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Orychoma was the same as the fort Achaia, which is said to have been the first settlement of the Heliadae in the island (Diod. Sic v. 57; Athen. viii. p. 360); at any rate, Achaia was situated in the territory of Ialysus, which bore the name Ialysia. (Cump. Horn. //. ii. 656; Pind. OL vii. 106; Herod, ii. 182; Thocyd. viii. 44; Ptol. v. 2. § 34; Steph. B. s.1.\ Scykx, Peripl. p. 81; Dionys. Perieg. 504; Or. Met vii. 365; Pomp. Mela, il 7.) The site of ancient Ialysus is still occupied by a village bearing the name laliso. about which a few ancient remains are found. (Roes, Reutn auf den Griech. Justin, vol. iii. p. 98.) ' [L. S.]

IAMISSA. [thahkkis.] IAMXA, IAMNO. [balkares, p. 374, k] IAMNIA ('IasVfc, LXX.; 'lajixm, 'Id^ffo liaraa), a city of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the LXX of Joshua xv. 45 (rinva); but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (jabkeh in the Knglish version), as one of the cities of the Philistines taken and destroyed by king Uzziah. It is celebrated by Philo Jodaeus as the place where the first occasion was given to the Jewish revolt under Caligula, and to his impious attempt to profane the temple at Jerusalem. His account is.as follows: — In the city of Iamnia, one of the most populous of Judaea, a small Gentile population had established it-elf among the more numerous Jews, to whom they occasioned no little annoyance by the wanton violation of their cherished customs. An unprincipled government officer, named Capito, who had been sent to Palestine to collect the tribute, anxious to pre-ocenpy the emperor with accusations against the Jews before their well-grounded complaints of his boundless extortion could reach the capital, ordered an altar of mud to be raised in the town for the deification of the emperor. The Jews, as he had anticipated, indignant at the profanation of the Holy Land, assembled in a body, and demolished the altar. On hearing this, the emperor, incensed already at what had lately occurred in Egypt, resolved to resent this insult by the erection of an equestrian statue of himself in the Holy of Holies. (Philo, de Legal, ad Caiam, Op. vol. ii. p. 573.) With respect to its site, it is assigned by Josephus to that part of the tribe Jndah occupied by tbe children of Dan (Ant. v. 1. § 22); and he reckons it as an inland city. (Ant. lit. 4. § 4, B. J. i. 7. § 7.) Thus, likewise, in ll« 1st book of Maccabees (x. 69, 71), it is spoken of as situated in the plain country; but the author t*f the 2nd book speaks of the harbour and fleet of the Iainnites, which were fired by Judas Maccalaeus; when the light of the conflagration was seen it Jerusalem, 240 stadia distant. The apparent discrepancy may, however, be reconciled by the Mice* of the classical geographers, who make freqoent mention of this town. Thus Pliny expressly *avs, " Iamnes duae; altera intns," and places them between Azotus and Joppa (v. 12); and Ptolemy, having mentioned 'laftmjrvv, "the port of the lamnites," as a maritime town between Joppa and Azotus, afterwards enumerates Iamnia among the cities of Judaea. From all which it is evident that Iamnia had its Majuma, or naval arsenal, as Gaza, Azotus, and Ascalon also had. (Le Qnien, Orient ChrisL vol. iii. col. 587, and 622.) The Itinerary of Antoninus places it 36 M. P. from Gaza, and 12 M. P. frou Diospolis (or Lydda); and Eunebius Ctoom. i. v. lauveia) places it between Diospolis and Azotus. Its site is still marked by ruins which

retain the ancient name Yebna. situated on a small eminence on the west side of Wady Rubin, an hour distant from the sea. (Irby and Mangles, Travels, p. 182.) "The ruins of a Roman bridge," which they noticed, spanning the Nahr-el-Rubin between Yebna and the sea, was doubtless built for the purpose of facilitating traffic between the town and its sea-port. [G. W.]

IAMPHORINA, the capital of the Maedi, in Macedonia, which was taken u. c. 211 by Philip, son of Demetrius. (Liv. xxvi. 25.) It is probably represented by Crania or Jvorina, in the upper valley of the Mordra. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 473.) [E. B. J.]

lANGACAUCA'NI [mauretania.]

JANUA'RIA ('lavouapia &Kpa~). a promontory on the coast of Cilicia, near Serrepolis, between Mallus and Aegaea. (Stadiasm. §§ 149, 150.) It is now called Karadash. [L. S.]

IA'PIS ('Iawis), a small stream which formed the boundary between Megaris and the territory of Eleusis. [attica, p. 323, a.]

IA'PODES, IA'PYDES ('IdVoifj, Strab. iii. p. 207, vii. p. 313; 'I<£vu5«j, Ptol. ii. 16. § 8; Liv. xliii. 5; Virg. Georg. iii. 475; Tibull. iv. 1. 108), an lllyrian people to the N. of Dalmatia, and E. of Liburoia, who occupied Iafydia (Plin. iii. 19), or the present military frontier of Croatia, comprised between the rivers Kulpa and Koratia to the N. and E., and the VeUbich range to the S.

In the interior, their territory was spread along Mons Ai.bil'8 (Velika), which forms the extremity of the great Alpine chain, and rises to a great elevation; on the other side of the mountain they reached towards the Danube, and the confines of Pannonia. They followed the custom of the wild Thracinn tribes in tattooing themselves, and were armed in the Keltic fashion, living in their poor country (like the Morlacchi of the present day) chiefly on zea and millet. (Strab. vii. p. 315.)

In B. c. 129, the consul C. Sempronius Tuditanus carried on war against this people, at first unsuccessfully, but afterwards gained a victory over them, chiefly by the military skill of his legate, D. Junius Brutus, for which he was allowed to celebrate a triumph at Rome (Appian, B. C. i. 19, lllyr. 10; Liv. Epit. lix.; Fasti Capii.) They had a " foedus" with Home (Cic. pro Bulb. 14), but were in B.C. 34 finally subdued by Octavianus, after an obstinate defence, in which Metulum, their principal town, was taken (Strab. I. c.; Appian, Hkjr. I. c).

Mktulum (MtTovAor), their capital, was situated on the river Oolapis (Kulpa) to the X., on the frontier of Pannonia (Appian, /. c), and has been identified with Mottling or Metlika on the Kidpa. The Antoninc Itinerary has the following places on the road from Senia (Zeigg~) to Siscia (Sissek) :— Avendone (comp. Peut. Tab.; Abendo, Geng. Rav.; AoepSecfrat, Appian, Wyr. I. c.; OuevSos, Strab. iv. p. 207, vii. p. 314.); Auitium (Arypium, Peut Tab.; Parupium, Geog. Rav.; Apovrivoi, App. lllyr. 16., perhaps the same as the 'Aootucafa of Ptolemy, ii. 16. § 9), now Ottochatz. At BiBIL'M, which should be read Bivium (Wesseling, udloc.), the road divided, taking a direction towards Panno

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Pulybins (iii- 7G: coins, ap. Sestini, pp. 132, 163; Num. Goth.). [P.S.]

IA'DERA (TaSfpo, Ptol. iii. 16. § 10; 'IdSopa, Nicet. p. 348; Iadera, Plin. iii. 26; Iader, Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 13; PeuL Tab.; Geog. Rav.; on the orthography of the name see Tzchacke, ad Mtlam, he. vol. ii. pt 2. p. 275: Eth. Iaderrinus, Hirt. B. A. 42: Zara), the capital of Libnmia in Illyricum. Under Augustus it was made a Roman colony. ('* Parens coloniae," Itucr. ap. Farlati, Illyr. Sacr.t vol. v. p. 3; coinp. Ptol. /. c.) Afterwards it bore the name of Diodora. and paid a tribute of 110 pieces of gold to the Eastern emperors (Const Porph. de Adm. Imp. 30). until it was handed over, in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, to the Slavonic princes. Zara, the modern capital of Dalmatia, and well known fur the famous siege it stood against the combined French and Venetians, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade (Gibbon, c. lx.; YVilken, die, Kreuzz. vol. v. p. 167), stands upon the site of Iadera. Little remains of the ancient city; the t;ea-gate called Porta di San Chrysogono is Roman, l>ut it seems likely that it has been brought from Aenona. The gate is a single arch with a Corinthian pilaster at each side supporting an entablature.

Eckhel (vol. ii. p. 152) doubts the evidence of any coins of ladera, though some have been attributed to it by other writers on numismatics. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 78; J. F. Xeigebaur, Die Sudslacen, pp. 181 — 191.) [E. B.J.]

IADO'NI, a people in the extreme X\V. of Hisp.inia Tarraconensis, mentioned only by Pliny, who places them next to the Arrotrebae, (Plin. iv. 20. s 34; [P. S.]

IA ETA or IETAE ('IeTof, Steph. B.: Eth. Iwaibf, Id.; but Diodorus has 'lairlvos, and this is confirmed by coins, the legend of which is uniformly 'Ieu-riMee, Eckhel, vol. i. p. 216: in Latin, Cicero has Ietini, but Pliny letenses), a town of the interior of Sicily, in the NW. of the island, not very far from Panormus. It was mentioned by Phil'tstus (ap. Steph. B. s. r.) as a fortress, and it is called by Thucydides also (if the reading 'lexis be admitted, in vii. 2) a fortress of the Siculians (rei^o* rSiv Sikcawp), which was taken by Gylippus on his marcli from Himera through the interior of the island towards Syracuse. It first appears as an independent city in the time of Pyrrhus, and was attacked by that monarch on account of its strong position and the advantages it offered for operations against Pnnormus; but the inhabitants readily capitulated. (Diod. xxii. 10, p. 498.) In the First Punic War it was occupied by a Carthaginian garrison, but after the fall of Panonnus drove out these troops and opened its gates to the Romans. (Id. xxiii. 18, p. 505.) Under the Roman government it appears as a municipal town, but not one of much importance. The Ietini are only noticed in passing by Cicero among the towns whose lands had been utterly ruined by the exactions of Verres; and the letenses are enumerated by Pliny among the " populi stipendiarii " of the interior of Sicily. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43; PHn. iii. 8. s, 14.) Many MSS. of Cicero read Letini, and it is probable that the Avtov of Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 15) is only a corruption of the same name.

The position of Iaeta is very obscurely intimated, but it appears from Diodorus that it was not very remote from Panormus, and that its site was one of great natural strength. Silius Italicus also alludes to its elevated situation (" eels us Ietas," xiv. 271).

Fazello assures us that there was a mediaeval fortress called luto on the summit of a lofty mountain, about 15 miles from Palermo, and 12 N of Entella, which was destroyed by Frederic II. at the same time with the latter city; and this he supposes, probably enough, to be the site of Iaeta. He says the mountain was still called Monte di Into, though more commonly known as Monte di S. Co*mano, from a church on its summit. (Fazell. x. p. 471; Amic. Lex. Top. Sic. vol. ii. p. 291.) Tlw spot is not marked on any modern map, and does not appear to have been visited by any recent travellers. The position thus assigned to Iaeta agrees well with the statements of Diodorus. but is wholly irreconcilable with the admission of 'Urds into the text of Thucydides (vii. 2): this reading, however, is a mere conjecture (see Arnold's note), and must probably be discarded as untenable. [E. H. B.]

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COIN OF IAETA.

JAEZER (*io£tjp, LXX.; yla£r}p and 'Atrup, Euseb.), a city of Gilead, assigned to the tribe of Gad by Moses. In Numbers (xxxii. 1), u the land of Jazer" is mentioned as contiguous to "the land of Gilead, and suited to cattle." In Jeremiah (xlviii. 32), " the sea of Jazer" occurs in some versions, as in the English; but lieland (*. v. p. 825) justly remarks, that this is not certain, as the passage may be pointed after the word " sea," and "Jazer." as a vocative, commence the following clause. But as "the land of Jazer" is used for the country south of Gilead, so the Dead Sea may be designated " the sea of Jazer." Eusebius (Onomatt. s. v. 'Acwp) places it 8 miles west of Philadelphia or Ammon; and elsewhere («. v. 'laa-qp), 10 miles west of Philadelphia, and 15 from Esbou (Ileshbon). He adds, that a large river tikes its rise there, which runs into the Jordan. In a situation nearly corresponding with this, between Szalt and E$busy Burckhardt passed some ruins named Szyrt where a valley named Wady Szyr takes its rise and runs into the Jordan. This is doubtless the modern representative of the ancient Jazer. '* In two hours and a half (from Szalt) we passed, on our right, the Wady Szyr, which has its source near the road, and falls into the Jordan. Above the source, on the declivity of the valley, are the ruins called SzyrJ" (Syria, p. 364.) It is probably identical with the rdfapos of Ptolemy which he reckons among the cities of Palestine ou the east of the Jordan (v. 16). [G. W.]

IA'LYSUS (TdAfffoi, 'IdXiwcor, or '\-h\vaaos: Eth. TaAtWioj), one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island of Rhodes, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric bexapolis. It was situated only six stadia to the south-west of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of lalysu.s for in the time of Strabo (xiv. p. 655) it existed only as a village. Pliny (v. 36) did not consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that Ialysus was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoma, the citadel, was situated above Ialysus, and still existed in the time of Strabo. It is supposed by some that Orychoma ires the same as the fort Acliaia, winch is said to have been the first settlement of the Heliadae in the island (Diod. Sic v. 57; Athen. Tiii. p. 360); at any rate, Achaia was situated in the territory of Ialysus, which bore the name Ialysia. (Comp. Horn. ii. 656; Pind. Ot vii. 106; Herod, ii. 182 ; Thncyd. viii. 44; Ptol. v. 2. § 34; Steph. B. t. c; Scylax, Pergil. p. 81; Dionys. Perieg. 504; Ov. Met. vii. 365; Pomp. Mela, ii. 7.) The bite of ancient Ialysus is still occupied by a village bearing the name laliso, about which a few ancient remains are found. (Ross, lieuen auf den Griech. Ineeln, vol. iii. p. 98.) [L. S.]

IAMISSA [thahesis.] IAMNA, IAMNO. [balkares, p. 374, k] IAMNIA ('Ios>^j, LXX.; 'lifwia, 'Id/u-ffa 'U/unui), a city of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the LXX. of Joshua xv. 45 (r«^u>o); but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (jabkeh in the English version), as one of the cities of the Philistines taken and destroyed by king Uzziah. It is celebrated by Philo Judaens as the place where the first occasion was given to the Jewish revolt under Caligula, and to his impious attempt to profane the temple at Jerusalem. His account is.as follows: — In the city of Iamnia, one of the most populous of Judaea, a small Gentile population had established itself among the more numerous Jews, to whom they occasioned no little annoyance by the wanton violation of their cherished customs. An unprincipled government officer, named Capito, who had been sent to Palestine to collect the tribute, anxious to pre-occupy the emperor with accusations against the Jews before their well-grounded complaints of his boundless extortion could reach the capital, ordered an altar of mud to be raised in the town for the deification of the emperor. The Jews, as he had anticipated, indignant at the profanation of the Holy Land, assembled in a body, and demolished the altar. On hearing this, the emperor, incensed already at what had lately occurred in Egypt, resolved to resent this insult by the erection of an equestrian statue of himself in the Holy of Holies. (Philo, de Legtti. ad Caium, Op. vol. ii. p. 573.) With respect to its site, it is assigned by Josephus to that part of the tribe yf Jndah occupied by the children of Dan(Xn/. v. I. § 22); and he reckons it as an inland city. (Ant xiv. 4. § 4, B. J. i. 7. § 7.) Thus, likewise, in the 1st book of Maccabees (x. 69, 71), it is spoken of as situated in the plain country; but the author of the 2nd book speaks of the harbour and fleet of the Iamnites, which were fired by Judas Maccabaeus; when the light of the conflagration was seen at Jerusalem, 240 stadia distant. The apparent discrepancy may, however, be reconciled by the notices of the classical geographers, who make frequent mention of this town. Thus Pliny expressly say*, " lamnes duae: altera intus," and places them between Azotus and Joppa (v. 12); and Ptolemy, having mentioned 'lafwrrraiv, "the port of the Iamnites," as a maritime town between Joppa and Azotus, afterwards enumerates Iamnia among the cities of Judaea. From all which it is evident that Iamnia had its Majnma, or naval arsenal, as Gaza, Azotus, and Ascalon also had. (Le Quien, Orient Christ, vol. iii. col. 587, and 622.) The Itinerary of Antoninus places it 36 M. P. from Gaza, and 12 M. P. from Diospolis (or Lydda); and Eusebius (Onom. i. v. 'Idfivtta) places it between Diospolis aud Azotus. Its site is still marked by ruins which

retain the ancient name Yebna, situated on a small eminence on the west side of Wady Rubin, an hour distant from the sea. (Irby and Mangles, Travclt, p. 182.) "The ruins of a Roman bridge," which they noticed, spanning the Nahr-et-Rubin between Yebna and the sea, was doubtless built for the purpose of facilitating traffic between the town and its sea-port. [G. W.]

IAMPHORINA the capital of the Maedi, in Macedonia, which was taken u. c 211 by Philip, sou of Demetrius. (Liv. xxvi. 25.) It is probably represented by Crania or Ivorina, in the upper valley of the Mordra. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 473.) [E. B. J.]

IANGACAUCA'NI [mauritania.]

JANUA'RIA ('Ic&ovapia &Kpa),& promontory on the coast of Cilicia, near Serrepolis, between Mallus and Aegaea. (Stadiatm. §§ 149, 150.) It is now called Karadash." [L. S.]

IA'PIS ('law's), a small stream which formed the boundary between Megaris and the territory of Eleusis. [attica, p. 323, a.]

IA'PODES, IA'PYDES ('IcfaroJVj, Strab. iii. p. 207, vii. p. 313; 'Id>o5«1 Ptol. ii. 16. § 8; Liv. xliii. 5; Virg. Georg. iii. 475; Tibull. iv. 1. 108), an lllyrian people to the N. of Dalmatia, and E. of Libumia, who occupied Iapydia (Plin. iii. 19), or the present military frontier of Croatia, coinprised between the rivers Kulpa and Korana to the N. and E., and the Velebich range to the S.

In the interior, their territory was spread along Mons Albius ( Vtlika), which forms the extremity of the great Alpine chain, and rises to a great elevation; on the other side of the mountain they reached towards the Danube, and the confines of Pannonia. They followed the custom of the wild Thraeian tribes in tattooing themselves, and were anned in the Keltic fashion, living in their poor country (like the Morlacchi of the present day) chiefly on zea and millet. (Strab. vii. p. 315.)

In B. c. 129, the consul C. Sempronius Tuditanus carried on war against this people, at first unsuccessfully, but afterwards gained a victory over them, chiefly by the military skill of his legate, D. Junius Brutus, for which he was allowed to celebrate a triumph at Rome (Appian, B. C. i. 19, JUyr. 10; Liv. Ejyit. lix.; Faeti Capit.~) They had a " foedus" with Rome (Cic. pro Bulb. 14), but were in B. o. 34 finally subdued by Octavianus, after an obstinate defence, in which Metulum, their principal town, was taken (Strab. 1. c.; Appian, Illyr. I. c).

Mktui.um (MeroCAoi'), their capital, was situated on the river Colafis {Kulpa') to the N., on the frontier of Pannonia (Appian, I. c ), and has been identified with Mottling or Metlika on the Kulpa. The Antonine Itinerary haa the following places on the roail from Senia (Zetgg') to Siscia (Siuek) :— Avendonk (comp. Peat. Tab.; Abendo, tieog. Rav.; AvepSfdVai, Appian, Illyr. I. c.; OuevSos, Strab. iv. p. 207, vii. p. 314.); Antrum (Arypium, Petit. Tab.; Parupium, Geog. Rav.; 'Apoinrtvot, App. JUyr. 16., perhaps the same as the Kpovxicla of Ptolemy, ii. 16. § 9), now Ottochatz. At Bibium, which should be read Biviiim (Wessiling.adloe.), the road divided, taking a direction towards Pannonia, which the Itinerary follows, and also towards Dalmatia, which is given in the Pentinger Table.

Keigebaur (Die Sudslaven, pp. 224—235) has identified from a local antiquary the following sitea of the Table;

Epidotiuii (U$eUe); Aucis (Chauke'); AuSaxcamo (Yusuch, near Udbiaa); Clumbetar (Orachatt). [E. B. J.]

IAPY'GIA Clonvyfo), was the name given by the Greeks to the SE. portion of Italy, bordering on the Adriatic Sea, but the term was used with considerable vagueness, being sometimes restricted to the extreme SE. point or peninsula, called also Mesas pia, and by the Romans Calabria; at other times extended so as to include the whole of what the Romans termed Apulia. Thus Scylax describes the whole coast from Lucania to the promontory of Drion (Mt. Garganus) as comprised in lapygia, and eveu includes under that appellation the cities of Metapontum and Heraclea on the gulf of Tarentnm, which are usually assigned to Lucania. Hence he states that their coast-line extended for a space of six days and nights' voyage. (Scyl. § 14. p. 5.) Pulybius at a later period used the name in an equally extended sense, so as to include the whole of Apulia (iii. 88), as well as the Messapian peninsula; but he elsewhere appears to use the name of Iapygians as equivalent to the Roman term Apulians, and distinguishes them from the Messapians (ii. 24). This is, however, certainly contrary to the usage of earlier Greek writers. Herodotus distinctly applies the term of lapygia to the peninsula, and calls the Messapians an Iapygian tribe; though he evidently did not limit it to this portion of Italy, and must have extended it, at nil events, to the land of the Peucetians, if not of the Daunians also. (Herod, iv. 99, vii. 170.) Aristotle also clearly identifies the Iapygians with the Messapians (PoL v. 3), though the limits within which he applies the name of lapygia (/&. vii. 10) cannot be defined. Indeed, the name of the Iapygian promontory txpa r) 'Ioiriryia), universally given to the headland which formed the extreme point of the peninsula, sufficiently proves that this was considered to belong to lapygia. Strabo confines the term of lapygia to the peninsula, and says that it was called by some lapygia, by others Messapia or Calabria. (Strab. vi. pp. 281, 282.) Appian and Dionysius Periegetes, on the contrary, follow Polybius in applying the name of lapygia to the Roman Apulia, and the latter expressly says that the Iapygian tribes extended as far as Hyrium on the N. side of Mt. Garganus. (Appian, Arm. 45; Dionys. Per. 379.) Ptolemy, as usual, follows the Roman writers, and adopts the name^ then in use for the divisions of this part of Italy: hence he ignores altogether the name of lapygia, which is not found in any Roman writer as a geographical appellation; though the Latin poets, as usual, adopted it from the Greeks. (Virg. Aen. xi. 247; Ovid, Met. xv. 703.)

We have no clue to the origin or meaning of the name of Iapygians, which was undoubtedly given to the people (iapyoes, 'Idiriryer) before it was applied to the country which they inhabited. Niebuhr (vol. i. p. 146) considers it as etymologically connected with the Latin Apulue, but this is very doubtful. The name appears to have been a general one, including several tribes or nations, among which were the Messapians, Sallentini, and Peucetians: hence Herodotus calls the Messapians, Iapygians ('itjwvm Meo-o-dwioi, vii. 170); and the two names are frequently interchanged. The Greek mythographers, as usual, derived the name from a hero, Iapyx, whom they represented as a son of Lycaon, a descent probably intended to indicate the PeLisgic origin of the Iapygians. (Anton. Liberal. 31; Plin. iii. 11 s. 16 J For a further account of

the national affinities of the different tribes in this part of Italy, as well as for a description of its physical geography, see the articles Apuma and CalaBria. [E. H. R.]

lAPY'GIUM PROMONTO'RIUM ('A*pa Ichtuyla: Capo Sta. Maria di Leuca}, a headland which forms the extreme SE. point of Italy, as well as the extremity of the long peninsula or promontory that divides the gulf of Tarentum from the Adriat ic sea. It is this long projecting strip (,f land, commonly termed the heel of Italy, and designated by the Romans as Calabria, that was usually termed by the Greeks lapygia, whence the name of the promontory in question. The latter is well described by Strabo as a rocky point extending far out to sea towards the SE., but inclining a little towards the Lacinian promontory, which rises opposite to it, and together with it encloses the gulf of Tarentum. He states the interval between these two headlands, and consequently the width of the Tarentine gulf, at its entrance, at abont 700 stadia (70 G. miles), which slightly exceeds the truth. Pliny calls the same distance 100 M. P. or 800 stadia; but the real distance docs not exceed 66 G. miles or 660 stadia. (Strab. vi. pp. 258, 281; Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Ptol. iii. 1. § 13; Polyb. x. 1.)

The same point was also not unfrcquently termed the Salentine promontory (pkomontorium SalknTinum. Mel. ii. 4. § 8; Ptol. I. c), from the people of that name who inhabited the country immediately adjoining. Sallust applies the same name to the whole of the Calabrian or Messapian peninsula. (Sail. op. Sen. ad A en. iii. 400.) Its modem name is derived from the ancient church of Sla. Marin tli Leuca. situated close to the headland, and which has preserved the name of the ancient town and port of Leuca; the latter was situated immediately on the W. of the promontory, and afforded tolerable shelter for vessels. [lbuca.] Hence we find the Athenian Heet, in B. c. 415, on its way to Sicily, touching at the Iapygian promontory after crossing from Corcyra (Thuc. vi. 30, 44); and there can be no doubt that this was the customary course in proceeding from Greece to Sicily. [E. H. B.]

IA'RDANUS ('iipScu'Os), a river on the N. coast of Crete, near the banks of which the Cydonians dwelt. (Horn. Od. iii. 292.) It is identified with the rapid stream of the PUitanid, which rises in the White Mountains, and, after flowing between the lthizitc villages of Tlteruo and Laid or Tmjcus. runs through a valley formed by low hills, and filled with lofty platanes; from which it obtains its name. The river of Platanid falls into the sea, nearly opposite the islet of Hdtjhioe Theodliorog, where there is good anchorage. (Pashlev, Trav. vol. ii. p. 22 : Hock, Kretn. vol. i. pp. 23,' 384.) [E. B. J.]

1AUDANUS, a river of Elis. [pheia.]

JARZETHA. [libya.]

IASI. [iassii.]

JASO'NIUM ('Ioo-oVioir Ptol. vi. 10. § 3). a town in Margiana,at the junction of the Margus (Muryltab) and some small streams which flow into it. (Of. also Ammian. xxiii. 6.) [V.l

JASO'NIUM (t* 'Ioo-dVioi', Ptol. vi. 2. §"4; Strab. xi. p. 526), a mountain in Media, which extended in a NW. direction from the M. Parachoatras (M. Ehcend), forming the connecting link between the Taurus and the outlying spurs of the Antitourus. It is placed by Ptolemy between the Orontes and the Coronus. [V.]

JASO'NIUM ('la<r«»w), a promontory on the toast of P. ntus, 130 stadia to the north-east of Polemnniam; it is the most projecting cape on that oast, and fonns the terminating point of»the chain of Mount Paryadres. It was believed to have received its name from the fact that Jason had landed there. (Strab. xii. p. 548; Arrian, Peripl. p. 17; Anonjrm. Peripl. p. 11; Ptol. v. 6. ^ 4 ; Xenoph. Anab. vi. 2. § 1, who calls it 'Icurovia ojrrij.) It still bears the name Jasoon, though it is more common!;' called Cape Bona or Vona, from a town of the same name. (Hamilton, Researches, vol. i. p. 269.) The Asineia, called a Greek acropolis by Srylax (p. 33), is probably no other than the Jasonium. [L. S-]

IASPIS. [costk^tahia.] IASSII ('loVtrwi), mentioned by Ptolemy as a population of Upper Pannonia (ii. 14. § 2). Pliny's form of the name (Hi. 25) is lasu He places them on the Drave. [E.G. L.]

IASSUS, or IASUS flaaaoi, or "Wo*: Kth. 'lojrffjus), a town of Caria, situated on a small inland close to the north coast of the Iasian bay, which derives its name from Iassus. The town is said to have been founded at an unknown period by Arrive colonists ; but as they had sustained severe losses in a war with the native Carians, they invited tlie son of Nelcus. who had previously founded Miletus, to come to their assistance. The town appears on that occasion to have received additional settlers. (Polyb. xvi. 12.) The town, which appears to have occupied the whole of the little island, hud only ten stadia in circumference; but it nevertheless acquired preat wealth (Thucyd. viii. 28), from its fisheries and trade in fish (Strab. xiv. p. 658). After the Sicilian expedition of the Athenians, during the Pelopmnesian war, Iassus was attacked by the Lacedaemonians and their allies; it was governed at the time by Amorges, a Persian chief, who had revolted from Darius. It was taken by the Lacedaemonians, who captured Amorges, and delivered him up to Tissanhemes. The town itself was destroyed on that occasion; but must have been rebuilt, for we afterwards find it besieged by the last Philip of Macedonia, »ho, however, was compelled by the Komans to restore it to Ptolemy of Egypt. (Polyb. xvii. 2; Liv. ixxii. 33; comp. Ptol. v. 2. § 9; Plin. v. 29; Stad. Mar. Magn. §§ 274, 275; Hierocl. p. 689.) The mountains in the neighbourhood of Iassus furnished a beautiful kind of marble, of a blood-red and livid white colour, which was used by the ancients for ornamental purposes. (Paul. Silent. Ecphr. S. Soph. ii. 213.) Near the town was a sanctuary of Hestias, with a statue of the goddess, which, though standing in the open air, was believed never to be touched by the rain. (Polyb. xvi. 12.) The same story is related, by Strabo, of a temple of Artemis in the tune neighbourhood. Iassus, as a celebrated fishinft place, is alluded to by At henaeus (iii. p. 105, xih. p. 606). The place is still existing, under the name of Astern or Asyn Kalessi. Chandler (7VnteU in As. Mm. p. 226) relates that the island on which the town was built is now united to the main

[graphic][merged small]

land by a small isthmus. Part of the city walls still exist, and are of a regular, solid, and handsome structure. In the side of tne rock a theatre with many rows of seats still remains, and several inscriptions and coins have been found there. (Comp, Spon and Whaler, Voyages, vol. i. p. 361.)

A second town of the name of Iassus existed in Cappadocia or Armenia Minor (Ptol. v. 7. § 6), on the north-east of Zoropassus. [L. S.]

IASTAE ('Iao-rui, Ptol. vi. 12), a Scythian tribe, whose position must be sought for in the neighbourhood of the river Iastns. [E. B. J.]

1ASTUS ("ioo'toi), a river which, according to Ptolemy (vi. 12), was, like the Polytimetus (Kohik), an affluent of the Caspian basin, and should in fact be considered as such in the sense given to a denomination which at that time embraced a vast and com • plicated hydraulic system. [jaxartes.] Von Humboldt (As!,: Centrale, vol. ii. p. 263) has identified it with the Kizil-Deria, the dry bed of which may be traced on the barren wastes of KizU Koum in W. Turkistan. It is no unusual circumstance in the sandy steppes of N. Asia for rivers to change their course, or even entirely to disappear. Thus the KiziUDeria, which was known to geographers till the commencement of this century, no longer exists. (Comp. Levchine, Hordes et Steppes des Kirghiz Kazaks, p. 456.) [E. B. J.]

IASTUS, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (vi. 14. § 2) as falling into the Caspian between the Jaik and the Oxus. It is only safe to call it one of the numerous rivers of Independent Tartary. [R. G. L.]

IASUS. [oeum.]

IA'TII (Tonoi, Ptol. vi. 12. § 4), a people in the northern part of Sogdiana. They are also mentioned by Pliny (vi. 16. s. 18); but nothing certain is known of their real position. [V.]

IATINUM ('IoT-ivor), according to Ptolemy (ii. 8. § 15) the city of the Meldi, a people of Gallia Lugdunensis. It is supposed to be the same place as the Fixtuinum of the Table [fixtuinim], and to be represented by the town of Meaux on the J/arne. Walckenaer, who trusts more to the accuracy of the distances in the Table than we safely can do. says that the place Fixtuinum has not in the Table the usual mark which designates a capital town, and that the measures do not carry the position of Fixtuinum as far as Meaux, but only as far as ilontbout. He conjectures that the word Fixtuinum may be a corruption of F'ines Iatinorum,and accordingly must be a place on the boundary of the little community of the Mcldi. This conjecture might be good, if the name of the people was Iatini, and not Meldi. [G. L.]

JATRIPPA. [latiirippa.]

IATRA or IATRUM ('Iorpdi'), a town in Moesia, situated at the point where the river Iatrus or Iantrus empties itself into the Danube, a few miles to tho east of Ad Novas. (Proeop. de Aed. iv. 7 ; TheophylacL vii. 2 ; Notit. Imp. 29, where it is erroneously called Latra; Geogr. Kav.. iv. 7, where, as in the Peui. Tab^ it bears the name Laton.) [L. S.]

IATRUS (in the Pent. Tab. Iantrus), a river traversing the central part of Moesia. It has its sources in Mount Haemus, and, having in its conrso to the north received the waters of several tributaries, falls into the Danube close by tho town of latra. (Plin. iii. 29, where the common reading is Ieterus; Jornand. Gee. 18; Geogr. Rav. iv. 7.) It is probably the same as the Athrys (*A8pus) mentioned by Herodotus (iv.49). Its modern name is IwUra. [L.S.]

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