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most distinct notice of the road from Seaton, and, nine miles from Exeter, tho locality called Sireet-wny Head; the name street road (when not through a town or village) being strong evidence of the way being Roman. Tesselated pavements and the foundations of Roman walls have been found at Exeter, as well as other remains, showing that it was not only a Roman town, but a Roman town of importance, as it continued to be in the Saxon times, and as it had probably been in the British.

2. Lsca Legionis= Caerlecn-on-Usk, is mentioned in the 12th Itinerary, i. e. in the one where lsca Dumnoniorum occurs. The only town given by Ptolemy to the Silures, the population of the parts to which lsca (sometimes called by later writers lsca Silurum) belongs, is Bullaeum. This —- Burrium of the Itinerary, 8 Roman miles from lsca (= Usk, about 6 English miles from Caerleon.) Hence, lsca may have been a military station of comparatively recent date. But there is a further complication. It is the Devonshire lsca to which Ptolemy gives the Second Legion (htyluv Ztvripa XfSaffrit). ■* This," remarks Horsley (and, perhaps, with truth), on the part of Ptolemy, is, "in my opinion, the only manifest and material error committed by him in this part of England" (p. 462).

Again: several inscriptions from the Wall (per lineam Vallt) show that, when that was built, the second Legion was on the Scottish border, taking part in the work j the previous history of the legion being, that it came into Britain under the reign of Claudius, commanded by Vespasian. (Tac. Hist. iii. 44.) On the other hand, an inscription mentioned by Horsley, but now lost (p. 78), indicates their presence at Caerleon in the time of Severus. As the Itinerary places them there also, we must suppose that this was their quarters until the times approaching the evacuation of Britain. When the Notilia was made, they were at Rutupioe (Richboro"): Pbaepositus Legionis Ii. August, Ru

TUPIS.

The Roman remains found at Caerleon are considerable. A late excavation for the parts about the Castle Mound gave the remains of a Roman villa, along with those of a medieval castle, built, to a great extent, out of the materials of the former. In some cases the stucco preserved its colour. There was abundance of pottery,—Samian ware, ornamented with figures of combatant gladiators, keys, bowls, bronze ornaments, and implements. At Pil Bach, near Caerleon, tesselated pavements have been found, along with the following inscription:—Diis Ma

H1BVS TADIA VKI.LAVIV3 . VIXIT ANNOS SEXAGINTA QVINQVE . ET TADIVS EXUPERTVS F1LIV9 VIXIT ANNOS TBIOINTA 8EITF.M . DEFVNTVS (sic) EXPEDITIONS OEBMANICA . TADIA EXUl'KltATA FILIA MATRI ET PATRI PII8SIMA 8ECVS TV

Mvlvm Patris POSViT. Others, of less length, to the number of twenty, have also been found in the neighbourhood. (See Archaeologia Cambrensis; Journal of British Archaeological Association (passim); and Delineations of Roman Antiquities found at Caerleon, J. E. Lee.) [R. G. L.]

ISCA, river. [isaca.]

ISCA'DIA (Eio-Koii'a), a town in the W. of Baetica, between the Baetis and the Anas, not far from Tucci. (Appian, JJisp. 68.) [P. S.]

ISC1IALIS, in Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 28) as one of the towns of the Belgac, Baih and Winchester ("T5ara Qfpud, or Aquae Solis, and

Venta) being the other two; identified, in the Monuments Britannica, with Ilchester. [isca DumnoNiorum.] [R. G. L.]

ISCHOTOLIS (lo-xoWu), a small town on the coast of Pontns near Pharnacia, was in ruins even in the time of Strabo (xu. p. 548), but is still noticed by Ptolemy (v. 6. § 5). [L. S.]

ISIACO'RU JI PORTUS ('uiokuv \iniv, Arrian, Peripl. p. 21, Anon. Peripl. p. 9), a harbour on the Euxine sea, 380 stadia from the island at the mouth of the Borysthenes, and 1200 stadia from the Psilon (Sutina) mouth of the Danube. (Arrian, c.) It has been identified by Rennell (Comp. Geog. vol. ii. p. 360) with Odessa. There is some difficulty in adjusting the discrepancies in detail; but the aggregate distance appears to be clearly enough made out. Thus, from the island to Odessus Arrian allows a distance of 80 stadia, and from Odessus to the port of the Istrians ('lo^fuarSr Aijutjc) 250 stadia, and thence to that of the Isiaci 50 stadia. The 0DESSUs('O5ifff troy) of Arrian (for he places Odessus at Varna) is probably a false reading, and is the same as the Ordesu's ('Op&jjo-os) of Ptolemy (iii. 5. § 29) and Pliny (iv. 12), situated upon the river Axiaces, or the modern Teligul, a large estuary which receives a river of the same name. As the interval in Arrian between Odessus (Ordesus) and the island is too short, so the next is too large; but the errors balance one another, and the harbour of the Isiaci agrees with that of Odessa within three quarters of a mile; the port of the Istrians may have lain to the N. of the bay of Odessa. [E. B. J.J

ISIDIS OPPIDUM (Plin. v. 10. s. 11). Near the city of Busiris, in the Aegyptian Delta, was situated a splendid temple of Isis, around which, besides the ordinary dwellings of the priests within the sacred precincts, gradually clustered a large and flourishing village, inhabited by the artisans and husbandmen who supplied the wants or tilled the lands of the inmates of the temple. These buildings formed probably the hamlet or town of Isis mentioned by Pliny. The modern village of Bahbeyt, N. of the ancient city of Busiris, is supposed to cover the ruins of the Tcmplum Isidis. (Pococke, Travels in the East, vol. i. p. 34j Minutoi, p. 304.) [Bu ■ Siris.] [W. B. D.]

ISINISCA, a place in Rhoetia Secunda, on the ancient road between Augsburg and Salzburg, (/tin. Ant. pp. 236, 251, 257; Tab. Peat., where it is called Isunisca.) It is identified by some with Isen, and by others with a place near Helfendorf. [L. S.]

ISIONDA ('I<noV!a), a town in the south-west of Pisidia, a few miles to the north-west of Termessus. (Polyb. Exc. de Leg. 31; Liv. xxxviii. 15.) Strabo (xii. p. 570), in enumerating the Pisidion towns, mentions one which he calls Sinda, a name which some editors believe to be a corrupt reading for Isiouda; but, as there existed a town of the name of Sinda near Cibyra in Pisidian Phrygiu, it would be hazardous to decide anything. (See Kramer's note on Strab. t c.) Sir C. Fellowes (Asia Minor, p. 194) found extensive remains of an ancient town on the top and side of one of the many isolated hills of the district, which he supposes to be the ruins of Isionda, but he does not mention any coins or inscriptions in support of his conjecture. [L. S.]

ISIS (i "Iir's), a navigable river on the east coast of the Euxine between the Aciuasis and Mogrns, from each of which its distance amounted to 90 stadia, while its mouth was 180 stadia south of that of the Plrnsb. f Arrian, Peripl. p. 7 ; Plin. vi. 4; Scylax, p. 32, where the common reading "Ipis has been corrected by Gail.) This river is believed to be the modern Tshorok. [L. S.]

rSIUM (Isiu, Am. Anion, p. 167; Isui, Not. Imp.), was a fort situated on the borders of the Thebaid and Heptanomis in Egypt, in lat. 27° 5' N., and on the eastern bank of the Nile. Isiam was about 20 miles SK. from the castle of Hieracon, and nearly 24 miles NE. from that of Muthis. Under the Roman empire a troop of British infantry (ala Britonum) was stationed there. [W. B. D.]

ISIUS MONS (to "low i>t, Ptol. iv. 7. § 5), a mountain, or rather a ridge of highlands rising gradually on its western side, but steep and escarped towards the east, on the coast of Aethiopia, and in the Regio Troglodytica. It was seated in lat. 20° 1' N., a little to the southward of the headland Mnemium (yivvfitiav Hxpov, Ptol. iv. 5. § 7), and SW. of Berenice and the Sinus Immundus {Foul Bay). Mons Isius answers to the modern Ras-el-Dwaer. Strabo, indeed (xvii. p. 770), places this eminence further to the south, and says that it was so called from a temple of Isis near its summit. [W. B. D.] ISMARIS ('Iffjiapli \iiivri), a small lake on the south coast of Thrace, a little to the east of Maronea. (Herod, vii. 169; Steph. B. s. v. "Iiryaapoj.) On its eastern side rises ML Ismarus. [ismakus.] [L. S.] I'SHARUS CloTMtpos), a mountain rising on the east of lake Ismaris, on the south coast of Thrace (Virg. Eel. vi. 30, Georg. ii. 37 ; Propert. ii. 13. 5. iii. 12. 25 ; Lucret. v. 31, where it is called Ismara, as in Virg. A en. x. 351.) Homer (Od. ix. 40,198) speaks of Ismarus as a town of the Cirones, on or at the foot of the mountain. (Coinp. Marc. Hcracl 28.) The name of the town also appears in the form Ismaron. (Plin. iv. 18.) The district about Ismarus produced wine which was highly esteemed. (Athen. i. p. 30; Ov. Met. ix. 641; Steph. B. 4 v.) [L. S.]

ISME'NUS. [thebae.] ISON'DAE QlirSvlat, Ptol. v. 9. § 23), a people whose position must be sought for in the valley of the river Terek or Kuma, in Lezgestdn, to the W. of the Caspian. [E. B. J.]

ISPI'NUM. [cahpetani.] ISRAEL. [pai-aestina.] ISSA ("Iffffi, Ptol. ii. 16. § 14; Agathem. i. 5; Pomp. Mela, ii. 7. § 13; Plin. iii. 26; Steph. B.; Itin. A ntm.; Peat. Tab.; Isia, Geog. Rav.; "Iijt, Const. Purph. de Adm. Imp. 36: Eih. and Adj. "Io-ffeuy, Issaeus, Issensis, Issaicns: Lissa), one of the most well known of the islands in the Adriatic, off the coast of Liburnia. (Strab. vii. p. 315.) It is mentioned by Scylax (p. 8) as a Grecian colony, which, according to Scymnus of Chios (1. 412), was sent from Syracuse. Diodorus (xv. 13) relates that in B.C. 3S7 Dinnysius the elder, in his attempts to seeure to himself the sovereignty of the Adriatic, assisted the Parians in founding colonies at Issa and Pharos. The island was besieged by Agron, king of Illyria, and the inhabitants applied to Rome for protection, when a message was sent by the Romans to Agron, requiring him to desist from molesting the friends of the republic. In the mean time, B. C. 232, Agron died; and his widow Teuta. having succeeded tn the throne, resolved on pressing the siege of Issa. The Roman envoys required her to cease from hostilities, when, in defiance of the law of nations, she put one of them to death. This brought on the First Illyrian War, B. c. 229; one of the consequences of which was the liberation of Issa. (Polyb. ii. 8; App.

Illyr. 7.) That Issa remained free for a long time is proved b» its coins, which also show that the island was famous for its wine (comp. Athen. i. p. 22), bearing, as they do, an "amphora" on one side, and on the other a vine with leaves. (Eckhel, vol. ii. p. 159.) The inhabitants were expert seamen, and their beaked ships, " Lcmbi Issaici," rendered the Romans especial service in the war with Philip of Macedon. (Liv. xxxi. 45, xxxvii. 16, xlii. 48.) They were exempted from the payment of tribute (Liv. xlv. 8), and were reckoned as Roman citizens (Plin. iii. 21). In the time of Caesar the chief town of this island appeal's to have been very flourishing.

The island now called Lissa rises from the sea, so that it is seen at a considerable distance; it has two ports, the larger one on the NE. side, with a town of the same name: the soil is barren, and wine forms its chief produce. Lissa is memorable in modern times for the victory obtained by Sir W. Hoste over the French squadron in 1811. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 110; Neigebaur, Die Sudslavem, pp. 110—115.) [E. B. J.]

[graphic][merged small]

ISSA. [lesbos]

ISSACHAR. [palakstisa.]

ISSE'DONES (ltranodvts, Steph. B. s. r.; in the Roman writers the usual form is "Essedones"), a people living to the E. of the Argippaei, and the most remote of the tribes of Central Asia with whom the Hellenic colonies on the Eusine had any communication. The name is found as early as the Spartan Alcman, B. C, 671 —631, who calls them "Assedones" (Fr. 94, ed. Welcker), and Hecatacus (/r.168, ed. Kiausen). A great movement among the nomad tribes of the N. had taken place in very remote times, following a direction from NE. to SW.; the Arimaspi had driven out the Issedones from the steppes over which they wandered, and they in turn drove out the Scythians, and the Scythians the Cimmerians. Traces of these migrations were indicated in the poem of Ari.stcas of Proconnesus, a semimythical personage, whose pilgrimage to the land of the Issedones was strangely disfigured after his death by the fables of the Milesian colonists (Hernd. iv. 13.) The Issedones, according to Herodotus (iv. 26). have a custom, when any one loses his father, for the kinsfolk to kill a certain number of sheep, whose flesh they hash up together with that of the dead man, and make merry over it. This done, they peel and clean out his skull, which after it has been gilded becomes a kind of idol to which yearly sacrifices are offered. In all other respects they are a righteous people, submitting to the rule of women equally with that of men ; in other words, a civilised people.

Heercn (Asiat. Nat. vol. ii. p. 15, trans.), upon Dr. Leyden's authority (Asiat. Res. vol. ix. p. 202), illustrates this way of carrying out the duties of filial piety by the practice of the Battas of Sumatra. It may be remarked that a similar story is told of the Indian Padaei. (Herod, iii. 99.) Pomponius Mela (ii. 1. § 13) amply copies the statement of Herodotus, though he alters it so far as to assert that the Issedones used the skull as a driuking cup. The name occurs more than once in Pliny (iv. 26, vi. 7, 19); and Ptolemy, who has a town IsSEDOH in Serica ( l<r<rriStii>, vi. 16. § 7, viii. 24. § 5), mentions in another place (viii. 24. § 3) the Scythian Issedon. (Comp. Steph. B.». v.; Amm. Marc xxiii. 6 § 66.

Von Humboldt (Asie Centrak, vol. i. pp. 390— 412) has shown that, if the relief of the countries between the Don and the Irtyah be compared with the itinerary traced by Herodotus from the Thys. sagetae to the Issedones, it will be seen that the Father of History was acquainted with the existence of vast plains separating the Ural and Altai, chains which modern geographers have been in the habit of uniting by an imaginary range passing through the steppe of the Kirghiz. This route (Herod, iv. 23, 24) recognises the passage of the Ural from W. to £., and indicates another chain more to the £. and more elevated — that of the Allot These chains, it is true, are not designated by any special names, but Herodotus was not acquainted even in Europe with the names of the Alps and Rhipaean mountains; and a comparison of the order in which the peoples are arranged, as well as the relief and description of the country, shows that much definite information had been already attained. Advancing from the Pal us Maeotis, which was supposed to be of far larger dimensions than it really is, in a central direction towards the NE., the first people found occupying the plains are the " Black-clothed" MeLani Iilaeni, then the Budini, Thyssagetae, the Iukcab (who have been falsely identified with the Turks), and finally, towards the E., a colony of Scythians, who had separated themselves from the " Royal Scythians" (perhaps to barter gold and skins). Here the plains end, and the ground becomes broken (ai0cs8iji Kal *rpyx*v), rising into mountains, at the foot of which are the Akgippaei, who have been identified from their long chins and flat noses with the Kalmucks or Mongolians by Niebuhr, Bockh, and others, to whom reference is made by Mr. Grote. (But. of Greece, vol. iii. p. 320.) This identification has been disputed by Humboldt (comp. Cosmos, vol. i. p. 353 note, 440, vol. ii. p. 141 note, 202, trans.), who refers these tribes to the Finnish stock, assuming as a certain fact, on evidence which it is difficult to make out, that the Mongolians who lived around Lake Baikal did not move into Central Asia till the thirteenth century. Where the data are so few, for the language (the principle upon which the families of the human race are marked off) may be said to be unknown, ethnographic analogies become very hazardous, and the more so in the case of nomad tribes, the same under such wide differences of time and climate. But if there be considerable difficulty in making out the analogy of race, the local bearings of these tribes may be laid down with tolerable certainty. The country up to the Argippaei was well known to the traders; a barrier of impassable mountains blocked up the way beyond. [hyferbokei ] The position of the Issedones, according to the indications of the route, must be assigned to the E. of Ichim in the steppe of the central horde of the Kirghiz, and that of the Arimaspi on the N. declivity of the

Altai. The communication between the two peoples for the purpose of carrying on the gold trade was probably made through the plains at 'the NW. extremity of the Altai, where the range juts out in the form of a huge promontory. [E. B. J.]

ISSICUS SINUS. [Issus.]

ISSUS C\oo6s and 'Iovoi, Xen. Anab. i. 2. § 24, and i. 4. § 1), a town of Cilicia, on the gulf of Issus ('Io-eriitij Koawos). Herodotus calls the gulf of Issus the gulf of Myriandros (iv. 38), from the town of Myriandros, which was on it.

The gulf of Issus is now named the gulf of Ishendermt or Scanderoon, from the town of Scanderoon, formerly Alexandria ad Issnm, on the east side. It is tlie only large gulf on the southern side of Asia Minor and on the Syrian coast, and it is an important place in the systems of the Greek geographers. This gulf runs in a NE. direction into the land to the distance of 47 miles, measured nearly at right angles to a line drawn from the promontory Megarsus (Cape KaradasK), on the Cilician coast, to the Rhosicus Scopulus (Has-eUKhdnzir, or Bynzyr, as it has sometimes been written), on the Syrian coast; for these two capes are respectively the limits of the gulf on the west and east, and 25 miles from one another. The width immediately north of the capes is .somewhat less than 25 miles, but it does not diminish much till we approach the northern extie mity of the gulf. It seems certain that the ancient outlet of the Pyranius was west of and close to Cnpt Karadash, where Beaufort supposes it to have been and this is consistent with the old prophecy [Vol. I p. 620], that the alluvium of the Pyramus would some time reach to the shore of Cyprus; for if the river had entered the gulf where it does now, 23 miles further east, the prophecy would have oeei. that it would fill up the gulf of Issus. For the earth that the river formerly discharged into the sea is now sent into the gulf, where it " has produced a plain of sand along the side of the gulf, somewhat similar in shape, and equal in size, to that formed by the Ghiuk Soot/oo [calycadnus, Vol. 1. p. 483]; but the elbow where tho current that sets round the gulf quits it, is obtuse and without any shoals. Perhaps the disappearance of the Serrepolis of Ptolemy from the coast, may be accounted for by the progressive advance of the shore into tho gulf, which has left the ruins of that town some miles inland'* (Beaufort, Caramania, p. 296). Ptolemy's Serraepolis (Scdpa/xoAij), which he calls a small place (k^/atj), is between Mallus, which is a little east of Cape Megarsus, and Aegae or Ayaz. [aegae.] The next city to Aegae on the coast is Issus, and this is the remotest city in this part of Cilicia which Ptolemy mentions. Xenophon also speaks of it as the last city of Cilicia on the road to Syria.

The mountains which bound the gulf of Issus are described in the article Am An us. The bold Uhosicus Scopulus (5400 feet high), where the Syrian Amanus terminates on the coast, may be distinctly seen by the sailor when he is abreast of Seleuceia (Selefkeh), at the mouth of the Calycadnus, a distance of 85 geographical miles (Beaufort). A small stream flows into the head of the gulf of Issus, and a few from the Amanus enter the east side, one of which, the Pinarus, is the Deli Tsehai; and the other, the Carsus of Xenophon, is the Merl'es. The Amanus which descends to the Rhosicus Scopulus. and the other branch of the Amanus ivltic li *huts in the gulf of Issus on tLr. NW. and forms Slrabo's Amanides Pylae, unite in the interior, as Strabo says (p. 535); and our modem maps represent it so. There is a plain at the head of the gulf. Strabo gives a greater extent to tho Issic gulf than we do to the gulf of Scandcroon, for he makes it extend along the Cilician coast as far as Cilicia Trachea, and certainly to Soli (pp. 534, 664). In another passage (p. 125) he shows what extent he gives to the gulf of Issus, by placing Cyprus in the Pamphyliau sea and in the gulf of Issus,—the west part of the island being in the Pamphylian, and the east in the Issic gulf. The gulf of Isimderun was surveyed by Lt. Murphy in the Euphrates expedition under the command of Colonel Chesney.

The ancient geographers did not agree about tho position of the isthmus of the country which we call Asia Minor; by which isthmus they meant the shortest distance across the eastern part of the peninsula from the Euxine to the Mediterranean. Strabo (p. 673) makes this shortest distance lio along a line joining Amisus and Tarsus. If he had said Amisus and the head of the gulf of Issus, he would have been quite right. He was nearly correct as to the longitude of the head of the gulf of Issus, which he places in the meridian of Amisus and Themiscyra (p. 126); and in another passage he says that the head of the gulf of Issus is a little more east than Amisus, or not at all more east (p. 519). Amisus is, in fact, a little further east than the most eastern part of the gulf of Issus. The longest direction of the inhabited world, according to Strubo's system (p. 118), from west to east, is measured on a line drawn through the Stelae (Straits of Gibraltar), and the Sicilian strait (Straits of Messma), to Rhodus and the gulf of Issus, whence it follows the Taurus, which divides Asia into two parts, and terminates on the eastern sea. Those ancient geographers who made the isthmus of the Asiatic peninsula extend from Issus to the Euxine, considered the shortest line across the isthmus to be a meridian line, and the dispute was whether it ran to Sinope or Ainisus (Strab. p. 678). The choice of Issus as the point on the Mediterranean to reckon from, shows that Issus was the limit, or most eastern point, on the south coast of the peninsula, and that it was not on that part of the bay of Issus where the coast runs south. Consequently Issus was on or near the head of the gulf. Herodotus (iv. 38) makes the southern side of this peninsula, or Acte, as he calls it, extend from the Myriandric gulf (gulf of Issus) to the Triopian promontory, which is quite correct. On the north side he makes it extend from the mouth of the I'hasis to tho promontory Sigeum, which is correct as to the promontory; but ho carries the neck too far east, when he makes it begin at the Phasis. This mistake, however, shows that he knew something of the position of the mouth of the Phasis, for he intends to make the Acte begin at that part where the coast of the Euxine begins- to lie west and cast; and though the mouth of the Phasis is not exactly at this point, it was the best known river of any near it. In another passage (i. 72), which, like many others in his history, is obscurely expressed, he describes the neck (aux'jy) of this Acte as nearly cut through by the river Halys; and he makes its width from the sea opposite to Cyprus to the Euxine to be five days' journey fur an active man,—an estimate very much short of the truth, even if we allow Greek activity to walk 30 miles a day through a rough country. Strsbo's re

port from hearsay (vol. i. p. 538), that the hay of Issus can be seen from the summit of Argaeus [argaeus], is very improbable.

Xenophon says that Cyrus marched 15 parasangs from the Pyraraus (JaVum) "to Issi, the uttermost city of Cihcia, on the sea, great and prosperous." From Issus to the Pylae of Cilicia and Syria, the boundary between Syria and Cilicia, was five parasangs, and here was the river Carsus (Xen. Anab. i. 4. § 4). The next stage was five parasangs to Myriandrus, a town in Syria on the sea, occupied by Phoenicians, a trading place (tfiwdpiov'), where many merchant Bhips were lying. Carsten Niebuhr, who went through the Pylae Ciliciae to Tarsus, has some remarks on the probable site of Issus, but they lead to no conclusion (vol. i. p. 116), except that we cannot certainly determine the site of Issus from Xenophon; and yet he would give us the best means of determining it, if we knew where he crossed the Pyramus, and if we were also certain that the numbers in the Greek text are correct.

The nearest road to Susa from Sardis was through the Cilician plains. The difficulties were the passage into the plains by the Ciliciae Pylae or pass [Vol. I. p. 619], and the way out of the plains along the gulf of Issus into Syria. The great road to Susa which Herodotus describes (v. 49, 52), went north of the Taurus to the Euphrates. The land forces in the expedition of Datis and Artapherncs, B. c. 490, crossed the Syrian Amanus, and went as far as the Aleian plain in Cilicia; and there they embarked. (Herod, vi. 95.) They did not march by land through the Cilician Pylae over the Taurus into the interior of the peninsula; but Mardonius (Herod, vi. 43), in the previous expedition had led his troops into Cilicia, and sent them on hy land to the Hellespontus, while he took ship and sailed to Ionia. The land force of Mardonius must have passed out of Cilicia hy the difficult pass in the Taurus. [Vol. I. p. 619.]

Shortly before the battle of Issus (n. c. 333) Alexander was at Mallos, when he heard that Darius with all his force was at Sochi in Assyria; which place was distant two marches from the Assyrian Pylae. (Arrian, Anab. ii. 6.) "Assyria" and " Assyrian" here mean " Syria" and " Syrian." Darius had crossed the Euphrates, probably at Thapsacus, and was encamped in an open country in Syria, which was well suited for his cavalry. The place Sochi is unknown: but it may be the place which Curtius calls Unchae. (Q. Curt. iv. 1.) Arrian says that Alexander left Mallos, and on the second day he passed through the Pylae and reached Myriandrus: he docs not mention Issus on this march. Now the shortest distance that Alexander could march from Mallos to Scaiuleroon is at least 70 miles, and if Myriandrus was south of Scanderoon, it was more than 70 miles. This statement of Arrian as to time is therefore false. Curtius (iii. 8) says that Alexander only reached Castabalum [casTaualvm] on the second day from Mallos; that he went through Issus, and there deliberated whether he should go on or halt. Darius crossed the Amanus, which separates Syria from the bay of Issus, by a pass called tho Amanicae Pylae (Arrian, ii. 7), and advancing to Issus, was in the rear of Alexander, who had passed through the Cilician and Syrian Pylae. Darius came to the pass in the Aiuauus, says Curtius, on tho same night that Alexander came to the pass (fauces) by which Syria is enteredThe place where Darius crossed the Autanus was en situated that he came to Issus first, where he shamefully treated the sick of the Macedonians who had been left there. The next day he moved from lssns to pursue Alexander (Arrian; Curtins, iii. 8); that is, lie moved towards the Pylae, and he came to the banks of the river Pinarus, where he halted. Issus was, therefore, north of the Pinarus, and some little distance from it. Kiepert's map of Asia Minor marks a pass in the range of the Syrian Amanus, which is north of the pass that leads over the same mountains from the east to Baiae (Soyas'), and nearly due east of the head of the gulf of Issus. He calls it Pylae Amanides, by which he means the Pylae Amanicae of Arrian, not the Amanides of Strabo; and he takes it to be the pass by which Darius crossed the Syrian Amanus and came down upon the gulf. This may have been his route, and it would bring him to Issus at the head of the gulf, which he came to before turning south to the Pinarus {Deli Tschai'). It is certain that Darius crossed by some pass which brought him to Issus before he reached the Pinarus. Yet Kiepeit has placed Issus south of the Pinarus, or rather between the two branches of this river, which he represent"! as uniting near the coast. Kiepert also marks a road which passes over the junction of the two branches of the Amanus [amanus, Vol. I. p. 114] and runs to Marath, which he supposes to be Germanicia. This is the dotted road marked as running north from the head of the gulf of Issus in the plan [Vol. I. p. 115]; but even if there be such a road, it was not the road of Darius, which must have been the pass above mentioned, in the latitude of the head of the gulf of Issus; which is not marked in the above plan, but ought to be. This pass is probably the Amanicae Pylae of Ptolemy, which he places 5' further south than Issus, and 10' east of Issns.

Alexander, hearing that the Persians were in his rear, turned back to the Pylae, which he reached at midnight, and halted till daybreak, when he moved on. (Arrian, A nub. ii. 8.) So long as the road was narrow, he led his army in column, but as the pass widened, he extended his column into line, part towards the mountain and part on the left towards the sea. When he came to the wide part (tvpvxupla), he arranged his army in order of battle, which Arrian describes very particularly. Darius was posted on the north side of the Pinarus. It is plain, from this description, that Alexander did not march very far from the Pylae before he reached the wider part of the valley, and the river. As the sea was on his left, and the mountains on his right, the river was a stream which ran down from the Syrian Amanus; and it can be no other than the I)eli Tsckai, which is about 13 miles north of the Carsus (Mtrlces), direct distance. Polybius (xii. 17), who criticisesCallisthenes's description of the battle, states, on his authority, that Darius descended into Cilicia through the Pylae Amanides, and encamped on tho Pinarus, at a place where the distance between the mountains and the sea was not more than 14 stadia; and that the river ran across this place into the sea, and that in its course through the level part "it had abrupt and difficult eminences (A(S</>ous)." This is explained by what Arrian says of the banks of the river being steep in many parte on the north side. (Anab. ii. 10.) Callisthcnes further said, that when Alexander, after having passed the defile (ta (rrtva), heard of Darius being in Cilicia, he was 100 stadia from him, and, accordingly, he marched back through the defile. It is not clear, from the

extract in Polybius, whether the 100 stadia are to be reckoned to Issus or to the Pinarus. According to Arrian, when Alexander heard of Darius being behind him, he sent some men in a galley back to Issus, to see if it was so; and it is most consistent with the narrative to suppose that the men saw the Persians at Issus before they had advanced to the river; but this is not quite certain. The Persian army was visible, being near the coast, as it would be, if it were seen at Issus.

Strabo (p. 676), following the historians of Alexander, adds nothing to what Arrian has got from them. Alexander, he says, led his infantry from Soli along the coast and through the Mallotis to Issus and the forces of Darius; an expression which might mislead, if we had no other narrative. He also says, after Mall us is Aegae, a small town with a harbour, then the Amanides Pylae [amanides Pylae], where there is a harbour; and after Aegae is Issus, a small town with a harbour, and the river Pinarus, where the fight was between Alexander and Darius. Accordingly he places Issus north of the Pinarus. Cicero, during his procousulship of Cilicia, led his forces against the mountaineers of the Amanus, and he was saluted as imperator at Issus, "where," he says, "as I have often heard from you, Clitarchus told you that Darius was defeated by Alexander." There is nothing to be got from this. (Ad Fam. ii. 10.) In another passage, he says that he occupied for a few days the same camp that Alexander had occupied at Issus against Darius. (Ad Ait. v. 20.) And again (ad Fam. xiv. 20), he says that, " he encamped for four days at the roots of the Amanus, at the Arae Alexaudri." If this is the same fact that he mentions in his letter to Atticus, the Arae were at Issus, and Issus was near the foot of the Amanus.

The battle between Septimius Severns and Niger was fought (a. D. 194) somewhere about Issus; but nothing can be collected from the description of Herodian (iii. 12), except that the battle was not fought on the same ground as Alexander's, though it was fought on the gulf of Issus. Stephanus (i. v. 'Iffffdj) describes it as "a city between Syria and Cilicia, where Alexander defeated Darius, which was called, for this reason, Nicopolis by him; and there is the bay of Issus; and there, also, is a river named Pinarus." Strabo, after speaking of Issus, mentions, on the Issic gulf, Rhosus, and Myriandrus, and Alexandria, and Nicopolis, and Mopsuestia, in which description he proceeds from the Syrian side of the ,gulf, and terminates with Mopsuestia on the Pyramus. According to this enumeration, Nicopolis would he between Alexandria (Scanderoon) and Mopsuestia; and it may be near Issus, or it may not. Ptolemy (v. 8. § 7, 15. § 2) places Nicopolis exactly one degree north of Alexandria and 50' north of Issus. He places Issus and Rhosus in the same longitude, and Nicopolis, Alexandria, and Myriandrus 10' further east than Issus. The absolute truth of his numbers is immaterial. A map constructed according to Ptolemy would place Issus at the head of the gulf, and Nicopolis inland. Nicopolis is one of the cities which he enumerates among the inland cities of Cilicia Proper.

Issus, then, being at the head of the gulf, and Tarsus being a fixed point in the march of Cyrus, we may now see how the matter stands with Xenophon's distances. Cyrus marched 10 parasangs from Tarsus to the river Psarus (Sarus), SiJiwi, ami crossed at a place where it was 300 feet wide

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