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worship of the Cabciri and Herntes, whom the Carians called Imbrasus. (Steph. B. a. v. "I/n^pos.) Both the island and the city of Imbros are mentioned by Homer, who gives to the former the epithet of 7ra17raA0f.j-.n7. (//. xiii. 33,xiT.281, xxiv. 78, Hymn. w Apoll. 36.) The island was annexed to the Persian empire by Otanes, a general of Dareius, at which time it was .still inhabited by Pelasgians. (Herod, v. 26.) It was afterwards colonised by the Athenians, and was no doubt taken by Miltiades along with Lemnos. It was always regarded in later times as an ancient Athenian possession: thus the peace of Antalcidas, which declared the independence of all the Grecian states, nevertheless allowed the Athenians to retain possession of Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros (Xen. Hell. iv. 8. § 15, v. I. § 31); and at the end of the war with Philip the Romans restored to the same people the islands of Lemnos, Imbros, Delos, and Scyros. (Liv. xxxiii. 30.)

The coins of Imbros have the common Athenian emblem, the head of Pallas. Imbros seems to have afforded good anchorage. The Beet of Antiochus first sailed to Imbros. and from thence crossed over to Sciathus. (Liv. xxxv. 43.) The ship which carried Ovid into exile also anchored in the harbour of Imbros, which the poet calls h Ixnbria

[graphic][merged small]

tel l us." (Ov. TruL i. 10, 18.) The island is still called by its ancient name, Embro or /mm

IMEUS MONS, is the name given in the Tabula Peutiugeriana to the mountain pass which leads from the basin of the lake Fucinus to that of the Peligni, and was traversed by the Via Valeria on the way from Alba to Corfinium. This pass, now called the Forca Camuo, must in all ages have been an important line of communication, being a natural saddle-like depression in the ridge which bounds the lake Fucinus on the E., so that the ascent from Colt Armeno (Cerfennia) to the summit of the pass (a distance of 5 miles) presents but little difficulty. The latter is the highest point reached by the line of the Valerian Way in traversing the whole breadth of Italy from one sea to the other, but is elevated only a few hundred feet above the lake Fucinus. The Roman road across this pass was first rendered practicable fur carriages by the emperor Claudius, who continued the Via Valeria from Cerfennia to the mouth of the Aternus. [ckuFennia.] {Tub. Peut; Holsten. Not. ad Cluv. p. 154; Kramer, Fucitter See. pp. 14,60.) [E. H. B.]

IMMADRUS or IMMADKA, a position on the coast of Gallia Narbonensis between Telo (Toulon) and Massilia. The distances along the coast were duubiless accurately measured, but we cannot be certain that they are accurately given in theMSS.; and it Beems that the routes, especially in the parts near the coast, have been sometimes confounded. Immadrus, the next station east of Marseille, is placed by D'Anville, and others who follow him. at the hit

de Maire; but the numbers will not agree. Tha real distance is much less than xii. M. P., which is the distance in the Itin.; and D'Anville, applying his usual remedy, alters it to vii. But Walckenaer well objects to fixing on a little island or rock as the position of Immadrus, and then charging the Itinerary with being wrong. He finds the distance from a little bay west of Cap Morgiou to Marseille to agree with the Itin. measure of 12 M. P. [G. L.]

IMMUNDUS SINUS (andBafnos K6\to$, Strab. xvii. p. 770: Diod. iii. 39; Ptol. iv. 5. § 7; Pliru vi. 29. s. 33), the modern Fotd Bay, in lat. 22° N., derived its appellation from the badness of its anchorage, and the difficulty of navigating vessels among its numerous reefs and breakers. In its furthest western recess lay the city of Berenice, founded, or rather enlarged, by Ptolemy.Philadelphus, and so named by him in honour of his mother, the widow of Ptolemy Soter; and opposite its mouth was the island Ophiodes, famous alike for the reptiles which infested it, and its quarries of topaz. The latter was much employed by Aegyptian artisans for ornamenting rings, scarabaei, &c, &c. [brkbMick.] [W. B. D.]

IMUS PYRENAEUS, a station in Aquitania, at the northern base of the Pyrenees, on the road from Aquae Tarbellicae (Dax) to Pompelon (Pamplona) in Spain. Imus Pyrenaeus is between Carasa (Garit) and the Sumnius Pyrenaeus. The Summus Pyrenaeus is the Sommet de Castel-Pinon; and the Imus Pyrenaeus is St. Jean-Pied de-Port, "at the foot of the pass." The distance in the Itin. between Suminus Pyrenaeus and Imus Pyrenaeus is v., ♦ which D'Anville would alter to x., to fit the real distance. Walckenaer takes the measure to be Gallic leagues, and therefore the v. will be equivalent to 7J M. P. [G. L.]

INA flra, Ptol.: Eth. Inensis), a town of Sicily, the position of which is wholly unknown, except that Ptolemy reckons it among the inland towns in the south of the island. (Ptol. iii. 4. § 15.) That author is the only one of the geographers that mentions it, and the name has been thought corrupt; but it is supported by the best MSS. of Ptolemy, and the reading "Iuenses" is equally well supported in Cicero (Verr. iii. 43), where the old editions had "Eunenses." (Zumpt, ad foe.) The orator appears to rank them among the minor communities of tha island which had been utterly ruined by the exactions ofVerres. [E. H. 3 ]

INACHO'RIUM ('Ivax<ipiw, Ptol. iii. 17. § 2), a city of Crete, which, from the similarity of sound, Mr. Pashley (7'rav. vol. ii. p. 78) is inclined to believe was situated in the modern district of Ennedkhorid, on the W. coast of Crete. (Hock, AVeto, vol. i. p. 379.) [E. B. J.]

I'N AC HUS ( "Iraxot). 1. A river of the Argeia. [argos, p. 200, b.]

2. A river in the territory of Argos Amphilochicum. [argos Ampiuloch., p. 208, b.]

INAK1ME. [aknahia.]

I'NATUS ("itotos, Ptol. iii. 17. § 2), a city of Crete, the same, no doubt, as Einatus ("Envaroy, Steph. B.; Hesych. Etym. Mayn. s. r.), situated on a mountain and river of the same name. The Peutinger Table puts a place called Inata on a river 24 M. P. E. of Lisia, and 32 M. P. W. of Hierapytna. These distances agree well with the three or four hamlets known by the name Kasteliandy derived from the Venetian fortress. Castle Belvedere, situated on a hill a little to the N. of the villages. The goddess Eileithyia is said to have been worshipped here, and to have obtained one of her epithets from it. (Callim, Fr. 168; Pashley, Trav. vol.i. p. 289; Hock, Kreta, vol. L p. 412.) [E. B. J.]

1NCARUS, on the coast of Gallia Narbonensis, is placed by the Itin. next to Massilia. It is west of Massilia, and the distance is 12 M. P. The place is Carry, which retains its name. The distance of the Itin. was probably estimated by a boat rowing along the coast; and a good map is necessary to show how far it is correct. [G. L.]

INCRICNES ('lyKplwcs), a tribe of the Sigambri, mentioned only by Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 9). They apparently occupied the southernmost part of the territory inhabited by the Sigambri. Some believe them to be the same as the Juhones of Tacitus (Arm* xiii. 57), in whose territory an extensive conflagration of the soil occurred in A. D. 59. Some place them near the mouth of the river Lahn and the little town of Engers; while others, with less probability, regard Ingcrsheim, on the Neckar, as the place once inhabited by the Incriones, [L. S.]

INDAPRATHAE ('IvSairpafcu, Ptol. viii. 2. § 18, a name, doubtless, connected with the Sanscrit Indra-prastha), a people occupying nearly the same position as the Ib Eking Ak. [V.]

INDIA (ij Ifko, Polyaen. iv. 3. § 30; Plin. vi. 17. s. 20; Tj 'lvdwv yjj, Arrian, Anab. v. 4; y 'IvSitr^, Strab. xi. p. 514: Eth. 'IvSos), a country of great extent in the southern part of Asia, bounded on the north by the great chaiu of the Himalaya mountains, which extend, under variously modified names, from the Brahmaputra river on the E. to the Indus on the W., and which were known in ancient times under the names Emodus and Imaus. [emodi Montes.] These mountains separated the plain country of India to the S. of them from the steppes of TAtary on the N., and formed the water-shed of most of the great rivers with which India is so plentifully supplied. On the E. the Brahmaputra, which separates it from Ava and Bnrmaht is its principal boundary; though, if the definition of India be adopted which was in rogue among the later classical geographers, those countries as far as the commencement of the Chinese empire on the S. must be comprehended within the limits of India. On the S. it is bounded by the Bay vf Bengal and the Indian Ocean, and on the W. by the Indus, which separates it from Gedrosia, Arachosia, and the land of the Paropamisadae. Some writers, indeed (as Lassen. Pentap. Indie. Bonn, 1827), have considered the districts along the southern spurs of the Paropamisus (or HindC-KwK) as part of India; but the passage of Pliny on which Lassen relies would make India comprehend the whole of A fghdnistan to Baluchistan on the Indian Ocean; a position which can hardly be maintained as the deliberate opinion of any ancient author.

It may, indeed, be doubted whether the Indians themselves ever laid down any accurate boundary of their country westward (Laws o/Manu, ii. v. 22, quoted by Lassen, Pentap. Indie, p. 8); though the Sarasvdti (Hydraotes) separated their sacred land from Western India. Generally, however, the Indus was held to be their western boundary, as is clear from Strabo's words (xv. p. 689), and may be inferred from Pliny's description (vi. 20. s. 23).

It is necessary, before we proceed to give the principal divisions, mountain ranges, rivers, and cities of India, to trace very briefly, through the remains of classical literature, the gradual progress of the know

ledge which the ancient world possessed of this country; a land which, from first to last, seems to have been to them a constant source of wonder and admiration, and therefore not unnaturally the then e of many strange and fabulous relations, which even their most critical writers have not failed to record.

Though the Greeks were not acquainted with India in the heroic ages, and though the name itself does not occur in their earliest writers, it seems not unlikely that they had some faint idea of a distant land in the far East which was very populous and fruitful. The occurrence of the names of objects of Indian merchandise, such as Kaoffirtpos, dKtipas, and others, would seem to show this. The same thing would seem to be obscurely hinted at in the two Aethiopias mentioned by Homer, the one towards the setting, and the other in the direction of the rising sun (/>/. i. 23, 24); and a similar inference may probably be drawn from some of the early notices of these Aethiopians, whose separate histories are perpetually confounded together, many things being predicated of the African nation which could be only true of an Indian people, and vice versa. That there were a people whom the Greeks called Aethiopes in the neighbourhood of, if not within the actual boundaries of India, is clear from Herodotus (vii. 70), who states in another place that all the Indians (except the Daradae) resembled the Aethiopians in the dark colour of their skins (iii. 101); while abundant instances may be observed of the intermixture of the accounts of the African and Indian Aethiopians, as, for example, in Ctesias (Indie. 7, ed. Bahr. p. 354), Pliny (viii. 30. 3), who quotes Ctesias, JSeylax, in his description of India (ap. Philostrat. Vit. Apoll. iii. 14), Tzetzes (Chil. vii. 144), Aelian (H. An. xvi. 31), Agatharchides (de Rubro Mart, p. 44, ed. Huds.), Pollux (Onomast. v. 5), and many other writers. Just in the same way a confusion may be noticed in the accounts of Libya, as in Herodotus (iv. 168—199; cf. Ctesias, Indie. 13), where lie intermixes Indian and African tales. Even so lute as Alexander's invasion, we know that the same confusion prevailed, Alexander himself believing that he would find the sources of the Nile in India. (Strab. xv. p. 696; Arrian, Exp. Alex. vi. 1.)

It is not remarkable that the Greeks should have had but little knowledge of India or its inhabitants till a comparatively late period of their history, and that neither Homer nor Pindar, nor the great Greek dramatists Sophocles and Euripides, should mention by its name either India or any of its people. It is probable that, at this early period, neither commerce nor any other cause had led the Greeks beyond the shores of Syria eastward, and that it was not till the Persian wars that the existence of vast and p-pulous regions to the E. of Persia itself became distinctly known to them. Some individual names may have readied the ears of those who inquired; perhaps some individual travellers may have heard of these far distant realms; such, for instance, as the physician Democedes, when residing at the court of Dareius, the son of Hystaspes (Herod, iii. 127), and Democritus of Abdera (u. c. 460—400), who is said by several authors to have travelled to Egypt. Persia, Aethiopia, and India (Diog. Laert. ix. 72; Strab. xvi. p. 703; Clem. Strom, i. p. 304; Suidas, s. v.). Yet little was probably known beyond a few names.

Thefiist historian who speaks clearly on the subject is Hecataeus of Miletus (b.c. 549—486). In the few fragments which remain of his writings, and which have been carefully collected by Kluusen (BcrL 1831), the Tndi and the Indus (Fragm. 174 and 178), the Argante{Fra«T». 176), the people of Opia on the banks of the Indus (Fragm. 175), the Calatiae, (Fragm. 177; Herod, iii. 38 ; or Calantiae, Herod, in. 97), Gandara and the Gandarii (Fragm. 178) and their city Caspapyrus (Fragm. 179; Caspatyrus, Herod, iii. 102, ir. 44), are mentioned, in company with other Eastern places. Further, it appears, from the testimony of Herodotus, that Scylax of Caryanda, who was sent by Dareius, navigated the Indus to Caspatyrus in Party ice, and thence along the Erythraean sea by the Arabian gulf to the coast of Egypt (iv. 44); in the course of which voyage he must have seen something of India, of which he is said to have recorded several marvels (cf. Aristot. PoliL vii. 14; Philostr. Vit. ApolL Tyan. iii. 14; Tzetz. ChiL vii. 144); though Klausen has shown satisfactorily, in his edition of the fragments which remain, that the Periplus usually ascribed to this Scylax is at least as late as the time of Philip of Macedon.

The notices preserved in Herodotus and the remains of Ctesias are somewhat fuller, both having had opportunities, the one as a great traveller, the other as a resident for many years at the court of Artaxerxes, which no previous writers had had. The knowledge of Herodotus (b. C. 484—408) is, however, limited to the account of the satrapies of Dareius; the twentieth of which, he states, comprehended that part of India which was tributary to the Persians (iii. 94), the country of the most Eastern people with whom he was acquainted (iii. 95—102). To the S. of them, along the Indian Ocean, were, according to his view, the Asiatic \cthiopians (iii. 94); beyond them, desert. He adds thtei the Indians were the greatest and wealthiest people known; he speaks of the Indus (on whose banks, as well as on those of the Nile, crocodiles were to be seen) as flowing through their land (iv. 44), and mentions by name Caspatyrus (a town of Pactyice), the nomadic Padai (iii. 99), and the Calatiae (iii. 38) or Calantiae (iii. 97). He places al-o in the seventh satrapy the Gandarii (iii. 91) [gandarak], a race who, under the name of Gand/taras, are known as a genuine Sanscritspeaking tribe, and who may therefore be considered as connected with India, though their principal seat seems to have been on the W. side of the Indus, probably in the neighbourhood of the present Candahar.

Ctesias (about B. C 400) wrote twenty-three books of Persica, and one of Indica, with other works on Asiatic subjects. These are all lost, except some fragments preserved by Photius. In his Persica he mentions some places in Bactria (Fragm, 5, ed. Bahr) and Cyrtaea, on the Erythraean sea (Fragm. 40); and in his Indica he gives an account of the Indus, of the manners and customs of the natives of India, and of its productions, some of which bear the stamp of a too credulous mind, but are not altogether uninteresting or valueless.

On the advance of Alexander through Bactriana to the banks of the Indus, a new light was thrown on the geography of India; and the Greeks, for the first time, acquired with tolerable accuracy some knowledge of the chief features of this remarkable country. A number of writers—some of them oflicers of Alexander's army—devoted themselves to a description of different parts of his route, or to an account of the events which took place during his progress from Babylon to the Hypnosis; and to

the separate narratives of Beton and Diognetus, Nearchus, Ouesicritus, Aristobulus, and Call isthenes, condensed and extracted by Strabo, Pliny, and A man, we owe most of oar knowledge of India as it appeared to the ancients. None of the original works of these writers have been preserved, but the voyage of Nearchus (the most important of them, though the places in India he names are few in number) has been apparently given by Arrian (in his Indica) with considerable minuteness. Nearchus seems to have kept a day-book, in which he entered the distances between each place. He notices Pattala, on the Indus (from which he started), and Coreatis (perhaps the present Kurdchi). Pliny, who calls this voyage that of Nearchus and Ouesicritus, adds some few places, not noticed by Arrian (vi. 23. s. 26). Ouesicritus himself considered the land of the Indians to be one-third of the whole inhabited world (Strab. xv. p. 691), and was the first writer who noticed Taprobane (Ceylon). (Ibid, p. 691.) Both writers appear, from Strabo, to have left interesting memorials of the manners and customs of the natives (Strab. xi. p. 517, xv. p. 726) and of the natural history of the country. (Strab. xv. pp. 693, 705, 716, 717; Aelian. Hist. An. xvi. 39, xvii. 6; Plin. vi. 22. s. 24, vii. 2. s. 2; Tzete. ChiL iii. 13.) Aristobulus is so frequently quoted by Arrian and Strabo, that it is not improbable that he may have written a distinct work on India: he is mentioned as noticing the swelling and floods of the rivers of the Punjab, owing to the melting of the snow and the rain (Strab. xv. p. 691), the mouths of t he Indus (p. 701), the Bi achmanes at Taxi la (p. 714), the trees of Hyrcauia and India (xi. p. 509), the rice and the mode of its tillage (xv. p. 692), and the fish of the Nile and Indus, respectively (xv. p. 707, xvii. p. 804).

Subsequently to these writers,—probably all in the earlier part of the third century B. C, — were some others, as Megasthenes, Daimachus, Patrocles and Timosthenes, who contributed considerably to the increasing stock of knowledge relative to India. Of these, the most valuable additions were those acquired by Megasthenes and Daimachus, who were respec tively ambassadors from Seleuoos to the Courts of Sandrocottus (Chandragupta) and his successor AUitrocbades (Strab. ii. p. 70, xv. p. 702; Plin. vi. 17. s.21), or, as it probably ought to be written, Amitrochades. Megasthenes wrote a work often quoted by subsequent writers, which he called rck *I»>8if«f (Athen. iv. p. 153; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. p. 132; Joseph, c. Apitm. i. 20, Anlig. x. 11. § 1), in which he probably embodied the results of his observations. From the fragments which remain, and which have been carefully collected by Sehwanbeck (Megasthenis Indica, Bonn, 1846), it appears that he was the first to give a tolerably accurate account of the breadth of India. — making it about 16.000 stadia (Arrian, iii. 7, 8; Strab. i. p. 68, xv. p. 689),—to mention the Ganges by name, and to state that it was larger than the Indus (Arrian, v. 6, 10, Indie. 4, 13), and to give, besides this, some notice of no less than fifteen tributaries of the Indus, and nineteen of the Ganges, He remarked that India contained 118 nations, and so many cities that they could not be numbered (Arrian, Indie. 7, 10); and observed (the first among the Greeks) the existence of castes among the people (Strab. xv. p. 703; Arrian, hul 11, 12; Diod. ii. 40, 41; Solin. c. 52), with some peculiarities of the Indian religious system, and of the Brachuiaues (or Brak* ■tons). (Strab. xv. pp. 711—714; Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 131.) Again Daimachus, who lived for a lung time at Palibothra (Strab. ii. p. 70), wrote a work upon India, which, though according to Strabo full of fables, most also have contained much valuable information. Patrocles, whom Strabo evidently deemed a writer of veracity (Strab. ii. p. 70), as the admiral of Seleucus, suited upon the Indian Ocean, and left an account, in which he stated his belief that India was the same breadth that Megasthenes had maintained (Strab. ii. p. 69. xv. p. 689); but also that it could be circumnavigated— an erroneous view, which seems to have arisen from the idea, that the Caspian Sea and the Northern Ocean were connected. (Strab. ii. p. 74, xi. p. 518.)

With the establishment of the mathematical schools at Alexandria, commenced a new aera in Grecian geography; the first systematic arrangement of the divisions of the earth's surface being made by Eratosthenes (b.c. 276—161), who drew a series of parallels of latitude—at unequal distances, however —through a number of places remotely distant from one another. According to his plan, his most southern parallel was extended through Taprobane and the Cinnamon coast (theSE. end of the Arabian Gulf); his second parallel (at an interval of 8400 stadia) passed though the S. coast of India, the mouths of the Indus and Meroe; his third (at an interval of 5000 stadia) passed through Palibothra and Syene; his fourth (at a similar interval) connected the Upper Ganges, Indus, and Alexandria; his fifth (at an interval of 3750 stadia) pas-ed through Thina (the capital of the Seres), the whole chain of the Emodus, Imaus, Paropamisus, and the island of Rhodes. (Strab. i. p. 68, ii. pp. 113—132.) At the same time he drew seven parallels of longitude (or meridians), the first of which passed tii rough the E. coast of China, the second through the mouths of the Ganges, and the third through those of the Indus. His great geographical error was that the intersection of his meridians and latitudes formed right angles. (Strab. ii. pp. 79, 80, 92, 93.) The shape of the inhabited portion of the globe he compared to a Macedonian Chlamya extended. (Strab. ii. p. 118, xi. p. 519; Maciob. Somn. Scip. ii. 9.) The breadth of India between the Ganges and Indus he made to be 16,000 stadia. Tajtrobane, like his predecessors, be held to be 5000 stadia long.

Hipparchus (about B.C. 150), the father of Greek astronomy, followed Patrocles, Daimachus, and Megasthenes, in his view of the shupe of India; making it, however, not so wide at the S. as Eratosthenes had made it (Strab. ii. pp. 77,81), but much wider towards the N., even to the extent of from 20,000 to 30,000 stadia (Strab. ii. p. 68). Taprobane he held not to be an island, but the commencement of another continent, which extended onward to the S. and W.,—following, probably, the idea which had prevailed since the time of Aristotle, that Africa and SE. India were connected on the other side of the Indian Ocean. (Mela, iii. 7. § 7; l'lin. vi. 22. s. 24.) Artemidurus (about B c. 100) states that the Ganges rises in the Montes Emodi, flows S. till it arrives at Gange, and then E. by palibothra to its mouths (Strab. xv. p. 719): Taprobane he considered to be about 7000 stadia kaig and 500 broad (Steph. B.). The whole breadth of India, from the Ganges to the Indus, he made to be 16,000 stadia. (Plin. vi. 19. s. 22.)

The greater part of all that was known up to his

time was finally reduced into a consistent shape by Strabo (b. C. 66—A. D. 36). His view of India was not materially different from that which had been the received opinion since Eratosthenes. He held that it was the greatest and most Eastern land in the world, and the Ganges its greatest stream (ii. p. 130, xv. pp. 690, 719); that it stretched S. as far as the parallel of Meroe, but not so far N. as Hipparchus thought (ii. pp. 71, 72,75); that it was in shape like a lozenge, the S. and E. being the longest sides. Its greatest breadth was 16,000 stadia on the E., its least 13,000 on the W.; its greatest length on the S., 19,000 stadia. Below the S. coast he placed Taprobane. which was, in his opinion, not less than Great Britain (ii. p. 130, xv. p. 690). Pliny the Elder and Pomponius Mi-la, who were contemporaries, added somewhat to the geographical knowledge previously acquired, by incorporating into their works the results of different expeditions sent out during the earlier emperors. Thus, Pliny follows Agrippa in making India 3300 M. P. long, and 2300 M P. broad, though he himself suggests a different and shortei distance (vi. 17. s. 21); while, after Seneca, he reckoned that it contained 118 peoples and 60 rivers. The Emodus, Imaus, Paropamisus, and Caucasus, he connected in one continued chain from E. to W., stating that S. of these great mountains, the land was, like Egypt, one vast plain (vi. 18. 8. 22), comprehending many wastes and much fruitful land (vi. 20. s. 23). For a fuller notice of Taprobane than had been given by previous writers, he was indebted to the ambassadors of the emperor Claudius, from whom ne learnt that it had towards India a length of 10,000 stadia, and 500 towns,—one, the capital, Palaesimundum, of vast size. The sea between it and the continent is, he says, very shallow, and the distance from the nearest point a journey of four days (vi. 22. s. 24). The measurements of the. distances round the coast of India he gives with some minuteness, and in some instances with less exaggeration than bis predecessors.

With Marinas of Tyre and Claudius Ptolemaeus, in the middle of the second century, the classical knowledge of geography may be said to terminate. The latter, especially, has, in this branch of knowledge, exercised an influence similar to that of Aristotle in the domain of the moral and physical sciences. Both writers took a more comprehensive view of India than had been taken before, owin^ in some degree to the journey of a Macedonian trader named Titianus, whose travels extended along the Taurus to the capital of China (Ptol. L 11. § 7), and to the voyage cf a sailor named Alexander, who found his way across the Indian Ocean to Cattigara (Ptol. i. 14. § 1), which Ptolemy places in lat. 8° 3ff S., and between 170° and 180° E. long. Hence, his idea that the Indian Ocean was a vast central sea, with land to the S. Taprobane he held to be four times as big as it really is (vii. 4), and the largest island in the world; and he mentions a cluster of islands to the NE. and S. (in all probability, those now known as the Maldives nndLaccadiveiy In the most eastern part of India, beyond the Gulf of Bengal, which be terms the Golden Chersonesus, he speaks of Iabadius and Mamiolae; the first of which is probably that now known as Java, while the name of the second has been most likely preserved in Manilla. The main divisions of India into India intra Gangem and I India extra Gangem, have been adopted by the majority of subsequent geographers, from Ptolemy. Subsequent to this date, there are few works which fall within the range of classical geography, or which have added any information of real value on the subject of India; while most of them have borrowed from Ptolemy, whose comprehensive work was soon a text-book in the hands of learned men. From Agatliemerus (at the end of the second century) and Dionysius Periegetes (towards the end of the third century) some few particulars may be gleaned: — as for instance, from the latter, the establishment of the Indo-Scythi along the banks of the Indus, in Scinde and Guzerat; and, from a work known by the name of Periplus Maris Erythraei (the date of which, though late, is not certainly determined), some interesting notices of the shores of the Indian Ocean. Festus Avienus, whose paraphrase of Dionysius Periegetes supplies some lacunae in other parts of his work, adds nothiug of interest to his metrical account of Indian Geography.

Such may serve as a concise outline of the progress of knowledge in ancient times relative to India. Before, however, we proceed to describe the country itself under the various heads of mountains, rivers, provinces, and cities, it will be well to say a few words on the origin of the name India, with some notice of the subdivisions which were in use among the earlier geographers, but which we have not thought it convenient in this place to perpetuate.

The names Indus, India, are no doubt derived from the Sanscrit appellation of the river, Sindhu, which, iu the plural form, means also the people who dwelt along its banks. The adjoining countries have adopted this name, with slight modifications: thus, Ihndu is the form in the Zend or old Persian, Hoddu in the Hebrew (Esther, i. 1, viii. 9). The Greek language softened down the word by omitting the A, hence 'IvSos, "IySm; though in some instances the native name was preserved almost unchanged, as in the 2iv&ot of the Periplus Maris Erythraei. Pliny bears testimony to the native form, when he says, "Indus incolis Sindus appellatus" (vi. 20. s. 23).

The great divisions of India which have been usually adopted are those of Ptolemy (vii. 1. § 1), into,—(I) India intra Gangem, a vast district, which was bounded, according to that geographer, on the W. by the Paropamisaclae, Arachosia, and Gedrosia; on the N. by the Imaus, in the direction of the Sogdiani and Sacae; on the E. by the Ganges, and on the S. by a part of the Indian Ocean: and (2) India extra Gangem (1'tol. vii. 2. § 1), which was bounded on the W. by the Ganges; on the N. by Scythia and Serica; on the E. by the Sinae, and by a line extended from their country to the Me7<iAos Koxtos (Gulf of Siam); and on the S. by the Indian Ocean, and a line drawn from the island of Menutbias (Ptol. vii. 2. § I), whence it appears that Ptolemy considered that the Ganges flowed nearly due N. and S. We have considered that this division is too arbitrary to be adopted here; we merely state it as the one proposed by Ptolemy and long current among geographers. The later ecclesiastical writers made use of other terms, as f) Morepu "Ivfaa, in which they included even Arabia (Socrat. H. E. i. 19; Theod. i. 23; Theoph. i. 35), and >) Iox&tv 'lrSm (Sozomen, ii. 23).

The principal mountains of India (considered as a whole) were: — the eastern portion of the Paropamisus (cir Hindu-Kush), the Imaus (Haimava), and the Emodus (now known by the generic name of the Himalaya.) To the extreme E. were the Montes

Semanthini, the boundary of the land of the Sinae the Montes Damassi, and the Bepyrrhus M. (probably the present Naraha M.). An extension of the M. Damassi is the Maeandrns M. (now Afuin-JUura). In India intra Gangem Ptolemy mentions many mountains, the names of which can with difficulty be supplied with their modern representatives: as the Orudii M., in the S. extremity of the land between the Tyndis and the Chaberus; the Uxentus M., to the N. of them; the Adisathrus M.; the Bittigo M. (probably the range now known as the Ghats), and the M. Vindius (unquestionably the present Vindhya), which extend NE. and SW. along the N. bank of the Nerbudda; M. Sardonix (probably the present Sautpura); and M. Apocopa (perhaps the present Aravelli).

The principal promontories in India are:—in the extreme E., Promontorium Magnum, the western side of the Sinus Magnus; Malaei Colon, on the S. coast of the golden peninsula; Promontorium Aureae Chersonesi, the southern termination of the Sinus Sabaracns, on the western side of the Chersonesus; Cory or Calligicum, between the S. Argaricus and the S. Colchicus, near the SW. end of the peninsula of Hindustan; Comaria(now C. Comorin), the most southern point of Bindostdn; Calae Carias (or Callicaris), between the towns Anamagara and Muziris; Simylla (or Semylla, the southern end of the S. Barygazenus, perhaps the present C. St. John), and Maleum.

In the same direction from E. to W. are the following gulfs and bays:—theSinui>Magnus(nowGt«£r" of Siam); S. Perimnlicus, and Sabaricus, on the K. and W. aide of the Chersonesus Aurea; S. Gangeticus (Bay of Bengal), S. Argaricus, opposite the N. end of Taprobane (probably Polks Bay); S. Colchicus (Bay of Manaar); S. Barygazenus (Gulf of Cambay), and S. Canthi (most likely the Gulf of Cutck).

The rivers of India are very numerous, and many of them of great size. The most important (from E. to W.) are the Dorias (Solvent) and Doanas (the Irrawaddy), the Chrysoana, Besynga, the Tocosanna (probably the present Arrakan), and the Catabeda (now Curmsul); the Ganges, with many tributaries, themselves large rivers. [ganges.] Along the W. side of the Bay of Bengal are the Adamas (Brahmini), Dosaron (Mahanddl), Maesolus (Goddvdri), Tyndis (Kistna), and the Chaberis or Chaberus (the Cdveti). Along the shores of the Indian Ocean are the Nanaguna (Tarty), the Namadus (Narmadd or Nerbudda), and lastly the Indus, with its several tributaries. [indus.]

The towns in India known to the ancients were very numerous; yet it is remarkable that but few details have been given concerning them in the different authors of whose works fragments still remain. Generally, these writers seem to have been content with a simple list of the names, adding, in some instances, that such a place was an important mart for commerce. The probability is, that, even so late as Ptolemy, few cities had reached suf ficient importance to command the productions of an extensive surrounding country; and that, in fact, with one or two exceptions, the towns which he and others enumerate were little more than the head places of small districts, and in no sense capitals of great empires, such as Ghazna, Delhi, and Calcutta have become in later periods of Indian history. Beginning from the extreme E., the principal stares and towns mentioued in the ancient write: s are: Peritnula,

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