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the opinion of Eratosthenes (Strab. i. p. 64). The Indian Ocean contains at its eastern end three principal gulfs, which are noticed in ancient authors, — the Sinus Pekimulicus (Ptol. vii. 2. § 5), in the Chersonesus Anna (probably now the Straits of Malacca); the Sinus Sabaracus (Ptol. vii. 2. § 4), now the Gulf of Martaban; and the Sinus GanOETicus, or Bay of Bengal. [V.]

INDIGETES, or INDI'GETAE, ('I»SiKi)T<u, Strab.; 'EvSrylrai, Ptol.), a people of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the extreme NE. corner of the peninsula, around the gulf of Rhoda and Emporiae {Gulf of Ampurias), as far as the Trophies of Pompey (to nofirntou TOoVoia, avaBri/MTa rov nofimjtov'), on the summit of the pass over the Pyrenees, which formed the boundary of Gaul and Spain (Strab. iii. p. 160, iv. p. 178). [pomPeii Tropaea.] They were divided into four tribes. Their chief cities, besides Empokiae and Rhoda, were: Juncaria ('lovyyapla, Ptol. ii. 6. § 73 ■ Jtmquera, or, as some suppose, Figueras'), 16 M P. south of the summit of the Pyrenees (Summum Pyrenaeum, /rm.), on the high road to Tarraco {Itin.Ant pp.390, 397); Cinniana (Ceroid), 15 M. P. further S. {Ib.; Tab. Peat.); and Deciana, near Jtmquera (Ptol. ii. 6. § 73). On the promontory formed by the E. extremity of the Pyrenees (C.Crew), was a temple of Venus, with a small seaport on the N. side ('AippoSuriat, Steph. B.; To 'AppoSiaiov itpsV, Ptol. ii. 6. § 20; Pyrenaea Venus, Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Portus Veneris, Mela, ii. 6. § 5; Portus Pyrenaci, Liv. xxxiv. 8 : Porte Vendres), which some made the boundary of Gaul and Spain, instead of the Trophies of Pompey. Ptolemy names two small rivers as falling into the gulf of Emporiae, the Clodianus (KA«Siap<i;: Fluvia) and the SamBrocas (Sa/xgpd/cci fofioAal): Pliny names the Ticms, which is the small river flowing past Rosas. The district round the gulf of Emporiae was called Juncarius Campus (to 'loiryyiptov TeSlov), from the abundance of rushes which grew upon its marshy soil. (Strab. iii. pp. 156, 163; Steph. B. I. v. T>Ji(rijTai; Eustath. ad II. i. p. 191; Avien. Or. Mar. 523: Ukert, vol. ii. pt, 1. pp. 315, &c.) [P. S.]

INDOSCY'THIA ('Ivtoaitveia: JSth. VSoO-ki'0tjs), a district of wide extent along the Indus, which probably comprehended the whole tract watered by the Lower Indus, Cutch, Guzerat, and Saurashtran. It derived its name from the Scythian tribes, who gradually pressed onwards to the south and the sea-coast after they had overthrown the Graeco-Bactrian empire, about A. D. 136. It is first mentioned in the Periplus M. E. (p. 22) as occupying the banks of the Indus; while in Ptolemy is a fuller description, with the names of some of its principal subdivisions, as Pattaiene, Abiria, and Syrastrene (Saurashtrari), with an extensive list of towns which belonged to it (vii. 1. §§ 55—61). Some of them, as Binagara (properly Minnagara), have been recognised as partially Scythic in form. (Lassen, Pentap. p. 56; cf. Isidor. Char. p. 9.) In Dionysius Periegetes (v. 1088) the same people are described as virioi 'iKvScu. As late as the middle of the sixth century A.D., Cosmas Indicopleustes speaks of White Huns, or Mongolians, as the inhabitants of the Panjdb (ii. p. 338). These may be considered as the remains of the same Scythic empire, the predecessors of the hordes who subsequently poured down from the north under Jinghfz Khan. (Bitter, Erdkunde, vol. i. p. 558.) [V.]

INDUS (4 'IrSis), one of the principal rivers of

Asia, and the boundary westward of India. It is mentioned first in ancient authors by Hecataeus of Miletus (Fragm, 144, ed. Klausen), and subsequently by Herodotus (iv. 44), who, however, only notices it in connection with various tribes who, he states, lived upon its banks. As in the case of India itself, so in that of the Indus, the first real description which the ancients obtained of this river was from the historians of Alexander the Great's marches. Arrian states that its sources were in the lower spurs of the Paropamisus, or Indian Caucasus (Hindu-Kush); wherein he agrees with Mela (iii. 7. § 6), Strabo (xv. p. 690), Curtius (viii. 9. § 3), and other writers. It was, in Arrian's opinion, a vast stream, even from its first sources, the largest river in the world except the Ganges, and the recipient of many tributaries, themselves larger than any other known stream. It has been conjectured, from the descriptions of the Indus which Arnan has preserved that the writers from whom he has condensed his narrative must have seen it at the time when its waters were at their highest, in August and September. Quoting from Ctesias (v. 4,11), and with the authority of the other writers (v. 20), Arrian gives 40 stadia for the mean breadth of the river, and 15 stadia where it was most contracted; below the confluence of the principal tributaries he considers its breadth may be 100 stadia, and even more than this when much flooded (vi. 14). Pliny, on the other hand, considers that it is nowhere more than 50 stadia broad (vi. 20. s. 23); which is clearly the same opinion as that of Strabo, who states, that though those who had not measured the breadth put it down at 100 stadia, those, on the other hand, who had, measured it, asserted that 50 stadia was its greatest, and 7 stadia its least breadth (xv. p. 700). Its depth, according to Pliny (i. c), was nowhere less than 15 fathoms. According to Diodorus, it was the greatest river in the world after the Nile (ii. 35). Curtius states that its waters were cold, and of the colour of the sea (viii. 9. § 4). Its current is held by some to have been slow (as by Mela, iii. 7. § 6); by others, rapid (as by Eustath. in Dionys. Perieg. v. 1088). Its course towards the sea, after leaving the mountains, was nearly SW. (Plin. vi. 20. s. 23); on its way it received, according to Strabo (xv. p. 700) and Arrian (v. 6), 15, according to Pliny, 19 other tributary rivers (t c). About 2000 stadia from the Indian Ocean, it was divided into two principal arms (Strab. xv. p. 701), forming thereby a Delta, like that of the Nile, though not so large, called Pattaiene, from its chief town Pattala (which Arrian asserts meant, in the Indian tongue, Delta (v. 4); though this statement may be questioned). (Cf! also Arrian, Ind. 2; Dionys. Perieg. v. 10S8.) The flat land at the mouths of rivers which flow from high mountain-ranges with a rapid stream, is ever changing: hence, probably, the different ac. counts which we receive of the mouths of the Indus from those who recorded the history of Alexander, and from the works of later geographers. The former (as We have stated), with Strabo, gave the Indus only two principal outlets into the Indian Ocean, — at a distance, the one from the other, according to Aristobnlus (op. Strab. xv. p. 690), of 1000 stadia, but, according to Nearchus (/. c), of 1800 stadia. The latter mention more than two mouths: Mela (iii. 7. § 6) speaking of "plura OBtia," and Ptolemy giving the names of seven (vii. 1. § 28), in which he is confirmed by the author ol the Periplus Maris Erythraei (p. 22). The names of these mouths, in a direction from W. to E., are: — 1. 2iya*a arSfia (tlie Pitti or Lohari), not improbably in the arm of the stream by which Alexander's fleet gained the Indian Ocean; 2. 3tyttn> <tt6uu (the Jtikala); 3. Xpwovv <rr6ua (the Uagamari or Kukavari), whereby merchandise and goods ascended to Tatta; 4. Xipifov <rr6ua (the Alalaf); 5. 2airapa; 6. Z&SaAa or SoftUotra (the Pinyari or &>); 7. AwiSapn (probably Lonivdri, the /Mrana, Darya or Kori). For the conjectural identifications of these mouths, most of which are now closed, except in high floods, see La^en's Map of Ancient India. The principal streams which flowed into the Indus an:—on the right or western bank of the river, the Choaspes, called by Arrian the Guraeus, and by Ptolemy the Suastus (the Attok); and the Cophen (Cdbul river), with its own smaller tributary the Choes (the Kow); and, on the left or eastern bank, the greater rivers, — which give its name to the Panjdb (or the country of the Five Rivers),—the Acesines (CAawft), the Hydaspes or Bidaspes (Jebim), the Hydraotes (Ravi); and the Hypanis or Hyphasis (the Sulledge). [See these rivers under their respective names.] As in the case of the Ganges, so in that of the Indus, it has been left to modem researches to determine accurately the real sources of the river: it is now well known that the Indus rises at a considerable distance on the NE. side of the Himalaya, in what was considered by the Hindus their most sacred land, and which was also the district in which, on opposite sides of the mountains, the Brahmaputra, the Ganges, and the Jumna, have their several sources. From its source, the Indus flows NW. to Isharda, and thence W. and SW., till it bursts through the mountain barriers, and descends into the plain of the Panjdb, passing along the western edge of Cashmlr. (Ritter, Erdhmde, vol. v. p. 216; Moorcroft, Travels in Ladalch and Cashmir, 1841.) The native name Simlku has been preserved with remarkable accuracy, both in the Greek writers and in modern times. Thus, in the Periplus, we find 2u>06s (p. 23); in Ptolemy, TivBm) (vit 1. § 2), from which, by the softening of the Ionic pronunciation, the Greeks obtained their form "lv$os. (Cf. Plin. vi. 20; Cosmas, Indie, p. 337.) The present name is Sind or Sindliu. (Ritter, vol. v. pp. 29, 171.) [V.]

INDUS, a river of the south-east of Caria, near the town of Cibyra. On its banks was situated, according to Livy (xxxviii. 14), the fort of Thabusion. Pliny (v. 29) states that sixty other rivers, and upwards of a hundred mountain torrents, emptied themselves into it This river, which is said to have received its name from some Indian who had been thrown into it from an elephant, is probably no other than the river Calbia (KdASu, Strab. xiv. p. 651; Ptol. v. 2. § 11; Pomp. Mela, i. 16), at present called Qninffi, or Tavas, which has its sources on Mount Cadmus, above Cibyra, and passing through Caria empties itself into the sea near Caunus, opposite to the island of Rhodes. [L. S.J

INDU'STRIA, a town of Liguria, situated on the right bank of the Padus, about 20 miles below Twin. It is mentioned only by Pliny, who tells us that its ancient name was Bodikcohaous, which he connects with Bodincus, the native name of the Padus [padus], and adds that it was at this point that river first attained a considerable depth. (Plin iii. 16. s. 20.) Its site (which was erroneously fixed by earlier writers at Casale) has been established beyond question at a place called Alonteii di Po, a

few miles below Chivasso, but on the right bank of the river, where excavations have brought to light numerous coins and objects of ancient art, some of them of great beauty, as well as several inscriptions, which leave no doubt that the remains thus discovered are those of Industria. They also prove that it enjoyed municipal rank under the Roman empire. (Ricolvi e Rivautella, 11 sito deW antica cilia d'lnduslria, <fe., Torino, 1745,4to.; Millin, Voy. en Piemont, vol. i. pp.308—311.) [E. H. B.] INESSA. [aetna.]

INFERUM MARE. [tyrrhkhum Mare.] INGAEVONES. [gkkmahia and Hellevio

HES.]

INGAUNI Clyyawoi), a Ligurian tribe, who inhabited the sea-coast and adjoining mountains, at the foot of the Maritime Alps, on the W. side of the Gulf of Genoa. Their position is clearly identified by that of their capital or chief town, Albium Ingannum, still called AVbenga. They appear to have been in early times one of the most powerful and warlike of the Ligurian tribes, and bear a prominent part in the long-continued wars of the Romans with that people. Their name is first mentioned in B. c. 205, on occasion of the landing of Mago, the brother of Hannibal, in Liguria. They were at that time engaged in hostilities with the Epanterii, a neighbouring tribe who appear to have dwelt further inland: the Carthaginian general concluded an alliance with them, and stipjiortcd them against the mountaineers of the interior; he subsequently returned to their capital after his defeat by the Romans in Cisalpine Gaul, and it was from thence that he took his final departure for Africa, B.C. 203. (Liv. xxviii. 46, xxx. 19.) After the close of the Second Punic War, B. C. 201, a treaty was concluded with the Ingauni by the Roman consul, C. Aolius (Id. xxxi. 2); but sixteen years later (in B. c. 185) we find them at war with the Romans, when their territory was invaded by the consul Appius Claudius, who defeated thein in several battles, and took six of their towns. (Id. xxxix. 32.) But four years afterwards, B. c. 181, they were still in arms, and were attacked for the second time by the proconsul Aemilius Paullus. This general was at first involved in great perils, the Ingauni having surprised and besieged him in his camp; but he ultimately obtained a great and decisive victory, in which 15,000 of the enemy were killed and 2500 taken prisoners. This victory procured to Aemilius the honour of a triumph, and was followed by the submission of the whole people of the Ingauni (" Ligurum Ingaunorum omne nomeu "), while all the other Ligurians sent to Rome to sue for peace. (Liv. xL 25—28,34.) From this time we hear nothing more of the Ingauni in history, probably on account of the loss of the later books of Livy; for that they did not long remain at peace with Rome, and that hostilities were repeatedly renewed before they were finally reduced to submission and settled down into the condition of Roman subjects, is clearly proved by the fact stated by Pliny, that their territory was assigned to them, and its boundaries fixed or altered, no less than thirty times. (" Liguribus Ingaunis agro tricies dato," Plin. iii. 5. a. 6.) They appear to have been much addicted, in common with other maritime Ligurian tribes, to habits of piracy, a tendency which they retained down to a late period. (Liv. xl. 28, 41; Vopisc. Procul. 12.) We find them still existing and recognised as a separate tribe in the days of Strabo and Pliny; but we have no means of fixing the extent or limits of their territory, which evidently comprised a considerable portion of the seacoast on each side of their capital city, and probably extended on the W. till it met that of the Intemelii. It most have included several minor towns, but their capital, of which the name is variously written Albium Ingaumim and Albingaunum, is the only town expressly assigned to them by ancient writers. [ai.bium InGauNum.] (Strab. It. p. 202 ; Plin. iii. 5. s. 6.) [E.H.B.]

I'NGENA. [abkincatui.]

INl'CERUM, a town in Lower Pannonia, in the neighbourhood of which there was a praetorium, or place of rest for the emperors when they travelled in those parts, (/tin. Ant pp. 260, 265.) Some identify it with the modern Possega. [L. S.]

INO'PUS. [delos.]

INSA'NI MONIES (to MoiW/*era Bpp, Ptol. ill. 3. § 7), a range of mountains in Sardinia, mentioned by Livy (xxx. 39) in a manner which seems to imply that they were in the NE. part of the island; and this is confirmed by Claudian, who speaks of them as rendering the northern part of Sardinia rugged and savage, and the adjoining seas stormy and dangerous to navigators. (Claudian, B. Gild. 513.) Hence, it is evident that the name was applied to the lofty and rugged range of mountains in the N. and NE. part of the island: and was, doubtless, given to them by Roman navigators, on account of the sudden and frequent storms to which they gave rise. (Liv. I. c). Ptolemy also places the Matv6+i€va oprj — a name which is obviously translated from the Latin one—In the interior of the island, and though he would seem to consider them as nearer the W. than the E. coast, the position which he assigns them may still be referred to the same range or mass of mountains, which extends from the neighbourhood of Olbia (Terra Nova) on the E. coast, to that of Cornus on the W. [sarDinia.] [E.H. B.]

1'NSUBRES, a people both in Gallia Transalpina and Gallia Cisalpina. D'Anville, on the authority of Livy (v. 34), places the Insubres of Gallia Transalpina in that part of the territory of the Acdui where there was a town Mediolanum, between Forum Segusianorum [forum Seguslanorum] and Lugdunum (Lyon). This is the only ground that there is for supposing that there existed a people or a pagus in Gallia Transalpina named Insubres. Of the Insubres in Gallia Cisalpina, an account is given elsewhere [Vol. I. p. 936]. [G. L.]

I'NSULA, or I'NSULA ALLO'BROGUM, in Gallia Narbonensis. Livy (xxi. 31), after describing Hannibal's passage of the Rhone, says that he directed his march on the east Bide towards the inland parts of Gallia. At his fourth encampment he came to the Insula, "where the rivers Arar and the Rhodanus, flowing down from the Alps by two different directions, comprise between them some tract of country, and then unite: it is the level country between them which is called the Insula. The Allohroges dwell near." One might easily see that there must be some error in the word Arar; for Hannibal could not have reached the latitude of Lugdunuin (Lyon) in four days from the place where he crossed the Rhone; and this is certain, though we do not know the exact place where he did cross the Rhone. Nor, if he had got to the junction of the Arar and Rhodanus, could Livy say that he reached a place near which the Allubroges dwell; for, if he had

marched from the Isara (fsere) to the junction of the SaSne and Rhone, he would have passed through the country of the Allobrogea. [allobroge*.] Nor does the Arar (Saone) flow from the Alps, though the Isara does. Besides this, if Hannibal had gone so far north as the part between the Saone and Rhone, he would have gone much further north than was necessary for his purpose, as Livy describes it. It is therefore certain, if we look to the context only that we most read 11 Isara" for "Arar;'* and there is a reading of one MS., cited by Gronovins, which shows that Isara may have once been in the text, and that it has been corrupted. (Walekenaer, Geog. tf-c. vol. i. p. 135.) Livy in this passage copied Polybius, in whose MSS. (Ui. 49) the name of the river is Scoras or Scaras; a name which the editors ought to have kept, instead of changing it into Isaras ('ladpas), as Bekker and others before him have done, though the Isara or Isere is certainly the river. In the latest editions of Ptolemy (ii. 10. § 6) the Isara appears in the form Isar ("Itrap); but it is certain that there are great variations in the MSS. of Ptolemy, and in the editions. Walekenaer (vol. i. p. 134) says that the edition of Ulm of 1482 has Sicarus, aud that there is "Sicaros" in the Strassburg editions of 1513, 1520, 1522. The edhio princeps of 1475 has"Cisar;w and others have " Tisar" and "Tisara." The probable conclusion is, that" Isc-ar " is one of the forms of the name, which is as genuine a Celtic form as "Is-ar" or " Isara," the form in Cicero (ad Fam. x. 15, &c). "Isc-ara" may be compared with the British forms " Isaca" (the Exe), Isca, and Ischalis; and Is-ara with the names of the Italian rivers Ausar and Aesis.

Polybius compares the country in the angle between the Rhone and the Isara (here) to the Delta of Egypt in extent and form, except that in the Delta the sea unites the ono side and the channels of the streams which form the two other sides; but here mountains almost inaccessible form the third side of this Insula. He describes it as populous, and a corn country. The junction of the Isar, as Strabo calls the river (p. 185), and the Rhone, was, according to him, opposite the place where the Cevenncs approach near to the banks of the Rhone.

The Isere, one of the chief branches of the Rhone, rises in the high Pennine Alps, and flows through the valleys of the Alpine region by a very winding course past Si. Maurice, Mouliers, Confians, Mont meilian, where it begins to be navigable, Grenoble, the Roman Cularo or Gratianopolis, and joins the Rhone a few miles north of Valentia ( Valence). Its whole course is estimated at about 160 miles. Hannibal, after staying a short time in the country about the junction of the Rhone and the here, commenced his march over the Alps. It is not material to decide whether his whole army crossed over into the Insula or not, or whether he did himself, though the words of Polybius imply that he did. It is ceitain that he marched up the valley of the here towards the Alps; and the way to find out where lie crossed the Alps is by following the valley of the here. "[G. L.]

INSURA. [mylae.]

INTELE'NE ('Ivry^nvfi), one of the five provinces W. of the Tigris, ceded, in A. D. 297, by Naraes to Galerius and the Itomans. (Petr. Patr. Fr. 14, Fragm. Hist. Grace, ed. Mtiller; Gibbon, c. xiii.) St. Martin, in his note to Le Beau (Bns Empire, vol. i. p. 380), would read for Intelene Tngilene (TyriA^vn), the name of a small province of Armenia near the sources of the Tigris mentioned by Epiphanius {Uaeres. LX. vol i. p. 505, ed Valesius; comp. St. Martin, Mem. sur VArmenie, vol. i. pp. 23, 97.) [E. B. J.]

INTEME'LII Clirt/aeXioi), a maritime people of Liguria, situated to the W. of the Ingauni, at the foot of the Maritime Alps. They are but little known in history, being only once mentioned by Livy, in conjunction with their neighbours, the Inganni, as addicted to piratical habits, to repress which their coast was visited by a Roman squadron in B. c. 180. (Lir. xL 41.) Strabo speaks of them as a still existing tribe (Strab. iv. p. 202); and their capital, called Albium Intemelium or Albintemeliu:n. now corrupted into Vintimiglia, was in his time a considerable city. [albium Intkmet.ium.] We have no means of determining the extent or limits of their territory; but it seems to have bordered on that of the Ingauni on the E., and the Vediantii on the W.: at least, these are the only tribes mentioned as existing in this part of Liguria by writers of the Roman Empire. It probably comprised also the whole valley of the Rutuba or Jtoja, one of the most considerable of the rivers, or rather mountain torrents, of Liguria, which rises at the foot of the Col di Tenda, and falls into the sea at Vintimiglia, [E. H. B.]

INTEUAMNA Clrripaiwa: Eth. Intcramnas, -atis), was the name of several cities in different parts of Italy. Its obvious etymol'gy, already pointed out by Varro and Festus, indicates their position at the confluence of two streams (" inter amnes," Varr. L. L. v.28, Fest. v. Amnes, p. 17,MUU.); which is,however, but partially borne out by their actual situation. The form Intkkamnium ('lyrepdfiviuv'), and the ethnic form Interamnis, are also found, but more rarely.

1. A Roman colony on the banks of the Liris, tlience called, for distinction's sake, Interamna LiKikas. It was situated on the left or northern bunk of the Liris, near the junction of the little river which flows by Aquinum (confounded by Strabo with the Melpis, a much more considerable stream), and was distant 6 miles from the latter city, and 7 from Casinum. Its territory, which was included in Latinm, according to the more extended use of that name, must have originally belonged to the Volscians, but we have no mention of Interamna as a Volscian city, nor indeed any evidence of its existence previous to the establishment of the Roman colony there, in B. c. 312. This took place at the same time with that at the neighbouring town of Casinum, the object of both being obviously to secure the fertile valley of the Liris from the attacks of the Samnites. (Liv. ix. 28; Diod. xix. 105; Veil. Pat. i. 14.) Hence we find, in B. C. 294, the territory of Interamna ravaged by the Samnites, who did not, however, venture to attack the city itself; and, at the opening of the following campaign, it was from Interamna that the consul Sp. Carvilius commenced his operations against Sainnium. (Liv. x. 36, 39.) Its territory was at a later period laid waste by Hannibal during his march by the Via Latina from Capua upon Rome, B. c. 212 (Liv. xxvi. 9): and shortly afterwards the name of Interamna \ppears among the twelve refractory colonies which declared themselves unable to furnish any further supplies, and were subsequently (b. c. 204) loaded with heavier burdens in consequence (Id. xxvii. 9, xxix. 15). After the Social War it passed, in common with the other Latin colonies, into the state of

a municipium; and we find repeated mention of it as a municipal town, apparently of some consequence. (Cic. Phil ii. 41, ]/ro Mil. 17; Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) It received a colony under the Second Triumvirate, but does not appear to have enjoyed colonial rank, several inscriptions of imperial times giving it only the title of a municipium. {Lib. Col. p. 234; Orell. Inter. 2357, 3828.) Its position at some distance from the line of the Via Latina was probably unfavourable to its prosperity in later times: from the same cause its name is not found in the Itineraries, and we have no means of tracing its existence after the fall of the Roman Empire. The period at which it was ruined or deserted is unknown; but mention is found in documents of the middle ages of a "Castrum Terame," and the site of the ancient city, though now entirely uninhabited, is still called Terame. It presents extensive remains of ancient buildings, with vestiges of the walls, streets, and aqueducts; ami numerous inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been discovered there, which are preserved in the neighbouring villages. (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 384; Cluver, Ital. p. 1039. The inscriptions are given by Mominsen, Inscr. Regn. Neap. pp. 221, 222.)

Pliny calls the citizens of this Interamna "Interamnates Succasini, qui et Lirinates vocantur." The former appellation was evidently bestowed from their situation in tho neighbourhood of Casinum, but is not adopted by any other author. They are called in inscriptions "Interamnates Lirinates," and sometimes "Lirinates" alone: hence it is probable that we should read "Lirinatum" for 11 Larinatum" in Silius Italicus (viii. 402), where he is enumerating Volscian cities, and hence the mention of Larinuin would be wholly out of place.

2. (Ternt), a city of Umbria, situated on the river Nar, a little below its confluence with the Velinus, and about 8 miles E. from Narnia. It was surrounded by a branch of the river, so as to be in fact situated on an island, whence it derived its name. The inhabitants are termed by Pliny " Interamnates cognomine Nartes," to distinguish them from those of the other towns of the name; and we find them designated in inscriptions as Interamnates Nartes and Nahartes; but we do not find this epithet applied to the city itself. No mention is found of Interamna in history previous to its passing under the Roman yoke; but there is no doubt that it was an ancient Umbrian city, and an inscription of the time of Tiberius has preserved to us the local tradition that it was founded in B. c. 672, or rather more than 80 years after Rome. (Orell. Inscr. 689.) When we first hear of Interamna in history it appears as a flourishing municipal town, deriving great wealth from the fertility of its territory, which was irrigated by the river Nar. Hence it is said to have been, as early as the civil wars of Marius and Sulla, one of the "florentissima Italiae municipia" (Floras, iii. 21); and though it suffered a severe blow upon that occasion, its lands being confiscated by Sulla and portioned out among his soldiers, we still find it mentioned by Cicero in a manner that proves it to have been a place of importance (Cic ad Alt. iv. 15). Its inhabitants were frequently engaged in litigation and disputes with their neighbours of Reate, on account of the regulation of the waters of the Velinus, which joins the Nar a few miles above Interamna; and under the reign of Tiberius they were obliged to enter an energetic protest against a project that had been started for turning aside the emirsc of the Nar, so that it should no longer flow into the Tiber. (Tac Anm, L 79.) In the civil war between Vitelline and Vespasian it was occupied by the troops of the former while their head-quarters were at Naruia, but was taken with little resistance by Arrius Varus. (Id. Hist. iii. 61, 63.) Inscriptions sufficiently attest the continued municipal importance of Interamna under the Roman empire; and, though its position was some miles to the right of the great Flaminian highway, which proceeded from Narnia direct to Mevania (Strab. v. p. 227; Tac But. ii. 64), a branch line of road was carried from Narnia by Interamna and Spoletium to Forum Flaminii, where it rejoined the main highroad. This line, which followed very nearly that of the present highroad from Rome to Perugia, appears to have latterly become the more important of the two, and is given in the Antonine and Jerusalem Itineraries to the exclusion of the true Via Flaminia. {Itin. Ant. p. 125; Mm. Bier. p. 613; Tab. Peut) The great richness of the meadows belonging to Interamna on the banks of the Nar is celebrated by Pliny, who tells us. that they were cut for hay no less than four times in the year (Plin. xviii. 28. s. 67); and Tacitus also represents the same district as among the most fertile in Italy (Tac Am. i. 79). That great historian himself is generally considered as a native of Interamna, but without any distinct authority: it appears, however, to have been subsequently the patrimonial residence, and probably the birthplace, of his descendants, the two emperors Tacitus and Florianus. (Vopisc Florian. 2.) In A.D. 193, it was at Interamna that a deputation from the senate met the emperor Septimius Severus, when on his march to the capital (Spartian. Sever. 6); and at a later period (a. D. 253) it was there that the two emperors, Trebonianus Gallus and his son Volusianus, who were on their march to oppose AemilianusinMoesia,were put to death by their own soldiers. (Eutrop. ix. 5; Vict. Caet. 81, EpiL 31.)

Interamna became the see of a bishop in very early times, and has subsisted without interruption through the middle ages on its present site; the name being gradually corrupted into its modem form of Terni. It is still a flourishing city, and retains various relics of its ancient importance, including the remains of an amphitheatre, of two temples supposed to have been dedicated to the sun and to Hercules, and some portions of the ancient Thermae. None of these ruins are, however, of much importance or interest. Many inscriptions have also been discovered on the site, and are preserved in the Palazzo Publico.

About 3 miles above Terni is the celebrated cascade of the Velinus, which owes its origin to the Roman M\ Curius; it is more fully noticed under the article Vklinus.

3. (Teramo), a city of Picenum, in the territory of the Praetutii, and probably the chief place in the district of that people. The namo is omitted by Pliny, but is found in Ptolemy, who distinctly assigns it to the Praetutii; and it is mentioned also in the Liber Coloniaram among the "Civitates Piceni." It there bears the epithet of "Palestina," or, as the name is elsewhere written, "Paletina;" the origin and meaning of which are wholly unknown. (Ptol. iii. 1. § 58; Lib. Col. pp. 226, 259.) In the genuine fragments of Frontinus, on the other hand, the citizens are correctly designated as " Interamnates Praerutiani." (Frontin. i. p. 18, ed. Laclnn.) Being situated in the interior of the country, at a distance from the highroads, the name is not found in the

Itineraries, bnt we know that it was an episcopal see and a place of some importance under the Roman empire. The name is already corrupted in our MSS. of the Liber Coloniorum into Teramne, whence its modern form of Teramo. But in the middle ages it appears to have been known also by the name of Aprutium, supposed to be a corruption of Praetutium, or rather of the name of the people Praetutii) applied (as was so often the case in Gaul) to their chief city. Thus we find the name of Abrutiura among the cities of Picenum enumerated by the Geographer of Ravenna (iv. 31); and under the Lombards we find mention of a "comes Aprutii." The name has been retained in that of Abruzzo, now given to the two northernmost provinces of the kingdom of Naples, of one of which, called Abruzzo Ulteriore, the city of Teramo is still the capitaL Vestiges of the ancient theatre, of baths and other buildings of Roman date, as well as statues, altars, and other ancient remains, have been discovered on the site: numerous inscriptions have been also found, in one of which the citizens are designated as "Interamnites Praetutiani." (Romanelli, vol iii. pp. 297—301; Mommsen, /. R. N. pp. 329—331.)

There is no foundation for the existence of a fourth city of the name of Interamna among the Frentani, as assumed by Romanelli, and, from hiin, by Cramer, on the authority of a very apocryphal inscription. [frentani.] [E. H. B.]

INTERAMNE'SIA (Phlegon. de Longaev. 1: Eth. Interamnienses, Plin. iv. 21. s. 35), a stipendiary town of Lusitania, named in the inscription of Alcantara, and supposed by Ukert to have been situated between the Coa and Touroes, near Castel Rodrigo and Almeida. (Ukert, voL ii. pt. 1. p. 398.) [P. S.]

INTERAMNIUM. [astures.] INTERCATIA. [vaccaei.] INTERCISA or AD INTERCISA, is the name given in the Itineraries to a station on the Via Flaminia, which evidently derives this name from its being situated at the remarkable tunnel or gallery hewn through the rock, now known as the Passo del Furlo. (Itin. Bier. p. 614; Tab. Peut.) Thia passage, which is still traversed by the modern highway from Rome to Fano, is a work of the emperor Vespasian, as an inscription cut in tho rock informs us, and was constructed in the seventh year of his reign, A. D. 75. (Inscr. ap. Clover, ItaL p. 619.) It is also noticed among the public works of that emperor by Aurclius Victor, who calls it Petra Pertusa; and the same name (ncrpa wtprovoa) is given to it by Procopius, who has left ui a detailed and accurate description of the locality. (Vict. Coe». 9, EpiL 9; Procop. B. G. ii. 11.)

The valley of the Cantiano, a tributary of the Metaurus, which is here followed by the Flaminian Way, is at this point so narrow that it is only by cutting the road out of the solid rock that it can be carried along the face of the precipice, and, in addition to this, the rock itself is in one place pierced by an arched gallery or tunnel, which gave rise to the name of Petra Pertusa. The actual tunnel is ouly 126 feet long, but the whole length of the pass is about half a mile. Claudian alludes to this remarkable work in terms which prove the admiration that it excited. (Claud, de VI. Cone. Bon. 502.) At a later period the pass was guarded by a fort, which, from its completely commanding the Flaminian Way, became a military post of importance, and is repeatedly mentioned during the wars of the Goths

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