. 3; Sestini, Med. Esp. p. 54.) [P. S.]

ILI'PULA MONS ('l\lirov\a), a range of mountains in Baetica, S. of the Baetis, mentioned only by Ptolemy (ii. 4. § 15), and supposed by some to be the Sierra Nevada, by others the Sierra de Alhama or the Alpvjurras. [P. S.]

Il.ISSTJS. [attica, p. 323, a.]

IL1STRA ( iAio-Tpo: Illisera), a town in Lycaouia, on the road from Laranda to Isaura, which is still in existence. (Hierocl. p. 675; Condi, Ephes, p.534; Concil.Chaixd.p.674;Hamilton,Researches, vol.ii.p.324; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 102.) [L. S.]

ILITHYIA (EiAtitWaj *6Kis, Strab. xviii. p. 817; Ei'ATjflvfoj, Ptol. iv. 5. § 73), a town of the Egyptian Heptanomis, 30 miles NE. of Apollinopolis Mau'na. It was situated on the eastern bank of the Nile, in lat. 25° 3' N. According to Plutarch (Itis et Otir. c. 73), Ihthyia contained a temple dedicated to Bubastis, to whom, as to the Taurian Artemis, human victims were, even at a comparatively recent period, sacrificed. A bas-relief (Minutoi, p. 394, seq.) discovered in the temple of Bubastis at ElKab. representing such a sacrifice, seems to confirm Plutarch's statement. The practice of human sacrifice among the Aegyptians is, indeed, called in question by Herodotus (ii. 45); yet that it once prevailed among them is rendered probable by Manetho's statement of a king named Amosis having abolished the custom,and substituted a waxen image for the human victim. (Porphyr. de Abstinent, ii. p. 223; Euseb. Praep. Evang. iv. 16; comp. Ovid, Fast. v. 621.) The singularity in Plutarch's story is the recent date of the imputed sacrifices. [W. B. D.]

ILITUEGIS. [ilutukgis.]

I'LIUM, I'LIOS {Vuov, jj'IAios: Eih. 'IAitiij, f. 'IAitis), sometimes also called Tkoja (Tpola), whence the inhabitants are commonly called Tpwes, and in the Latin writers Trojani. The existence of this city, to which we commonly give the name of Troy, cannot be doubted any more than the simple fact of the Trojan War, which was believed to have ended with the capture and destruction of the city, after a war of ten years, B. c. 1184. Troy was the principal city of the country called Troas. As the city has been the subject of curious inquiry, both in ancient and modern times, it will be necessary, in the first instance, to collect and analyse the statements of the ancient writers ; and to follow up this discus

VOL. it

sion by an account of the investigations of modem travellers and scholars to identify the site of the famous city. Our most ancient authority are the Homeric poems; but we must at the very outset remark, that we cannot look upon the poet in every respect as a careful and accurate topographer; but that, admitting his general accuracy, there may yet be points on which he cannot be taken to account as if it had been his professed object to communicate information on the topography of Troy.

The city of Ilium was situated on a rising ground, somewhat above the plain between the rivers Scainander and Simois, at a distance, as Strabo asserts, of 42 stadia from the coast of the Hellespont. (Horn. //. xx. 216, fol.; Strab. xiii. p. 596.) That it was not quite in the plain is clear from the epithets i)v(fx6fffaBL, aiirttvrf, and o<f>pv6t(rcra. Behind it, on the south-east, there rose a hill, forming a blanch of Mount Ida, surmounted by the acropolis, called Pergamum (to Tlfpyanov, Horn. II. iv. 508, vi. 512; also To Xlipyana, &.ph. Phil. 347, 353, 611; or, it n^rvtyios, Horn. II. v. 446, 460.) This fortified acropolis contained not onlv all the temples of the gods (/£ iv. 508, v. 447,512, vi. 88, 257, xxii. 172, &c), but also the pahices of Priam and his sons, Hector and Paris {II vi. 317, 370, 512, vii. 345). The city must have had many gates, as may be inferred from the expression sraaat wuAcu (//. ii. 809, and elsewhere), but only one is mentioned by name, viz., the Staled vi>\ai, which led to the camp of the Greeks, and must accordingly have been on the northwest part of the city, that is, the part just opposite the acropolis (II iii. 145, 149, 263, vi. 306, 392, xvi. 712, &c). The origin of this name of the " left gate" is unknown, though it may possibly have reference to the manner in which the signs in the heavens were observed ; for, during this process, the priest turned his face to the north, so that the north-west would be on his left band. Certain minor objects alluded to in the Iliad, such as the tombs of Ilus, Aesyetes, and Myrine, the Scopie and Erineus, or the wild fig-tree, we ought probably not attempt to urge very strongly : we are, in fact, prevented from attributing much weight to them by the circnimtawe that the inhabitants of New Ilium, who believed that their town stood on the site of the ancient city, boasted that they could show close to their walls these doubtful vestiges of antiquity. (Strab. xiii. p. 599.) The walls of Ilium are described as lofty and strong, and as flanked with towers; they were fabled to have been built by Apollo and Poseidon (7Z. i. 129, ii. 113, 288, iii. 153, 384, 386, vii. 452, viii. 519). These are the only points of the topography of Ilium derivable from the Homeric poems. The city was destroyed, according to the common tradition, as already remarked, about B. c. 1184; but afterwards we heai of a new Ilium, though we are not informed when and on what site it was built. Herodotus (vii. 42) relates that Xerxes, before invading Greece, offered sacrifices to Athena at Pergamum, the ancient acropolis of Priam; but this does not quite justify the inference that the new town of Ilium was then already in existence, and all that we can conclude from this passage is, that the people at that time entertained no doubt as to the sites of the ancient city and its acropolis. Strabo (xiii. p. 601) states that Ilium was restored during the last dynasty of tho Lydian kings; that is, before the subjugation of Western Asia by the Persians: and both Xenophon (BeOm. i. 1. § 4) and Scylax (p. 35) seem to speak of Ilium as a town actually existing in their days.


It is also certain that in the time of Alexander New Ilium did exist, and was inhabited by Acolians. (Demosth. e. Arutocr. p. 671: Arrian, An fib. i. 11. § 7 ; Strab. xiii. p. 593, foil.) This new town, which is distinguished by Strabo from the famous ancient city, was not more than 12 stadia, or less than two English miles, distant from the sea, and was built upon the spur of a projecting edge of Ida, separating the basins of the Scamander and Simois. It was at first a place of not much importance (Strab. xiii. pp. 593, 601), but increased in the course of time, and was successively extended and embellished by Alexander, Lysimachus, and Julius Caesar. During the Mithridatic War New Ilium was taken by Fimbria, in B. C. 85, on which occasion it suffered greatly. (Strab. xiii. p. 594; Appian, Mithrid. 53; Liv. Epit. Ixxxiii.) It is said to have been once destroyed before that time, by one Charidemus (Plut. Sertor. 1.; Polyaen. iii. 14); bat we neither know when this happened, nor who this Charidemus was. Sulla, however, favoured the towu extremely, in consequence of which it rose, under the Roman dominion, to considerable prosperity, and enjoyed exemption from all taxes. (Plin. v. 33.) These were the advantages which the place owed to the tradition that it occupied the identical site of the ancient and holy city of Troy: for, it may here be observed, that no ancient author of Greece or Borne ever doubted the identity of the site of Old and New Ilium until the time of Demetrius of Scepsis, and Strabo, who adopted his views; and that even afterwards, the popular belief among the people of Ilium itself, as well as throughout the world generally, remained as firmly established as if the criticism of Demetrius and Strabo had never been heard of. These critics were led to look for Old Ilium farther inland, because they considered the space between New Ilium and the coast far too small to have been the scene of all the great exploits described in the Iliad ; and, although they are obliged to own that not a vestige of Old Ilium was to be Been anywhere, yet they assumed that it must have been situated about 42 stadia from the sea-coast. They accordingly fixed upon a spot which at the time bore the name of 'IAifW Kw^j). This view, with its assumption of Old and New Ilium as two distinct places, does not in any way remove the difficulties which it is intended to remove ; for the spaee will still be found far too narrow, not to mention that it demands of the poet what can be demanded only of a geographer or an historian. On these grounds we, in common with the general belief of all antiquity, which has also found able advocates among modern critics, assume that Old and New Ilium occupied the same site. The statements in the Iliad which appear irreconcilable with this view will disappear if we bear in mind that we have to do with nn entirely legendary story, which is little concerned about geographical accuracy.

The site of New Ilium (according to our view, identical with that of Old Ilium) is acknowledged by all modern inquirers and travellers to be the spot covered with ruins now called Kissarlik, between the villages of Kum-kioi, Katti/alJi, and Tchiblak, a little to the west of the last-mentioned place, and not far from the point where the Simois once joined the Scamander. Those who maintain that Old Ilium was situated in a different locality cannot, of coarse, be expected to agree in their opinions as to its actual site, it being impossible to fix upon any one spot agreeing in every particular with the poet's description. Respecting the nationality of the inhabitant*

of Ilium, we shall have to speak in the article Troas (Comp. Spohn, de AgroTrojano, Lipsiae, 1814,8vo.; Renuell, Observations on the Topography of the Plain of Troy, London, 1814.4to.; Choiseul -Goufficr, Voyage Pittortsque de la Grece, Paris. 1820, vol. ii. p. 177, foil.; Leake, Ana. Minor, p. 275, foil.; Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. i. p. 436, foil.; Eckenbrecher, uber die Lage dee Homerischen Won, Rhein. Mus. Nene Folge, vol. ii. pp. 1—49, where a very good plan of the district of llion is given. See also, Welcker, Klehie Schriften, vol. ii. p. 1, foil.; C. Maclaren, Dissertation on the Topography of the Trojan War, Edinburgh. 1822; Mauduit, Vecouverta dans la Truiade, tfc, Paris & Londres, 1840.) [L. S-1



ILLI'BERIS (IWiStplt, Ptol. ii. 4. § 11), or ILLI'BERI LIBERINI (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3), one of the chief cities of the Turduli, in Hispania Bactica, between the Baetis and the coast, is identified by inscriptions with Granada. It is probably the Elibyrge ('EXiGipyri') of Stephanus Byzantinns. (Inscr. op. Gruter, p. 277, No. 3; Florez, Esp. S vol. v. p. 4, vol. xii. p. 81 ; Mentelle, Geogr. Comp Esp. Mod. p. 163 ; Coins ap. Florez, Med. vol. iii p. 75; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 15, Suppl. vol. i. p. 28 Eckhel, vol. i. p. 22.) [P. S.]



ILLI'BERIS or ILLIBERRIS ('IAiSqrii), a town in the country of the Sordones, orSardones, or Sordi, in Gallia Aquitania. The first place that Hannibai came to after passing through the Eastern Pyrenees was Illiberis. (Liv. xxi. 24.) He must have passed by BeUegarde. Illiberia was near a small river Illiberis, which is south of another small stream, the Ruscino, which had also on it a town named Ruscino. (Strab. p. 182.) Mela (ii. 5) and Pliny (iii. 4) speak of Illiberis as having once been a great place, but in their time being decayed. The road in the Antonine Itin. from Arelate (Aries) through ihe Pyrenees to Jnncaria passes from Kuscino (CastelHousillon) to Ad Centuriones, and omits Illiberis; but the Table places Illiberis between Ruscino and Ad Centenarium. which is the same place as the Ad Centuriones of the Itin. [centuriones, Ai>.] Illiberis is Elne, on the river Tech.

Illiberis or Illiberris is an Iberian name. There is another place, Climberris, on the Gallic side of the Pyrenees, which has the same termination. [Ausci.] It is said that berri, in the Basque, means "a town." The site of Illiberis is fixed at Eke by the Itins.; and we find an explanation of

the name EIne in the fact that either the name of Illiberis was changed to Helena or Elena, or Helena was a camp or station near it. Constans was murdered by Magnentins "not far from the Hispaniae, in a castram named Helena." (Eutrop. x. 9.) Victor's Epitome (c. 41) describes Helena as a town Terr near to the Pyrenees; and Zosimus has the fame (ii. 42; and Orosius, vii. 29). It is said by some writers that Helena was so named after the place was restored by Constantino's mother Helena, or by Constantine, or by some of his children; but the evidence of this is not given. The river of Illiberis is the Ticnis of Mela, and Tecum of Pliny, now the Tech. In the text of Ptolemy (ii. 10) the name of the river is written Illeris.

Some geographers have supposed Illiberis to be Collioure, near Port Vendre, which is a plain mistake. [G. L.] ILLICI. [ilicl] ILLI'PULA. [iupula.] ILLITUBGIS, ILITURGIS, or ILITURGI (probably the 'Wovpyls of Ptol. ii. 4. § 9, as well as the *l\ovpytta of Polybius, ap. Steph. B. s. i?M and the 'IAup7lo of Appian, Bap. 32: Eth. Illurgitani), a considerable city of Hispania Baelica, situated on ■ steep rock on the N. side of the Baetis, on the road from Corduba to Castulo. 20 M. P. from the latter, and five days' inarch from Carthago Nova. In the Second Pnnic War it went over to the Romans, like its neighbours, Castulo and Mentesa, and endured two sieges by the Carthaginians, both of which were raised; but, upon the overthrow of the two Scipios, the people of Illiturgis and Castulo revolted to the Carthaginians, the former adding to their treason the crime of betraying and putting to death the Romans who had fled to them for refuge. At least such is the Roman version of their offence, for which a truly Roman vengeance was taken by Publins Scipio, B.C. 206. After a defence, such as might be expected when despair of mercy was added to national fortitude, the city was ■-tormed and burnt over the slaughtered corpses of all its inhabitants, children and women as well as men. (Liv. xxiii. 49, xxiv. 41, xxvi. 17, 41, xxviii. 19,20.) Ten years later it had recovered sufficiently to be again besieged by the Romans, and taken with the slaughter of all its adult male population. (Liv. xxxiv. 10.) Under the Roman empire it was a considerable city, with the surname of Forum Julium. Its site is believed to have been in the neighbourhood of Andujar, where the church of S. Potenciana now stands. (Itin. Ant. p. 403; Plin. iii. I. B. 3; Priscian. vi. p. £82, ed. Putsch; Morales, Antig. p. 56, b.; Mentelle. F.sp. Mod. p. 183; Laborde, /tin. vol. ii. p. 113; Fh'rez, Esp.S. vol. xii. p. 369; Coins, ap. Florez, Med. vol. iii. p. 81 ; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 16; Sestini, p. 56; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 23; Ukert, vol. ii. pt 1. p. 380.) [P. S.]

ILLURCO or ILUBCO, a town in the W. part of Hispania Baetica, near Pinos, on the river Cubillas. (lnscr. op Gruter, pp. 235, 406; Muratori, p. 1051, Nos. 2, 3; Florez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 98; Coins, ap. Florez, Med de Etp. vol. ii. p. 472; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 17; Sestini, Med. Itp. p. 57; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 23.) [P. S.]

ILLURGAVONENSES. [ilercaoses.] ILLYRIA, [illyricum.] ILLY'RICUM (to 'YhWomiv; Eth. and Adj. 'IXXiptos, 'IAAvpucox, Ulyrius, Illyricus), the eastern Toast of the Adriatic sea.

1 The Name. — The Greek nam* is Illyku

('lAAupfj, Hecat Fr. 65; Polyb. Hi. 16; Strab. ii pp. 108, 123, 129, vii. p. 317; Dionys. Per. 96; Herodian, vi. 7; Apollod. ii. 1. § 3; Ptol. viii. 7. § 1), but the more ancient writers usually employ the name of the people, oi 'lWvpioi (eV rots 'IAAuplou, Herod, i. 196, iv. 49; Scyl. pp. 7, 10). The name lLLYRiA('IAAt/pi'a)very rarely occurs. (Steph. B. t. v.; Prop. i. 8. 2.) By the Latin writers it generally went under the name of "Illyricum" (Caes. B. G. ii. 35, iii. 7; Varr. R. R. ii. 10. § 7; Cic. ad AtU x. 6; Liv. xliv. 18, 26; Ovid, Trist. i. 3. 121; Mela, ii. 3. § 13; Tac Ann. i. 5, 46, ii. 44, 53, But. i. 2, 9, 76; Flor. i. 18, iv. 2; Just vii. 2; Suet. Tib. 16; Veil. Pat. ii. 109), and the general assent of geographers has given currency to this form.

2. Extent and Limits. — The Roman Illyricum was of very different extent from the Illyris or oi 'lAAOpioi of the Greeks, and was itself not the same at all times, but must be considered simply as an artificial and geographical expression for the borderers who occupied the E. coast of the Adriatic, from the junction of that gulf with the Ionic sea, to the estuaries of the river Po. The earliest writer who has left any account of the peoples inhabiting this coast is Scylax; according to whom (o. 19—27) the Illyrians, properly so called (for the Liburnians and Istrians beyond them are excluded), occupy the sea-coast from Libumia to the Chaonians of Epirus. The Bulini were the northernmost of these tribes, and the Amantini the southernmost Herodotus (i. 196) includes under the name, the Heneti or Veneti, who lived at the head of the gulf; in another passage (iv. 49) he places the Illyrians on the tributary streams of the Morava in Servia.

It is evident that the Gallic invasions, of which there are several traditions, threw the whole of these districts and their tribes into such confusion, that it is impossible to harmonise the statements of the Peri pi us of Scylax, or the far later Scymnus of Chios, with the descriptions in Strabo and the Roman historians.

In consequence of this immigration of the Gauls, Appian has confounded together Gauls, Thracians, Paeonians, and Illyrians. A legend which he records (/ffyr. 1) makes Celtus, Illyrius, and Gala, to have been three brothers, the sons of the Cyclops Polyphemus, and is grounded probably on the intermixture of Celtic tribes (the Boii, the Scordisci, and the Taurisci) among the Illyrians: the Iapodes, ?. tribe on the borders of Istria,are described by Strabo (iv. p. 143) as half Celts, half Illyrians. On a rough estimate, it may be said that, in the earliest times, Illyricum was the coast between the Naro (Neretva) and the Drilo (Drin), bounded on the E. by the Triballi. At a later period it comprised all the various tribes from the Celtic Taurisci to the Epirots and Macedonians, and eastward as far as Moesia, including the Veneti, Pannonians, Dalmatians, Dardani, Autariatae, and many others. This is Illyricum in its most extended meaning in the ancient writers till the 2nd century of the Christian era: as, for instance, in Strabo (vii. pp. 313—319), during the reign of Augustus, and in Tacitus {hist. i. 2, 9,76, ii. 86; comp. Joseph. B. J. ii. 16), in his account of the civil wars which preceded the fall of Jerusalem. When the boundary of Rome reached to the Danube, the "Illyricus Limes" (as it is designated in the "Scriptores Historiae Augusta? "), or "Illyrian frontier," comprised the following provinces: — Noricum, Pannonia Superior, Pulmonis Inferior, Moesia Superior, Moesia Inferior, Dacia, and Thrace. This division continued till the time of Constantino, who severed from it Lower Moesia and Thrace, but added to it Macedonia, Thessaly, Achaia, Old and New Kpirus, Praevalitana, and Crete. At this period it was one of the four great divisions of the Roman empire under a "Praefectus Praetorio," and it is in this signification that it is used by the later writers, such as Sextus Rufus, the "Auctor Notitiae Dignitatum Imperii," Zosimus, Joraandes, and others. At the final division of the Roman empire, the so-called " Illyricum Orientale," containing the provinces of Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, Hellas, Now Epirus,Crete,and Praevalitana,was incorporated with the Lower Empire; while "Illyricum Occidentale" was united with Rome, and embraced Nc~ ricum, Pannonia, Dalmatia, Saria, and Valeria Bipensia.

A. Illyris Barbara or Romana, was separated from Istria by the small river Arsia (Arsa), and bounded S. and E. by the Drilo, and on the N. by the Savus; consequently it is represented now by part of Croatia, all Dalmatia, the Herzegovina, Monte*Negro, nearly all Bosnia, and part of A Ibania.

Illyris Romana was divided into three districts, the j northern of which was Iapydla, extending S. as far j as the Tedanius (Zermagrui); the strip of land extending from the Arsia to the Titius (La Kerka) I was called Liburma, or the whole of the north of j what was once Venetian Dalmatia; the territory of j the Dalmatak was at first comprehended between! the Naro and the Tilurus or Nestus: it then ex- | tended to the Titius. A list of the towns will be found under the several heads of Iapydia, LiBuknia, and Dalmatia.

B. Illyris Graeca, which was called in later times Epirus Nova, extended from the river Drilo to the SE., up to the Ceraunian mountains, which separated it from Epirus Proper. On the N. it was bounded by the Roman Illyricum and Mount Scordus, on the W. by the Ionian sea, on the S. by Epirus, and on the E. by Macedonia; comprehending, therefore, nearly the whole of modem A Ibania. Next to the frontier of Chaonia is the small town of AmanIta, and the people of the Amanttans and BulLiones. They are followed by the Taulantm, who occupied the country N. of tho Aous — the great river of S. Macedonia, which rises in Mount Larmon, and discharges itself into the Adriatic—as far as Epidamnus. The chief towns of this country were Apollonia, and Epidamnus or DyrrhaChium. In the interior, near the Macedonian frontier, there is a considerable lake, Lacus Lyciinitis, from which the Drilo issues. Ever since the middle ages there has existed in this part the town of Achrido, which has been supposed to be the ancient Lychnidus, and was the capital of the Bulgarian empire, when it extended from the Euxine as far as the interior of Aetolia, and comprised S. Illyricum, Epirus, Acamania, Aetolia, and a part of Thessaly. During the Roman period the Dassaretae dwelt there; the neighbouring country was occupied by the Autariatae, who are said to have been driven from their country in the time of Cassander, when they removed as fugitives with their women and children into Macedonia. The Ardiaei and ParTHnn dwelt N. of the Autariatae, though not at the same time, but only during the Roman period. Scodra {Scutari), in later times the capital of Praevalitana, was unknown during the flourishing period of Grecian history, and more properly belongs

to Roman Illyricum; as Lissus, which was situated at the mouth of the Drilo, was fixed upon by the Romans as the border town of the Ulyrians in the S., beyond which they were not allowed to sail with their privateers. Internal communication in this Illyricum was kept up by the Via Candavia or Egnatia, the great line which connected Italy and the East—Rome, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. A road of such importance, as Colonel Leake remarks (North. Greece, vol. iii. p. 811), and on which the distance had been marked with milestones soon after the Roman conquest of Macedonia, we may believe to have been kept in the best order as long as Rome Was the centre of a vigorous authority; but it probably shared the fate of many other great establishments in the decline of the empire, and es]>eeially when it became as much the concern of the Byzantine as of the Roman government. This fact accounts for the discrepancies in the Itineraries; for though Lychnidus, Heracleia, and Edessa, still continued, as on the Candavian Way described by Polybius (ap. Slrab. vii. pp. 322, 323), to be the three principal points between Dyrrhachium and Thessalonica (nature, in fact, having strongly drawn that line in the valley of the Genusus), there appears to have been a choice of routes over the ridges which contained the boundaries of Illyricum and Macedonia. By comparing the Antonine Itinerary, the Peutingerian Table, and the Jerusalem Itinerary, the following account of stations in Illyricum is obtained: — Dyrrhachium or Apollonia. Clodiana Scampae Trajectus Genusi Ad Dianam Candavia - * Tres Tabernae P.ins Servilii et Claudanum Patrae - Lychnidus - • Brucida - « Bcirtiana

Castra - - „

Nicaea - ,,
Heracleia - -

3. Physical Geography. — The Illyrian range of mountains, which traverses Dalmatia under the name of Mount Prolog, and partly under other names (Mons Albius, Bebius), branches off in Carniola from the Julian Alps, and then, at a considerable distance from the sea, stretches towards Venetia, approaches the sea beyond Aquileia near Trieste, and forms Istria. After passing through Istria as a lofty mountain, though not reaching the snow line, and traversing Dalmatia, which it separates from Bosnia, it extends into Albania. It is a limestone range, and, like most mountains belonging to that formation, much broken up; hence the bold and picturesque coast runs out into many promontories, and is flanked by numerous islands.

These islands appear to have originated on the breaking up of the lower grounds by some violent action, leaving their limestone summits above water. From the salient position of the promontory terminating in Punta della Planca, they are divided into two distinct groups, which the Greek geographers called Absyrtides and Liburnidks. They trend NW. and SE., greatly longer than broad, and form various fine channels, called " canale," and named from the nearest adjacent island : these being bold.

- Skumbi.

- Elbassan.

- Skumbi river.

- The Drin at Struga

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