صور الصفحة
PDF

with scarcely a hidden danger, give ships a secure passage between them. Cher so, Osero, Lussin, Sansego (Absyrtides). abound with fossil bones. The bone-breccia of these islands appears to be the same conglomerate with those of Gibraltar, Cerigo, and other places in the Mediterranean. The Libumian group (AitfvpWdcf rqaoi, Strab. iL p. 124, vii. pp. 315, 317; "Liburaioae Insulae," Plin. iii. 30), Lissa (Grossa), Brattia {Brasza), Issa {Lissa), Mkmta (Melada), Corcyra Nigra {Citrzola), Pharos (Lesina) and Olynta {Solta-), have good pirts, but are badly supplied with drinkable water, and are not fertile. The mountainous tract, though industriously cultivated towards the shore, is for the most part, as in the days of Strabo (L c), wild, rugged, and barren. The want of water and the arid soil make Dahnatia unfit for agriculture; and therefore of old, this circumstance, coupled with the excellency and number of the harbours, made the natives more known for piracy than for commercial enterprise. A principal feature of the whole range is that called Monte-Negro {Czernagord), consisting chiefly of the cretaceous or Mediterranean limestone, so extensively developed from the Alps to the Archipelago, and remarkable for its craggy character. The general height is about 3000 feet, with a few higher summits, and the slopes are gentle in the direction of the inclination of the "strata," with precipices at the outcroppings,. which give a fine variety to the scenery.

There is no sign of volcanic action in Dalmatia; and the Nymphaeum near ApolIonia, celebrated tor the flames that rose continually from it, has probably no reference to anything of a volcanic nature, but is connected with the beds of asphaltum, or mineral pitch, which occur in great abundance in the nummulitic limestone of Albania.

The coast of what is now called Middle Albania, or the Iilyrian territory, N. of Kpirus, is, especially in its N. portion, of moderate height, and in some places even low and unwholesome, as far as Aulon (Vafona or Avlond), where it suddenly becomes rugged and mountainous, with precipitous cliffs jescending rapidly towards the sea. This is the Khimara range, upwards of 4000 feet high, dreaded oy ancient mariners as the Acro-Ceraunian promontory. Tl»e interior of this territory was much superior to N. Illyricum in productiveness: though mountainous, it has more valleys and open plains for cultivation. The sea-ports of Epidamnus and Apollonia introduced the luxuries of wine and oil to the barbarians; whose chiefs learnt also to value the woven fabrics, the polished and carved metallic work, the tempered weapons, and the pottery which was furnished them by Grecian artisans. Salt fish, and, what was of more importance to the inland residents <m lakes like that of Lychnidus, salt itself, was imported. In return they supplied the Greeks with those precious commodities, cattle and slaves. Silver mines were also worked at Damastium. "Wax and honey were probably articles of export; and it is a proof that the natural products of 11h/ria were carefully sought out, when we find a species of iris peculiar to the country collected and sent to Corinth, where its root was employed to give the special flavour to a celebrated kind of aromatic unguent. Grecian commerce and intercourse not only tended to civilise the S. IHyrians beyond their northern brethren, who shared with the Thracian tribes the custom of tattooing their bodies and of offering human sacrifices; but through the intro

duction of Grecian exiles, made them acquainted with Hellenic ideas and legends, as may be seen by the tale of Cadmus and Harmonia, from whom the chiefs of the Iilyrian Enchelees professed to trace their descent (Comp. Grote, Hist of Greece, vol. iv. pp. 1—10, and the authorities quoted there; to which may be added, Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. pp. 38—42; J. F. Neigebaur, Die Sudslaven, Leipzig, 1851; Niebuhr, LeeL on Ethnog. and Geog. vol. i. pp. 297—314; Smyth, The Mediterranean, pp. 40-—45; Hahn, Albanesische StwUen, Wien, 1854.)

4. Race and National Character.—Sufficient is not known either of the language or customs of the Illyrians, by which their race may be ascertained. The most accurate among the ancient writers have always distinguished them as a separate nation, or group of nations, from both the Thracians and Epirots.

The ancient Illyrians are unquestionably the ancestors of the people generally known in Europe by the name Albanians, but who are called by the Turks " Arnauts" and by themselves " Skipetares," which means in their language 4t mountaineers," or

dwellers on rocks," and inhabit the greater part of ancient Illyricum and Epirus. They have a peculiar language, and constitute a particular race, which is very distinct from the Slavonian inhabitants who border on them towards the N. The ancients, as has been observed, distinguished the Illyrians from the Epirots, and have given no intimations that they were in any way connected. But the Albanians, who inhabit both Illyricum and Epirus, are one people, whose language is only varied by slight modifications of dialect. The Ilhrians appear to have been pressed southwards by Slavonian hordes, who settled in Dalmatia. Driven out from their old territories, they extended themselves towards the S., where they now inhabit xiany districts which never belonged to them in former times, and have swallowed up the Epirots, and extinguished their language. According to Schafarik {Slav. A t vol. i. p. 31) the modern Albanian population is 1,200,000.

Ptolemy is the earliest writer in whose works the name of the Albanians has been distinctly rccognfeed. He mentions (iii. 13. § 23) a tribe called Aldani {'AXGavoi) and a town AJLBANorous ('AASardVoAts), in the region lying to the E. of the Ionian sea; and from the names of places with which Albanopolis is connected, it appears clearly to have been in the S. part of the Iilyrian territory, and in modern Albania. There are no means of lormiug a conjecture how the name of this obscure tribe came to be extended to so considerable a nation. The latest work upon the Albanian language is thai of F. Ritter von Xy lander {DieSprache der A Ibaiiesen oder Skkipetaren, 1835), who has elucidated this subject, and established the principal facts upon a firm basis. An account of the positions at which Xylander arrived will be found in Prichard {The Physical History of Mankind, vol. iii. pp. 477-— 482).

As the Dalmatian Slaves have adopted the name Illyrians, the Slavonian language spoken in Dalmatia, especially at Ragusa, is also called Iilyrian; and this designation has acquired general currency; but it must always be remembered that the ancient Illyrians were in no way connected with the Slave races. In the practice of tattooing their bodies, and offering human sacrifices, the Illyrians resembled the Thracians (Strab. vii. p. 315; Herod, v. 6): the custom of one of their tribes, the Dalmatians, to have a new division of their lands every eighth year (Strab. /. c), resembled the well-known practice of the Germans, only advanced somewhat further towards civilised life. The author of the Periplus ascribed to Scylax (/. c.) speaks of the great influence enjoyed by their women, whose lives, in consequence, he describes as highly licentious. The lllyrian, like the modem Albanian Skipetar, was always ready to fight for hire; and rushed to battle, obeying only the instigation of his own love of fighting, or vengeance, or love of blood, or craving for booty. Gut as soon as the feeling was satisfied, or overcome by fear, his rapid and impetuous rush was succeeded by an equally rapid retreat or flight (Comp. Giote. Wit. of Greece, vol. vi. p. 609.) They did not fight in the phalanx, nor were they merely ifriAof; they rather formed an intermediate class between them and the phalanx. Their arms were shor* spears and light javelins and shields (" peltastae"); the chief weapon, however, was the H&xatpa, or Albanian knife. Dr. Arnold has remarked (Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 495),—" The eastern coast of the Adriatic is one of those ill-fated portions of the earth which, though placed in immediate contact with civilisation, have remained perpetually barbarian." But Scymnus of Chios (comp. Arnold, vol. iii. p. 477), writing of the Illyrians about a century before the Christian era, calls thein "a religious people, just and kind to strangers, loving to be liberal, and desiring to live orderly and soberly." After the Roman conquest, and during its dominion, they were as civilised as most other peoples reclaimed from barbarism. The emperor Diocletian and St Jerome were both Illyrians. And the palace at Spalato is the earliest existing specimen of the legitimate combination of the round arch and the column; and the modem history of the eastern shores of the Adriatic begins with the relations established by Heraclius with the Serbs or W. Slaves, who moved down from the Carpathians into the provinces between the Adriatic and the Danube. The states which they constituted were of considerable weight in the history of Europe, and the kingdoms, or bannats, of Croatia, Servia, Bosnia, Rascia, and Dalmatia, occupied for some centuries a political position very like that now held by the secondary monarchical states of the present day. The people of Narenta, who had a republican form of government, once disputed the sway of the Adriatic with the Venetians; Ragusa, which sent her Argosies (Ragosies) to every coast, never once succumbed to the winged Lion of St. Mark; and for some time it seemed probable that the Servian colonies established by Heraclius were likely to take a prominent part in advancing the progress of European civilisation. (Comp. Finlay, Greece under the Romans, p. 409.)

5. History.—The Illyrians do not appear in history before the Peloponnesian War, when Brasidas and Perdiccas retreated before them, and the Illyrians, for the first time, probably, hjid to encounter Grecian troops. (Thuc. iv. 124—128.) Nothing is heard of these barbarians afterwards, till the time of Philip of Macedon, by whose vigour and energy their incursions were first repressed, and their country partially conquered. Their collision with the Macedonians np])ears to have risen under the following circumstances. During the 4th century before Christ a largo immigration of Gallic tribes from the westward was taking place, invading the territory of the

more northerly Illyrians, and driving them further to the south. Under Bardylis the Illyrians, who had formed themselves into a kingdom, the origin of which cannot be traced, had extended themselves over the towns, villages, and plains of W. Macedonia (Diod. xvi. 4; Theopomp. Fr. 35, ed. Didot.; Cic. de Off. ii. 11; Phot Bibl. p. 530, ed. Bekker; Liban. Oral, xxviii. p. 632). As soon as the young Philip of Macedon came to the throne, he attacked these hereditary enemies B.C. 360, and pushed his suecesses so vigorously, as to reduce to subjection all the tribes to the E. of Lychnidus. (Comp. Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. xi. pp. 302—304.) A state was formed the capital of which was probably near Ragusa, but the real lllyrian pirates with whom the Romans came in collision, must have occupied the N. of Dalmatia Rhodes was still a maritime power; but by B.C. 233 the Illyrians had become formidable in the Adriatic, ravaging the coasts, and disturbing the navigation of the allies of the Romans. Envoys were sent to Teuta, the queen of the Illyrians, demanding reparation: she replied, that piracy was the habit of her people, and finally had the envoys murdered. (Polyb. ii. 8; Appian, IUyr. 7; Zonar. viii. 19; comp. Plin. xxxiv. 11.) A Roman army for the first time crossed the Ionian gulf, and concluded a peace with the Illyrians upon honourable terms, while the Greek states of Corcyra, Apollonia, and Epidamnus, received their liberty as a gift from Rome.

On the death of Teuta, the traitor Demetrius of Pharos made himself guardian of Pineus, son of Agron, and usurped the chief authority in Illyricum : thinking that the Romans were too much engaged in the Gallic wars, he ventured on several piratical acts. This led to the Second lllyrian War, B.C. 219, which resulted in the submission of the whole of Ulyricum. Demetrius fled to Macedonia, and Pineus was restored to his kingdom. (Polyb.iii. 16, 18 ; Liv. xxii. 33; App. Illy. 7, 8; Flor.'ii. 5; Dion Cass, xxxiv. 46, 151; Zonar. viii. 20.) Pineus was succeeded by his uncle Scerdilaidas, and Scerdilaidas by his son Pleuratus, who, for his fidelity to the Roman cause during the Macedonian War, was rewarded at the peace of 196 by the addition to his territories of Lychnidus and the Part liini, which had before belonged to Macedonia (Polyb. xviii. 30, xxi. 9, xxii. 4; Liv. xxxi. 28, xxxii. 34.) Ill the reign of Gentius, the last king of Ulyricum, the Dalmatae revolted, B. C. 180 j and the praetor L. Anicius, entering Illyricum, finished the war within thirty days, by taking the capital Scodra (Seatari), into which Gentius had thrown himself, B. c. 168. (Polyb. xxx. 13; Liv. xliv. 30 —32, xlv. 43; Appian, IUyr. 9; Eutrop. iv. 6.) Illyricum, which was divided into three parts, became annexed to Rome. (Liv. xlv. 26.) The history of the Roman wars with Dalmatia, Iapydia, and Liburnia, is given under those heads.

In B. o. 27 Illyricum was under the rule of a proconsul appointed by the senate (Dion Cass. Hit 12): but the frequent attempts of the people to recover their liberty showed the necessity of maintaining a strong force in the country ; and in B. C. 11 (Dion Cass. liv. 34) it was made an imperial province, with P. Cornelius Dolabella for " legatus" ('' leg. pro. pr.," Orelli, Inscr. no. 2365, comp. no. 3128; Tac Hist. ii. 86; Marquardt, in Becker's Rom. Alt. vol. iii. pt i. pp. 110 —115). A large region, extending far inland toTards the valley of tho Save and the Drace, contained bodies of soldiery who were stationed in the strong links of the chain of military posts which was scattered along the frontier of the Danube. Inscriptions are extant on which the records of its occupation by the 7th and 11th legions can still be read. (OrelIi, nos. 3452. 3553, 4995, 4996; comp. Joseph. B. J. ii. 16; Tac Ann, iv. 5, Hist. ii. 11. 85.) There was at that time no seat of government or capital ; but the province was divided into regions called " conventus:" each region, of which there were three, named from the towns of Scardona, Salona, and Nabosa, was subdivided into numerous "decuriae." Thus the " couventus" of Salona. had 382 "decuriae." (Plin. iii. 26.) Iadera, Salona, Narona, and Epidacrus, were Roman " coloniae;" Atolloxia and Corcyra, "civitates liberae." (Appian, Illyr. 8; Polyb. ii. 11.) The jurisdiction of the " pro-praetor," or " legatus," does not appear to have extended throughout the whole of Illyricum, but merely over the maritime portiun. The inland district either had its own governor, or was under the praefect of Pannonia. Salona in later times became the capital of the province (Procop. B. G. i. 15; Hierocles), and the governor was styled " praeses." (Orelli, nos. 1098, 3599.) The most notable of these were Dion Cassius the historian, and his father Cassius Apronianus.

The warlike youth of Pannonia and Dalmatia afforded an inexhaustible supply of recruits to the legions stationed on the banks of the Danube; and the peasants of Illyricum, who had already given Claudius, Aurelian, and Probus to the sinking empire, achieved the work of rescuing it by the elevation of Diocletian and Maximum to the imperial purple. (Comp. Gibbon, c. xiii.)

After the final division of the empire, Marcellinus, "Patrician of the West," occupied the maritime petition of W. Il.yricum, and built a fleet which claimed the dominion of the Adriatic. [dalmaTia.] E. Illyricum appears to have suffered so much from the hostilities of the Goths and the oppressions of Alaric, who was declared, A. D. 398, its master-general (comp. Claudian, in Eutrop. ii. 216, de Bell. Get. 535), that there is a law of Theodosius II. which exempts the cities of Illyricum from contributing towards the expenses of the public spectacles at Constantinople. (Theod. cod. x. tit. 8. a. 7.) But though suffering from these inroads, casual encounters often showed that the people were not destitute of courage and military skill. Attila himself, the terror of both Goths and Romans, was defeated before the town of Azimus, a frontier fortress of Illyricum. (Priscus, p. 143. ed. Bonn; comp. Gibbon, c. xxxiv.; Einlay, Greece under the Rinnans, p. 203.) The coasts of Illyricum were considered of great importance to the court of Constantinople. The rich produce transported by the caravans which reached the N. shores of the Black Sea, was then conveyed to Constantinople to be distributed through W. Europe. Under these circumstances, it rfas of the utmost consequence to defend the two points of Thessalonica and Dyrrhachium, the two cities w hich commanded the extremities of the usual road between Constantinople and the Adriatic (Tafel, de Thessalonica, p. 221; Hullloan, Geschich. des Byzantischen Handels, p. 76.) The open country was abandoned to the Avars and the E. Slaves, who made permanent settlements even to the S. of the Via Egnatia ; but none of these settlements were allowed to interfere wit th lines of communication, without which the trade of

the West would have been lost to the Greeks. Heraclius, in his plan for circumscribing the ravages of the northern enemies of the empire, occupied the whole interior of the country, from the borders of Istria to the territory of Dyrrhachium, with colonies of the Serlw or W. Slaves. From the settlement of the Servian Slavonians within the bounds of the empire we may therefore date, as has been said above, the earliest encroachments of the Illyrian or Albanian race on the Hellenic population of the South. The singular events which occurred in the reign of Heraclius are not among the least of the elements which have gone to make up the condition of the modern Greek nation. [E. B.J.]

ILORCI. [eliocroca.]

II.U'CIA. [oretabi.]

ILURATUM ('LWpaTor, Ptol. iii. 6. § 6). a town in the interior of the Tauric Chen-one;*, prubablv somewhat to the N. of Kaffa. [E. B. J.]

ILUliCA'ONES. [ileiicaonks."1

ILURCIS. [graccukris.]

lLURGEIA, ILURG1S. [ilutuhgis.]

ILU'RGETAE. [ilergetks.]

1LUKO. in Gallia Aquitania, is placed by the Antonine It in. on the road from Caesaraugusta, in Spain, to Benehannum. [bknkiiarmi'm.] Iluro is between Aspalura [asi'ai.uca] and Beiichartnum. The modern site of Iluro is Oler<m, which is the same name. Oleron is in the department of Basses Pyrenees, at the junction of the Gave dAsjie. the river of Aspaluca, and the Gore dOssau. which by their union form the Gate dOleron. Gore is the name in these parts for the river-valleys of the Pyrenees. In the Notitia of Gallia, Iluro is the Civitas Elloronensium. The place was a bishop's see from the commencement of the sixth century. [G. L.]

I'LURO. 1. (Alora), a city of Baetica, situated on a hill. (Inscr. ap. Carter, Travels, p. 161; Ukert, vol. ii. pt 1. p. 358.)

2. [laeetani.]

ILU'ZA (t4 "lAoufa), a town in Phrygia Pacatiana, which is mentioned only in very late writers, and is probably the same as Aludda in the Table of Peutinger; in which case it was situated between Sebaste and Acmonia, 25 Roman miles to the east of the latter town. It was the see of a Christian bishop. (Hierocl. p. 667; Condi. Constant, iii. p. 534.) [L. S.]

ILVA ('Uooo, Ptol.: Elba), called by the Greeks Aethaua (AiflaAfo, Strab., Diod.; AiOd'Afia, Ps. Arist., Philist. ap. Steph. B), an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, lying off the coast of Etruria, opjx>site to the headland and city of Populouium. It is much the most important of the inlands in this sea, situated between Corsica and the mainland, being about 18 miles in length, and 12 in its greatest breadth. Its outline is extremely irregular, the mountains which com[iose it, and which rise in some parts to a height of above 3000 feet, being indented by deep gulfs and inlets, so that its breadth in some places does not exceed 3 miles. Its circuit is greatly overstated by Pliny at 100 Roman miles: the same author gives its distance fnm Populonium at 10 miles, which is just about correct; but the width of the strait which separates it from the nearest point of the mainland (near Punnbmo) does not much exceed 6, though estimated by Dio'orus as 100 stadia (12J miles), and by Strabo, through 'an enormous error, at not less than 300 stadia. (Strab. v. p. 223; Diod. v. 13; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mel. ii. 7. § 19; ScyL p- 2. § 6; Apoll. lihod. iv. 654.) Ilva was celebrated in ander.t times, as it still is at the present day, for its iron mines; these were probably worked from a very early period bv the Tyrrhenians of the opposite coast, and were already noticed by Hecataeus, who called the island A\&d\rj: indeed, its Greek name was generally regarded as derived from the smoke (altfaAn) of the numerous furnaces employed in smelting the iron. (Diod. v. 13; Steph. B. s.v.) In the time of Strabo, however, the iron ore was no longer smelted in the island itself, the want of fuel compelling the inhabitants (us it does at the present day) to transport the ore to the opposite mainland, where it was smelted and wrought so as to be fitted for commercial purposes. The unfailing abundance of the ore (alluded to by Virgil in the hue

"Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metallis")

led to the notion that it grew again as fast as it was extracted from the mines. It had also the advantage of being extracted with great facility, as it is not sunk deep beneath the earth, but forms a hill or mountain mass of solid ore. (Strab. L c; Diod. la; Virg. Aen. x. 174; Plin. iii. 6. s. 12, xxxiv. 14. s. 41; Pseud. Arist. de Mirab. 95; Itutil. ten. i. 351—356; Sil. Ital. viii. 616.) The mines, which are still extensively worked, are situated at a place called Rio, near the E. coast of the island; they exhibit in many cases unequivocal evidence of the ancient workings.

The only mention of Ilva that occurs in history is in B. c. 453, when we learn from Diodorus that it was ravaged by a Syracusan fleet under Phayllus, in revenge for the piratical expeditions of the Tyrrhenians. Phayllus having effected but little, a second fleet was sent under Apelles, who is said to have made himself master of the island; but it certainly did not remain subject to Syracuse. (Diod. xi. 88.) The name is again incidentally mentioned by Livy (xxx. 39) during the expedition of the consul Tib. Claudius to Corsica and Sardinia.

Ilva has the advantage of several excellent ports, of which that on the N. Bide of the island, now called Porto Ferraio, was known in ancient times as the Portus Arqous ('A/rywos from the

circumstance that the Argonauts were believed to have touched there on their return voyage, while sailing in quest of Circe. (Strab. v. p. 224; Diod. iv. 56; Apollon. It hod. iv. 658.) Considerable ruins of buildings of Koman date are visible at a place called Ij€ Grotte, near Porto Ferritin, and others are found near Capo Castello, at the NE. extremity of the island. The quarries of granite near S. Piero, in the SW. part of Elba, appears also to have been extensively worked by the Romans, though no notice of them is found in any ancient writer; but numerous columns, basins for fountains, and other architectural ornaments, still remain, either wholly or in part hewn out of the adjacent quarry. (Hoare, Class. Tour, vol. i. pp. 23—29). [*E. H. B.]

ILVATES, a Ligurian tribe, whose name is found only in Livy. He mentions them first as taking up arms in B. C. 200, in concert with the Gaulish tribes of the Insubres and Cenomani, to destroy the Koman colonies of Placentia and Cremona. They are again noticed three years later as being still in arms, after the submission of their Transpadane allies; but in the course of that year's campaign (n. v. 197) they were reduced by the consul Q. Minucins, and their name does not again appear in history. (Liv. xxx. 10, xxxi. 29, 30.) From

the circumstances here related, it is clear that they dwelt on the N. slopes of the Apennines, towards the plains of the Pad us, and apparently not very far from Clastidium (Casteggio'); but we cannot determine with certainty either the position or extent <>f their territory. Their name, like those of most of the Ligurian tribes mentioned by Livy, had disappeared in the Augustan age, and is not found in any of the geographers. [liguria/] Walckenaer, however, supposes the Eleates over whom the consul M. Fulvius Nobilior celebrated a triumph in B. C. 159 (Fast. Capit. ap. Gruter, p. 297), and who are in all probability the same people with the Veleiates of Pliny [vklkia], to be identical also with the IIvates of Livy; but this cannot be assumed without further proof. (Walckenaer, Geogr. des Gatdes, vol. i. p. 154.) [E. H. B.]

1MACHARA (Vx'W or 'Hfiixty*, Ptol.: EtJi. Imacharensis, Cic,; Imacarensis, Plin.), a city of Sicily, the name of which does not appear in history, but which is repeatedly mentioned by Cicero among the municipal towns of the island. There is great discrepancy in regard to the form of the name, which is written in many MSS. " Macarensis " or " Macharensis;" and the same uncertainty is found in those of Pliny, who also notices the town among those of the interior of Sicily. (Cic. Verr. iii. 18, 42, v. 7; Zumpt, ad loc.; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Sillig, ad he.') From the manner in which it is spoken of by Cicero, it would seem to have been a town of some consideration, with a territory fertile in corn. That writer associates it with Herbita, Assorus, Agyrium, and other towns of the interior, in a manner that would lead us to suppose it situated in the samp region of Sicily; and this inference is confirmed by Ptolemy, who places Hemichara or Himichara (evidently the same place) in the NE. of Sicily, between Capitium and Centuripa. (Ptol. iii. 4. § 12.) Hence Cluverius conjectures that it may have occupied the site of Traina, but this is wholly uncertain. Fazello and other Sicilian writers have supposed the ruins ot an ancient city, which are still visible on the coast about 9 miles N. of Cape Paehynum, near the Porto Vindicari, to be those of Imachara; but though the name of Macaresa, still borne by an adjoining headland, gives some colour to this opinion, it is wholly opposed to the data furnished us by ancient authors, who all agree in placing Imachara in the interior of the island. The ruins in question, which indicate the site of a considerable town, are regarded by Cluverius (but equally without authority) as those of Ichana. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 356; Fazell. de Reb. Sic, iv. 2, p. 217; Amico. Not. ad Fazell. pp.417, 447; Hoare s Classical Tour, vol. ii. p. 301.) [E. H. B.] IMA'US, the great mountain chain, which, according to the ancients, divided Northern Asia into "Scythia intra Imaum" and "Scvthia extra Imaum." This word (to "luaov 6pos, Strab. xv. p. 689; Ptol. vi. 13. § 1; To 'lucuov 6pos, btrab. ii. p. 129; 6 "%uaos, Agathem. ii. 9: although all the MSS. of Strabo (xi. p. 516) have Isamns ("Iffo/ioj) in the passage describing the expedition of the Graeco-Bactrian king Mmander, yet there can be no doubt but that the text is corrupt, and the word Imaus should be substituted), connected with the Sanscrit himavat, " Bnowy" (com p. Plin. vi. 17; Bohlen, das Alte Indien, vol. i. p. 11; Lassen, Ind. Alt. vol. i- p. 17), is one of those many significative expressions which have been used for mountain masses upon every zone of the earth's surface (for instance, AlotU Blanc, in Savoy, Sierra

Xerada, in Granada and California'), and survives in tbe modern Himalaya.

From very early times the Greeks were aware of a great line of mountains running throughout Central Asia, nearly E. and W., between the 36th and 37th degrees of latitude, and which was known by the name of the diaphragm of Dicaearchus, or the parallel of Rhodes.

The Macedonian expeditions of Alexander and Seleucus Kicator opened up Asia as far as the sources of the Ganges, but not further. But the knowledge which the Greeks thus obtained of Asia was much enlarged by intercourse with other Eastern nations. The indications given by Strabo and Ptolemy (i.e.), when compared with the orographic configuration of the Asiatic continent, recognise in a very remarkable manner the principal features of the mountain chain of Central A-sia, which extends from the Chinese province of Hou-pi, S. of the gulf of Pelcheli, along tbe line of the Kuen-lun (not, as has generally been supposed, the Himalaya'), continuing from the Hindu-Kush along the S. shores of the Caspian through Mdzanderdn, and rising in the erater-shaped summit of Damdvend, through the pass ot Ellntrz and Ghilan, until it terminates in the Taurus in the SW. corner of Asia Minor. It is true that there is a break between Taurus and the W. continuation of the Hindu-Kush, but the cold "plateaux" of Azerbijan and Kurdistan, and the isolated summit of Ararat, might easily give rise to the supposed continuity both of Taurus and AntiTaurus from Karamania and Argaeus up to the ♦ high chain of Elburz, which separates the damp, wooded, and unhealthy plains of Mdzanderdn from the arid " plateaux " of Irak and Khorasan,

The name of Imaus was, as has been seen, in the first instance, applied by the Greek geographers to the Hindu-Kush and to the chain parallel to the equator to which the name of Himalaya is usually given in the present day. Gradually the name was transferred to the colossal intersection running N. and S.,—the meridian axis of Central Asia, or the Bohr range. The division of Asia into " intra et extra Imaum" was unknown to Strabo and Pliny, though the latter describes the knot of mountains formed by the intersections of the Himalaya, the Hindu-Kush, and Bohr, by the expression quorum (Montes Emodi) promontorium Imaus vocatur r (vi. 17). The Bohr chain has been for ages, with one or two exceptions, the boundary between the empires of China and Turkestan; but the ethnographical distinction between ** Scythia intra et extra Imaum" was probably suggested by the division of India into "intra et extra Gangem" and of the whole continent into ** intra et extra Taurum." In Ptolemy, or rather in the maps appended to all the editions, and attributed to Agathodaemon, the meridian chain of Imaus is prolonged up to the most northerly plains of the Irtych and Obi. The positive notions of the ancients upon tbe route of commerce from the Euphrates to the Seres, forbid the opinion, that the idea of an Imaus running from N. to S., and N. of the Himalaya, dividing Upper Asia into two equal parts, was a mere geographic dream. The expressions of Ptolemy are so precise, that there can be little doubt but that he was aware of the existence of the Bolor range. In the special description of Central Asia, he speaks twice of Imaus running from S. to K., and, indeed, clearly calls it a meridian chain (wari u,tanfx€pttrf\v yrus ypau^i-fjy, Ptol. vi. 14. § I: corap. vL 13. § 1), and places at the foot

of Imaus the Btltak (boatoi, vi. 13. § 3), in the country of Little Thibet, which still bears the indigenous name of Baltistan. At the sources of the Indus are the Daradbab (viii. 1. § 42), the Dardars or Danders mentioned in the poem of the Makabhdraia and in the fragments of Megasthenes, through whom the Greeks received accounts of the region of auriferous sand, and who occupied the S. slopes of the Indian Caucasus, a little to the W. of Kaschmir. It is to be remarked that Ptolemy does not attach Imaus to the Comkdorum Months (Koundonz), but places the Imaus too far to the K., 8° further than the meridian of the principal source of the Ganges (Gungotri). Tlie cause of this mistake, in placing Imaus so far further towards the E. than the Bolor range, no doubt arose from the data upon which Ptolemy came to his conclusion being selected from two different sources. The Greeks first became acquainted with the Comedorum Montes when they passed the Indian Caucasus between Cabul and Balkh, and advanced over the 11 plateau " of Bamian along the W. slopes of Bolor, where Alexander found, in the tribe of the Sibae, the descendants of Heracles (Strab. xvi. p. 688), just as Marco Polo and Bumes (Travels in Bokhara, vol. ii. p. 214) met with people who boasted that they had sprung from the Macedonian conquerors. The N. of Bolor was known from the route of the traffic of the Seres, as described by Marinus of Tyre and Ptolemy (i. 12). The combination of notions obtained from such different sources was imperfectly made, and hence the error in longitude.

These obscure orographical relations have been illustrated by Humboldt upon the most logical principles, and the result of many apparently contradictory accounts is Bo presented as to form one connected whole. (Asie Cenlrale, vol. i. pp. 100 —164, vol. ii. pp. 365—440.)

The Bohr range is one link of a long series of elevated ranges running, as it were, from S. to N., which, with axes parallel to each other, but alternating in their localities, extend from Cape Comorin to the Icy Sea, between the 64th and 75th degrees of longitude, keeping a mean direction of SSE. and NNW. Lassen (Jndische A Iterthumskunde) coincides with the results obtained by Humboldt. [E. B. J.]

1'MBRASUS (rlu€patros), one of the three small rivers flowing down from Mount Am pel us in the island of Samos. (Strab. xiv. p. 637 ; Plin. v. 37.) According to a fragment from Callimachus (213; com p. Schol. ad Apolhn. Shod. i. 187, ii. 868), this river, once called Parthenius, flowed in front of the ancient sanctuary of Hera, outside the town of Samos, and the goddess derived from it the surname of Imbrasia. [L. S.]

IMBRINIUM. [samrium.]

IMBROS ClftSfios: Eth. "\u%p\ot), an island in the Aegaean sea, off the SW. coast of the Thracnm Chersonesus, and near the islands of Samothrace and Lemnos. According to Pliny (iv. 12. s. 23), Imbros is 62 miles in circumference; but this is nearly double its real size. It is mountainous and well wooded, and its highest summit is 1845 feet above the level of the sea. It contains, however, several fertile valleys, and a river named Hiss us in antiquity. (Plin. I. c.) Its town on the northern side was called by the same name, and there are still some ruins of it remaining. Imbros was inhabited in early times by the Pelasgians, and was, like the neighbouring island of Samothrace, celebrated for its

« السابقةمتابعة »