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Per. 92), are obviously mere etymological fancies. No trace of the name is found in the Homeric poems; and it occurs for the first time in Aeschylus, though, from the poetic diction of that writer, it is not clear in what precise sense he employs the term woVnof fivx^s 'lovios. (Aesch. I. c.) Herodotus evidently employs the name *\6vio$ ndKiros, the Ionian gulf, as synonymous with the Adriatic; and Thucydides likewise uses the term in the same sense, as is evident from his expression, that " Epidamnus is a city on the right hand as you sail into the Ionian gulf" (i. 24). He also repeatedly uses the term d 'Idvtos (with K6\wos understood) in speaking of the passage from Corcyra to the Iapygian promontory (vi. 30,34, vii. 33); but in all these cases he refers only to the narrow sea, which might be considered as part of the same gulf or inlet with the entrance of the Adriatic. Sc-ylax also, and even Scymnus Chius, employ the name of the Ionian gulf in the same sense, as synonymous with the Adriatic, or at least with the southern part of it (Scyl. §§ 14, 27; Scymn. Ch. 133, 361) [adriaticum Make]; while the name of the Ionian sea, in the more extended sense given to it by later geographers, as indicated at the commencement of this article, is not found in any early Greek writer. Pulybius is the first extant author who uses the term in this sense, and gives the name of 'iovios trSpos to the sea which extended from the entrance of the Adriatic along the coast of Italy as far as the promontory of Corinthus, which he considers as its southern limit. (Pol. ii. 14, v. 110.) Even here the peculiar expression of the Ionian strait sufficiently shows that this was a mere extension of the name from tho narrow sea or strait at the entrance of the Adriatic to the more open sea to the S. of it. Hence we have no proof that the name was ever one in common use among the Greeks until it came to be established by the geographers; and even Strabo, who on these points often follows earlier authors, gives the name only of the Ionian gulf to the part of the sea near the entrance of the Adriatic, while he extends the appellation of the Sicilian sea (SurcAuriv ireAtryoj) from the eastern shores of Sicily to those of the Peloponnese. He, as well as Polybius and Scymnus Chius, fixes the Acroccraunian promontory as the limit between the Ionian and the Adriatic seas. (Strab. ii. p. 123, vii. pp. 316,317 ) Pliny uses the name of Ionium Marc very widely, or rather very vaguely; including under that appellation the Mare Siculum and Creticum of the Grt-eks, as well as apparently the lower part of the Adriatic (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14, 26. s. 29, 30, iv. 11. s. 18), and this appears to have been the usage common in his day, and which is followed by the Latin poets. (Virg. Aen. iii. 211, 671; Ov\d,Fast. iv. 565, &c.) Mela distinguishes the Ionian sea from the Sicilian, and applies the former name, in the sense now generally adopted by geographers,, as that portion of the broad sea between the shores of Greece and those of Sicily, which lay nearest to the former. (Mel. ii. 4. § 1.) But all these names, given merely to portions of the Mediterranean which had no natural limits, were evidently used very vaguely and indefinitely; and the great extension given at a later period to the name of tho Adriatic swallowed up altogether those of the Ionian and Sicilian seas [ AmtiATicuM Mark], or led to the employment of the former name in a vague and general sense, wholly different from that in which it was originally applied. Thus Servius, commenting on the expression of Virgil, " Insula© Ionio in magno," where the

true Ionium Mare is meant by the poet, says:— * Sciendum, Ionium sinum esse immensuin, ab Ionia usque ad Siciliam,et hujus partes es.^e Adriaticum, Achaicum et Epiroticum." (Serr. ad Aen. iii. 211.) On the other hand, the name of the Ionian gulf (A 'lot'ms Kskttos) was still given in late times (at least by geographers), in a very limited sense, to that portion of the Adriatic immediately within the strait at its entrance. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 92, 389.) Ptolemy even applies the name of the Ionian sea ('l&viov wfAoyof, iii. 1. §§ 14 15) in the same restricted manner.

From the name of the Ionian sea has been derived that of the Ionian islands, now given to the group of seven principal islands (besides several smaller ones) which constitute an independent republic under the protectorate of Great Britain; but there is no ancient authority for this appellation. [E. H. B. ]

JOPPA ('tiirirn, LXX.; Strab.xvl.p. 759; Ptul. v. 16. § 2. The form' Iovtj, Steph B.; Dionys. v. 910; Joseph. Antiq. ix. 10. § 2; Solin. 34, better suits the Phoenician original, which signifies "an eminence;" comp. Movers Phdnizier, pt. ii. p. 177; Hitzig, Die Philistaer, pp. 131—134: Eth. *Iowir-ns, 'IoTrtmjr, 'Ioinrnx, 'loVeia, 'loirtvs, '\<rtck. The Hebrew name Japho is still preserved in tho Arabic Yqfa or Jaffa). A seaport town and haven on the coast of Palestine, situated on an eminence. The ancients asserted that it had existed before the Deluge (Pomp. Mela, i. 11. § 3; Plin. v. 14), and according to legend it was on this shore that Andromeda was rescued by Perseus (Strab. /. c; Plin. L c; coinp. Hicron. in Jon. i.) from the monster, whose skeleton was exhibited at Rome by M. Acmilius Scaurus during his famous curule aedileship (Plin. ix. 4). When the Israelites invaded Canaan , it is mentioned as lying on the border of the tribe of Dan (Josh. xix. 40), and was the only port possessed by the Jewish people, till Herod made tho harbour at Caesarea. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second temples was landed here (I Kings, v. 9; 2 Chron. ii. 16; Ezra, iii. 7); and Jonah went to Joppa to find a ship going to Tarshish (Jon. i. 3). Judas Moccubaeus set the shipping on fire, because of the inhabitants having drowned 200 Jews (2 Mace. xii. 3—7). The town was afterwards taken by Jonathan (1 Mace. x. 74—76), but was not long retained, as it was again captured by Simon (xii. 34), and was strongly fortified by him (xiv. 5, xv. 28). It was annexed by Pompeius to the Iioman province of Syria, along with other towns which the Jews had held by grants from the predecessors of Antiochus (Joseph. Antiq. xiv. 4. § 4, comp. xiii. 9. § 2), and was afterwards given to Herod by Julius Caesar (xv. 7. § 3), and remained part of the dominions of Archelaus (xvii. 11. § 4).

In th<* New Testament Joppa is mentioned in connection with the Apostle Peter (Acts, ix. 36—43, x. 5, 18. xi. 5). During the Jewish war, this place, which had become a receptacle for pirates (Strab. xvi. p. 759), was taken by Cestius, and 8400 of the inhabitants were put to the sword. (Joseph. B.J. ii. 18. § 10.) Vespasian afterwards utterly demolished the ruins of Joppa, to which great numbers of persons had fled, and taken to piracy for subsistence. (B. J. iii. 9. §§ 2—5.) In the time of Constantine Joppa was the seat of a bishop, as well as when taken by the Arabians under Omar, A. D. 636; the name of a bishop occurs in the council held at Jerusalem A. D. 536. At the period of the Crusades, Joppa, which had already taken the name of Jaffa ('l&tpa, Anna Comn. Alex. xi. p. 328), was alternately in the hands of the Christians and Moslems. After its capture by Saladin (Wilken, Die Krtuzz, vol. iv. pp. 537, 539) it fell into the hands of our own Richard (p. 545), was then sacked by Malek-al-Adel (vol. v. p. 25), was rebuilt by Frederick II. (vol. vi. p. 471) and Louis IX. (vol. vii. p. 316), when it was taken by Sultan Bibars (vol. vii. p. 517). As the landingplace for pilgrims to Jerusalem, from the first Crusade to our own day, it occurs in all the Itineraries and books of travels, which describe the locality and natural unfitness of Jaffa for a haven, in terms very sinJlar to those employed by the ancients. For coins of Joppa see Eckbel, vol. iii. p. 433. (Rcland, Pa~ laest. p. 864; Von Raumer, Palestina, p. 201; Winer, Realworterbuch, s. v.; Robinson, Researches, vol. iii. p. 31; Ritter, Erdhinde, vol. xvi. pt. i. pp. 574—580, Berlin, 1852.) [E. B. J.]

JORDANES. [palakstina.]

IOS (*Ios: Eth. 'it/ttjs, 'I«T77s), an i&land in the Aegaean sea, one of the Sporades, and falsely called by Stepnanus one of the Cyclades, lay north of Thera and south of Paros and Naxoa. According to Pliny, it was 25 miles in length, and was distant 18 miles from Naxos and 25 from Thera. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23.) Both Pliny and Stephanus state that it was originally called Phoenice. It possessed a town of the same name (Ptol. iii. 15. § 28), situated upon a height on the western side of the island. It has an exee lent harbour, of a circular form, like the Pciraeeus" its mouth faces the south-we&t, and is oppuMte the island of Sicinus. The island is now called Nio (iw vIy); and when Ross visited it, in 1836, it contained 505 families or 2500 souls. The modern town is built upon the site of the ancient one, of which there are still remains.

los was celebrated in antiquity as the burialplace of Homer, who is said to have died here on his voyage from Smyrna to Athens. Long afterwards, when the fame of the poet had filled the world, the inhabitants of los are reported to have erected the following inscription upon his tomb* —

''E.vd&Z* T$iv Upqv *e^(tA?V Kota 70*0 Ka\{nrrtt 'avs/j&k 7)pto<av KOtTfiijropaj &tiov "Ofxvpcv.

(Pseudo-Herod. Vit. Homer. 34, 36; comp. Scylax, p. 22; Strab. x, p. 484; Paus. x. 24. § 2; Plin. Steph. U. cc.) It was also stated that Clymene, the mother of Homer, was a native of los, and that ■he was buried in the island (Paus., Steph. B., ll.ee); and, according to Gellius (iii. 11), Aristotle related that Homer himself was born in los. In 1771 a Dutch nobleman, Graf Pasch van Krienen, asserted that he had discovered the tomb of Homer in the northern part of the island; and in 1773 he published an account of his discovery, with some inscriptions relating to Homer which he said he had found upon the tomb. Of this discovery a detailed

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account is given by Ross, who is disposed to believe the account of Pasch van Krienen; but the original inscriptions have never been produced, and most modem scholars regard them as forgeries. (Ross, Reisen auf den Griech. Inscln, vol. i. pp. 54, 154, seq.; Welcker, in Zeitschrift fur die AUerthunhswissenschaft, 1844, p. 290, seq.)

JOTABE ('ItoTo6», an island in the Erythraean Sea, not less than 1000 stadia from the city of Aklana, inhabited by Jews who, formerly inde* pendent, accepted the yoke of the Empire during the reign of Justmian (Procop. B. P. i. 19). It is now called Tiran, or Djezirtt Tyran of Burkhardt (Trav. p. 531), the island at the entrance of the Gulf of Akabah. (Comp. Jvum. of Geog. Soc. vol. vi. pp. 54, 55.) The modern name recalls the "Gens Tyra" of Pliny (vi. 33), placed by him in the interior of the Arabian gulf. (Ritter, ErdIcunde, vol. xiii. pp. 223—225, vol. xiv. pp. 19, 262.) [E.B.J.]

JOTA'PATA ('IarnjbrctTa: Etk. 'Iwraircrnjctk, Steph. B. s. t\), a city of Galilee, standing on the summit of a lofty hill, rising abruptly on three sides, from the deep and impassable ravines which surrounded it. Josephus, who manfully defended it against Vespasian, has told the story of its siege and capture: 1200 prisoners were taken, and 40,000 men fell by the sword during its protracted siege: Vespasian gave orders that the city should be razid to the ground, and all the defences burnt. Thus perished Jotapata on the first day of Panemus (July) (B. J. iii. pp. 6—8; comp. Reland, Pulatst. p. 867; Milman, Hist, of Jews, vol. ii. pp. 287— 309). Mr. Bankes (Irby and Mangles, Trav. p. 299) has fixed the site at the singular remains of KuVat Ibn J/«Vrn, in the Wady-el-Hamam (comp. Burkhardt, Trav. p. 331; Ritter, Erdfoinde, vol. xv. pt i. p. 327), but Robinson (Researches, vol. iii. pp. 279—282) identifies these ruins with the ArBela of Galilee and its fortified caverns. [E. B. J.] JO'TAPE (^l(ar<ir.r); Eth. *Iu>Tairemjs), a small town of Cilicia, in the district called Selenitis, not far from Selinus. It is perhaps the same place as Laerte, the native city of Diogenes Laertiua. It it> identified with the modern fort Lambardo. (Ptol. v. 8. § 2; PHn.T. 22; ConeiL Chalced. p. 659; Hierocl. p. 709, where it is called 'IoraVi?; comp. Lakktk.) The coins of lotape belong to the emperors Philip and Valerian. [L. S.]

JOVA'LIA, a town of Lower Pannonia, on the southern bank of the river Dravus, (I tin. Hieros. p. 562.) In the Peut. Tab. it is called lovallium, while Ptolemy (ii. 16. § 6.) calls it 'lovoWov or 'lovGoKov, and the Geog. Rav. (iv. 19), Ioballios. It occupied, in all probability, the site of the modern village oi Valpo. [L. S.1

JOVEM, AD, in Gallia Aquitania, a Mutatio on the road from Burdigala (Bordeaux) to Tolosa (Toulouse); and between Bucconis and Tolosa. This Mutatio was seven leagues from Tolosa. D'Anvillo conjectures it to be at a place which he names Guevin or Guerin. Walekenaer fixes the Mutatio of Bucconis near the Bois du Bouconne. [G. L.] JO'VIA, a town in Lower Pannonia, south of the river Dravus, on the road from Poetovium to Mursa. ([tin. Hieros. p. 561; Itm. Ant. p. 130; Tab. Petit.) The site is generally identified with some ruins found at Toplika. Another place of the same name is mentioned in Upper Pannonia, on the same road (/tin. A nt. p. 264), and is identified with some ruina found at lovxnem. [L. S.]

JOVTACUM, a town in Noricum, where a " praefectus secundae Italicae militum Liburnarinrum" had his head-quarters ; a circumstance suggesting that the town, though situated some distance from the Danube, was yet connected with its navigation. (Itin. Ant. p. 249; Not. Imp.; Tab. Pent.) [L. S.]

JOVIS MONS (Mongri, near Ampurias), a spur of the Pyrenees in Spain, running out into the Mediterranean near the frontier of Gaul. The steplike terraces which its fuce presented were called Scalae Herculis. (Mela, ii. 6. § 5.) [P. S.]

JOVIS MONS (to Aios opos, Ptol iv. 3. §18; Zowan), a mountain of Africa Propria, between the rivers Bagradas and Triton, apparently containing the sources of the river Catada. [P. S.]

JOVIS PAGUS, a town in the interior of Moesia, on the eastern bank of the Margus. (Itin. Hieros. p. S65; Tab. Peut.; Geog. Ruv. iv. 7, where it is called simply Pagus.) Some identify it with the modem Glagovacz. [L. S.]

JOVIS PROMONTORIUM (A.'os tucpa, Ptol. vii. 4. § 4), a promontory mentioned by Ptolemy, at the S. end of the island of Taprobane ( Ceylon). Its exact position cannot be identified, but it must have been in the neighbourhood of the present Point du Galie. if it be not the same. [V.]

1PAGRO or IPAGRUM (Aguilar, on the Cobra), a city of Hispania Baetica, 28 M. P. south of Corduba, on the road to Gades. (am, Ant. p. 412; Inscr. ap. Muratori, p. 1052, No. 3; Florez, Esp.S. vol. xii. p. 2; Coins, ap. Flore;!, Med. vol. ii. p. 647; Mionnet, vol. i. p. 17, Suppl. vol. i. p. 29 j Sestini, pp. 28, 29; Eckhel, vol. i. p 23.) [P. S.]

IPASTURGI. [istukoi.]

IPHISTIADAE. [attica, p. 326, b.]

IPNI ('Invoi'), on the coast of Magnesia, in Thessaly, at the foot of Mount Pelion, where part of the fleet of Xerxes was wrecked, seems to have been the name of some rocks. (Herod, vii. 188 ; Strab. ix. p. 443 )

IPNL'S ("Imf: EtA. "Uvevs), a town of the Locri Ozolae, of uncertain site. (Thuc. iii. 101; Steph. B. t. e.)

IPSUS ("I+out or'I^ot), a small town of Phrygia, a few miles below Synnada. The place itself never was of any particular note, but it is celebrated in history for the great battle fought in its plains, i'.. c. 301, by the aged Antigonus and his son Demetrius against the combined forces of Cassander, Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus, in which Antigonus lost his conquests and his life. (Pint. PyrrK 4; Appian, Syriac. 55.) From Hierocles (p. 677) and the Acts of Councils ( Concil. Nicacn, ii. p. 161), we learn that in the seventh and eighth centuries it was the see of a Christian bishop. Some moderns identify Ipsus with Ipsili Ilissar. [L. S.]

IRA ('lp<0. I* -A- town of Messenia, mentioned by Homer (II. ix. 150,292), usually identified with the later Abia on the Messcnian gulf. [abia.]

2. Or Eira (Ef,ia), a mountain in Messenia, which the Messenians fortified in the Second Messcnian War, and which Ariatomenes defended for ten years against the Spartans. It was in the north of Messenia, near the river Neda. Leake places it at no great distance from the sea, under the side of the mountain on which now stands Sidhertikastro and Mdrmaro; but there are no ancient remains in this spot. More to the east, on the left bank of the Neda, near Kakaletri, are the remains of an ancient fortress, which was, in all probability, Eira; and the lofty mountain above, now called Tetrad, was probably

the highest summit of Mount Eira. (Pans. iv. 17. § 10, iv. 20. §§ 1. 5 ; Strab. viii. p. 360; Steph. B. *. v. 'loi; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 486; Gcll, Itiner. of the Morea, p. 84 ; Ross, Reisen tm Pelopontiee, p. 95, seq.)

IRENO'POLIS (EiV'IJ'oW"), a town of the district Lacnnitis, in the north-east of Cilicia. It was situated not far from the river Calycadnus, and is said to have once borne the name of Neronias (Nepwrfcu). (Theodoret. Hist. Ecclet. i. 7, ii. 8; Socrat. ii. 26; Ptol. v. 8. § 6.) [L. S.")

IRENO'POLIS. [berof.a.]

IRE'SIAE. [asterium.]

1UIA FLAV1A. [gallaecia.]

IRIA (Eipla, Ptol.: Elh. Iriensis: Voghera), a considerable town of the interior of Liguria, mentioned both by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as in the Itineraries, which place it 10 miles fromDertona, on the road to Placentia. (Plin. iii. 5. 8. 7; Ptol. iii. 1. § 35; Itin. Ant. p. 288; Tab. Peut.) This distance agrees with the site of the modern town of Voghera, which appears to have been called in the middle ages Vicut Iriae, a name gradually corrupted into its modern appellation. It is situated on the little river Stajfura, which would seem to have borne in ancient times the same name with the city: it is called Hiria or Iria by P. Diaconus, who tells us that the emperor Majorianus was put to death on its banks. (Iltst. Miscell. xvi. p. 554 ) Ptolemy includes Iria, as well as Dertona, in the territory of the Taurini; but this wiuld seem to be certainly a mistake: that people couK* never have extended Sfi far to the eastward. An inscription (of ■chich th« reading is, however, a matter of controversy) ban "Colomae Foro Juli Iriensium," from which it would seem that Iria, as well as the neighbouring Dertona, became a colony after the death of Ca?sar, and obtained the name of Forum Julii; but this is very doubtful. No other trace is found either of the name or the colony. (Mallei, Mm. Ver. p. 371.4; Murat. Inscr. p. 1108. 4; Orell. Inter. 73.) [E. H. II.]

1RINE, an island in the Argotic gulf, supposed l.y Leake to be YpsUi. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 19 ; Leake, Pehponnesiaca, p. 294.)

IRINUS SINUS. [casthi Sinus.]

IR1PPO, a town of Hispania Baetica (Plin. iii. 1 s. 3), which Ukert supposes to have been situated in the Sierra de Honda, near Zara or Pinal. (Flo rez, Esp. S. vol. xii. p. 303 ; Coins, ap. Florez, Meii. vol. ii. p. 474, vol. iii. p 85; Mionnet, voL i. p. 56, Suppl. vol. i. p. 113; Sestini, Med. lip. p. 61; Ukert, vol. ii. pL 1. p. 358.) [P. S.]

IRIS (6 "Ipis: Kasalmak), a considerable river of Pontus, which has its sources in the heights of Antitaurus in the south of Pontus. It flows at first in a north-western direction, until reaching Comana it takes a western turn: it thus passes by tho towns of Mesyla and Gaziura. A little above Aniisus it receives the Scylax, and turns eastward; near Flupatoria the Lycus empties itself into it. After tikis it flows due north, and, traversing the plain of Theniiscyra, it empties itself into the Euxine by four mouths, the westernmost of which is the most important (Strab. xii. p. 556.) The Iris is smaller than the Halys (Apollon. Rhod. ii. 368), but still a considerable river, flowing through a vast extent of country, and, according to Xenophon (Anab. v. 6. § 3), was three plethra in breadth. (Comp. Strab. i. p. 52, xii. 547; Scylax, p. 32; Ptol. v. 6. § 2; Xenoph. v. 6. § 9, vi. 2. § 1; Apollon. Rhod. ii. 965; Dionys. Per. 783; Plin. vi. 3, 4.) The part near its mouth is now called 1'cchU or Yekil Irmak. (Hamilton, Rettuivhcs, vol. i. p. 340.) [L. S.]

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IRIS. [iernb.]

1RUS or IRA ("lpos or'Ipd), a town of Malis, of nucertain site. (Steph. B. *. To. ; Lycophr. 903.)

IS (Is, Herod, i. 179), a town of Mesopotamia, eight days' journey N. of Babylon, situated, according to Herodotus, on a stream of the same name, which brought down the bitumen which was nsed in the construction of the walls of Babylon. There is no reason to doubt that it is represented by the modern Hit. There does not appear to be any river at present at Hit, but a small stream may have been easily blocked up by the sand of ages. There are still bitumen springs in the neighbourhood of this place. It has been conjectured that the '\(avvna6n-oAiv of Isidorus (p. 5) refers to the same town. (Ritter, Erdhmde, vol. ii. p. 148; Rennell, Geogr. of Herod, p. 552.) [V.]

ISACA, in Britain, a river mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 4) as lying west of the outlet of the Taviurtis (Tamar). In the Monuments Britannica, Isacae ostia are identified with Weymouth, and also with Exmouth; most probably the latter, name for name, as well as place for place. In the Geographer of Ravenna the form is Isca, which is preferable. [isca.] [R. G. L.]

ISADICI (EiV(i?otoi), a people whom Strabo (xi. p. 506) couples with the Troglody tae and other t ribes of the Caucasus. The name may imply some Hellenic fancy about savage justice and virtue. (Comp. Groskurd, ad he.) [E. B. J.]

ISAMNIUM, in Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 2. § 8) as a promontory north of the Bubinda (river Boyne) = St John's Foreland, Clogher Head, Dunomy Point, Ballashan Point (?). [R. G. L.]

ISANNAVATIA, in Britain, mentioned in the 6th Itinerary as lying between Lactodurum and Tripontium. It is a name of some difficulty, since neither of the places on each side of it has been identified. (See To.) In the Geographer of Ravenna we find a Bannovallum, and in the 8th Itinerary a Bannovantum. Probably these two names are identical. At any rate, Bannovantum = Isannavatia, since each is 28 miles from Magiovinium. Thus, in the 6th Itinerary, we have:—

Magiovinio M. P.

Lactodoro - - xvi.

Isannavatia - - xii=xxviii.

And in the 8th:— M. P.

Bannavanto

Magiovinio - - xxviii.

It is only safe to say that Isannavatia was a town in the southern part of Northamptonshire, probably JMrtntry. The Itinerary in which it occurs has only two names beyond doubt, viz. Vcrulamium and Lindum (St. A Want and Lincoln). Davmtry, however, is Horsley's identification. In more than one map of Roman Britain, Bannovallum is placed in Lincolnshire. This is because it is, in the first place, separated from Bannovantum, and then fixed on the river Bain, a Lincolnshire river. This is the meaning of Horncastle being given as its equivalent. The cliange, however, and the assumption, are equally gratuitous. [B. G. L.]

I'SARA, the river. 1. [issula.]

2. The I&ara, which was a branch of the Scquana, has its name preserved in the Celtic name of a place which was on it, named Briva Isarae. [bi:iva Isakae.] The Celtic element Is has become Oise, the modem name of the river, which is the same

vol. II.

j wonl as the English Owe. D'Anville says that the name Isara in the middle ages became Ella or Aesia. Vibius Sequester mentions a river Esia which flows into the Sequana; but D'Anville suspects the passage to be an interpolation, though it is impossible to judge what is interpolation in such a strange book as Vibius Seqnestcr. Oberlin, the editor of Vibius Sequester, maintains the passage to be genuine (p. 110). [G. L.]

3. [lura.]

ISARCI, a Rhaetian tribe dwelling about the mouth of the river Isarns (Plin. iii. 24), from which it appears to have derived its name. [L. S.] ISARGUS. [ilahgus.]

ISARUS ("ioapos : the liar), a river of the Rhaetian Alps, flowing from an Alpine lake, and in a southern direction until it joins the A thesis near Pons Drusi. (Strab. iv. p. 207, where the "laapos (or a) is said to receive the Atagis (Athesis) j either a mistake of Strabo himself, or by a transcribei transposing the names. Comp. Ilarus.) [L. S.] ISAURA (ra "loaupa: Elh, 'Icaoptis), the capital of Isauria, situated in the south-west of the country; it was a wealthy, populous, and well-fortified city at the foot of Mount Taurus. Of its earlier history nothing is known; but we learn from Diodorus (xviii. 22) that when it was besieged by Perdiccas, and the inhabitants were no longer able to hold out, they set fire to the city, and destroyed themselves with all they possessed. Large quantities of molten gold were found afterwards by the Macedonians among the ashes and ruins. The town was rebuilt, but was destroyed a second time by the Roman Servilius Isauricus, and thenceforth it remained a heap of ruins. Strabo (xii. p. 568) states that the place was ceded by the Romans to Amyntas of Galatia, who built out of the ruins of the ancient city a new one in the neighbourhood, which he surrounded with a wall; but he did not live to complete the work. In the third cen:ury of our aera Isaura was the residence of the rival emperor Trebellianus (Trebell. Poll. XXX. Tyran. 25); but in the time of Ammianus Marcellinus (xiv. 8) nearly all traces of its former magnificence had vanished. At a later period it is still mentioned, under the name Isauropolis, as a town in tiie province of Lycannia. (Hierocl. p. 675; Concil. Clialced. p. 673; comp. Slrab. xiv. p. 665; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Stcph. B. s. v.; Plin. v. 27.) Of Old Isaura no ruins appear to be found, though D'Anville and others have identified it with the modern Bei Skeher; they also believe that Sevli Shehcr occupies the site of New Isaura, while some travellers regard Strict Serai as the representative of New Isaura; but Hamilton (Researches, vol. ii. pp. 330, foil.) has given good reasons for thinking that certain ruins, among which are the remains of a triumphal arch of the emperor Hadrian and a gateway, on a hill near the village of Ohu Bounar mark the site of New Isaura. The walls of the city ran still be traced all around the place. The Isaurians were a people of robbers, and the site of their city was particularly favourable to snch a mode of life. [isauria.] [L. S.]

ISAU'RIA (ri iaavpltt), a district in Asia Minor, bordering in the east on Lycaonia, in the north on Phrygia, in the west on Pisidia, and in the south on Cih'cia and Pamptylia. Its inhabitants, living in a wild and rugged mountainous country, were little known to the civilised nations of antiquity. The country contained but few towns, which existed | especially in the northern part, which was less

y

mountainous, though the capital, Isaura, was in the south. Strabo, in a somewhat obscure passage (xii. p. 568), seems to distinguish between *l(ravpld, the northern part, and laavpucii, tlio southern and less known part, which he regards as belonging to Lycaonia. Later writers, too, designate by tho name Isauria only the northern part of the country, and take no notice of the south, which was to them almost a terra incognita. The inhabitants of that secluded mountainous region of Asia, the Isauri or Isaurica gens, appear to have been a kindred race of the Pisidians. Their principal means of living were derived from plunder and rapine; from their mountain fastnesses they used to descend into the plains, and to ravage and plunder wherever they could overcome the inhabitants of the valleys in Cilicia, Phrygia, and Pisidia. These marauding habits rendered the Isaurians, who also took part in the piracy of the Cilicians, so dangerous to the neighbouring countries that, in B. C. 78, the Romans sent against them an army under P. Servilius, who, after several dangerous campaigns, succeeded in conquering most of their strongholds and reducing them to submission, in consequence of which he received the surname of Isauricus. (Strab. /. c; Diod. Sic. xviii. 22 ; Zosim. v. 25; Mela, i. 2; Plin. v. 23; Eutrop. vi. 3; Liv. Spit. 93; Dion Cass. xiv. 16; Flor. iii. 6; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Oros. v. 23; Amm. Marc. xiv. 2, xxv. 9.) The Isaurians after this were quite distinct from the Lycaonians, for Cicero {ad Att. v. 21; comp. ad Fam. xv. 2) distinguishes between the Forum Lycaonium and the Isauricum. But notwithstanding the severe measures of Scrvilius, who had destroyed their strongholds, and even their capital of Isaura, they subsequently continued to infest their neighbours, winch induced the tetrarch Amyntas to attempt their extirpation; but ho did not succeed, and lost his life in the attempt. Although the glorious victory of Pompey over the pirates had put an end to such practices at sea, the Isaurians, who in the midst of the possessions of Rome maintained their independence, continued their predatory excursions, and defied the power of Rome; and the Romans, unable to protect their subjects against the bold mountaineers in any other way, endeavoured to check them by surrounding their country with a ring of fortresses. (Treb. Poll. XXX. Tyr. 25.) In this, however, the Romans succeeded but imperfectly, for the Isaurians frequently broke through the surrounding line of fortifications; and their successes emboldened them so much that, in the third century of our aera, they united themselves with their kinsmen, the Cilicians, into one nation. From that time the inhabitants of the highlands of Cilicia also are comprised under tho name of Isauri, and the two, united, undertook expeditions on a very large scale. The strongest and most flourishing cities were attacked and plundered by them, and they remained the terror of the surrounding nations. In the third century, Trebellianus, a chief of the Cilician Isaurians, even assumed tho title and dignity of Roman emperor. The Romans, indeed, conquered and put him to death; but were unable to reduce the Isaurians. The emperor Probus, for a time, succeeded in reducing them to submission; but they soon shook off the yoke. (Vopisc. Prob. 16; Zosim. i. 69, 70.) To the Greek emperors they were particularly formidable, for whole armies are said to have been cut to pieces and destroyed by them. (Suid. $. v. Bpvxios and 'Hodtcteios; Philostorg.

Hist. Eccles. zi. 8.) Once the Isaurians even had the honour of giving an emperor to the East in the person of Zeno, surnamed the Isaurian; but they were subsequently much reduced by the emperor Anastasius, so that in the time of Justinian they had ceased to be formidable. (Comp. Gibbon, Hist, of the Decline, tfc, chap, xl.) The Isaurians are described as an ugly race, of low stature, and badly armed; in the open field they were bad soldiers, but as hardened mountaineers they were irresistible in what is called guerilla warfare. Their country, though for the most part consisting of rugged mountains, was not altogether barren, and the vine was cultivated to a considerable extent. (Amm. Marc xiv. 8.) Traditions originating in the favourite pursuits of the ancient Isaurians are still current among the present inhabitants of the country, and an interesting specimen is related in Hamilton's Researches vol. ii. p. 331. [L. S.]

ISCA, the name of two towns in Britain. The criticism of certain difficulties connected with theii identification is given under Mukidunum. Here it is assumed that one is Exeter, the other Caerleonon-Usk.

1. Isca =-Px-eter, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 30). In the 12th and 15th Itineraries this appears as Isca Dumnoniorum, 15 miles from Muridunum. The word Dumnoniorum shows that Devonshire is the county in which it is to be sought. Name for name, Exeter suggests itself. Nevertheless, Horsley gives Uxela as the Roman name for Exeter, and placed Isca D. at Chiselbord1. After remarking on Isaca, that " it is universally supposed to be the river Exe in Devonshire," and that "I'sacae ostia must, therefore, he Exmouth" he adds, "Isca Dumnoniorum has been universally taken for Exeter; I have placed it near Ckiselboro' and South Petherton, near the borders of Somersetshire" (p. 371). His objections (p. 462) lie in the difficulty of fixing Muridunum (q. v.); but, beyond this, he considers himself free to claim Uxela {q. v.) as Exeter. For considering Isca Dumnoniorum to be Exeter, he sees no better reason than "general opinion and some seeming affinity of names." Yet the " affinity of names " has been laid great stress on in the case of Isacae ostia. The Isca of Ptolemy must be about 20 or 30 miles north-east of the mouth of the Exe," on which river Exeter stands. This reaches to the AxSJ Hence he suggests Ilchester as Isca Damn.; but, as he admits that that town has a claim to be considered Ischalis {q. v.), he also admits that some of the localities about Hampden Hill (where there are the remains of a Roman camp), South Petherton (where Roman coins have been found), and Chisdboro' (not far from the Axe), have better claims. Hence, in his map, Uxela = Exeter, and Isca V). = Chiselboro\ Assuming that some, if not all, these difficulties are explained under Uxela and Mukidunum, the positive evidence in favour of Exeter is something more than more opinion and similarity of name.

(1) The form Isca is nearer to Ex than Ax, and that Isaca = Exe is admitted. The Ux- in £/x-ela may better = A x.

(2) There is no doubt as to the other Isca » Caerleon-on- Vsk. Now, Roger Hoveden, who wrote whilst the Cornish was a spoken language, states that the name of Exeter was the same as that of Caerleon, in British, i.e. Cacrwisc = civitas aquae.

(3) The statement of Horsley, that "he could never hear of any military way leading to or from" Exeter, misleads. In Polwhele (p. 182) we have a

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