صور الصفحة

JAXARTES, IAXARTES (6 'Iofdpnu), the river of Central Asia which now bears the name of Syr-Daria, or Yellow River (Daria is the generic Tartar name for all rivers, and <Syr=" yellow"), and which, watering the barren steppes of the Kirghiz-Cossacks, was known to the civilised world in the most remote ages.

The expats of Cyrus and Alexander the Great have inscribed its name in history many centuries before our aera. If we are to believe the traditionary statements about Cyrus, the left bank of this river formed the N. limit of the vast dominion of that conqueror, who built a town, deriving its name from the founder [cyrkschata], upon its banks; and it was upon the right bank that he lost his life in battle with Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae. Herodotus (i. 201—216), who is the authority for tliis statement, was aware of the existence of the Syr-Daria ; and although the name Jaxartes, which was a denomination adopted by the Greeks and followed by the Romans, does not appear in his history, yet the Araxes of Herodotus can be no other than the actual Syr, because there is no other great river in the country of the Massagetae. Much has been written upon the mysterious river called Araxes by Herodotus; M. De Guignes, Fosse, and Gatterer, suppose that it is the same as the Ox us or AmouDaria; M. De la Nauze sees in it the Araxes of Armenia; while Bayer, St, Croix, and Larcher, conceive that under this name the Volga is to be understood. The true solution of the enigma seems to be that which has been suggested by D'Anville, that the Araxes is an appellative common to the Amou, the Armenian Aras, the Volga, and the Syr. (Comp. Araxes, p. 188; Mem. de VAcad des Itiscr. vol. xxxvi. pp. 69—85; Heeren, Asiat. Nations, vol. ii. p. 19, trans.) From this it may be concluded, that Herodotus had some vague acquaintance with the Syr, though he did not know it by name, but confounded it with the Araxes; nor was Aristotle more successful, as the Syr, the Volga, and the Don, have been recognised in the description of the Araxes given in his Meteorologies (i. 13. § 15), which, it must- be recollected, was written before Alexander's expedition to India. (Comp. Ideler, Meteorologia Vet. Graecor. et Rom. ad I. c, Berol, 1832; St. Croix, Examen Critique des Hist. dAlex. p. 703.)

A century after Herodotus, the physical geography of this river-basin became well known to the Greeks, from the expedition of Alexander to Bactria and Sogdiana, In B. O. 329, Alexander reached the Jaxartes, and, after destroying the seven towns or fortresses upon that river the foundation of which was ascribed to Cyrus, founded a city, bearing his own name, upon its banks, ALexakDReIa Ultima (Khojend). (Q. Curt. vii. 6; Arrian, Anab. iv. I. §3.)

After the Macedonian conquest, the Syr is found in all the ancient geographers under the form Jaxartes: while the country to the N. of it bore the general name of Scythia, the tracts between the Syr and Amou were called Transoxiana. The Jaxartes is not properly a Greek word, it was borrowed by the Greeks from the Barbarians, by whom, as Arrian {Anab. iii. 30. § 13) asserts, it was called Orxantes ('Op^ctinjs), Various etymologies of this name have been given (St. Croix, Examen Critique aes Hist. dAlex. § 6), but they are too uncertain to be relied on: but whatever be the derivation of the word, certain it is Out the Syr appears in all

ancient writers under the name Jaxartes, Some, indeed, confounded the Jaxartes and the TanaTs, and that purposely, as will be seen hereafter. A few have confounded it with the Oxus; while all, without exception, were of opinion that both the Jaxartes and the Oxus discharged their waters into the Caspian, and not into the Sea of Aral. It seems, at first sight, curious, to those who know, the true position of these rivers, that the Greeks, in describing their course, and determining the distance of their respective "embouchures," should have taken the Sea of Aral for the Caspian, and that their mistake should have been repeated op to very recent times. Von Humboldt (Asie Centrale, vol. ii. pp. 162— 297) — to whose extensive inquiry we owe an invaluable digest of the views entertained respecting the geography of the Caspian and Oxus by classical, Arabian, and European writers and travellers, along with the latest investigations of Russian scientific and military men — arrives at these conclusions respecting the ancient junction of the Aral, Oxus, and Caspian:

1st. That, at a period before the historical era, hut nearly approaching to those revolutions which preceded it, the great depression of Central Asia — "the concavity of Tttran — may have been one large interior sea, connected on the one hand with the Euxine, on the other hand, by channels more or less broad, with the Icy Sea, and the Balkash and its adjoining lakes.

2nd. That, probably in the time of Herodotus, and even so late as the Macedonian invasion, the Aral was merely a bay or gulf, of the Caspian, connected with it by a lateral prolongation, into which the Oxus flowed.

3rd. That, by the preponderance of evaporation over the supply of water by the rivers, or by diluvial deposits, or by Plutonic convulsions, the Aral and Caspian were separated, and a bifurcation of the Oxus developed,— one portion of its waters continuing its course to the Caspian, the other terminating in the Aral.

4lh. That the continued preponderance of evaporation has caused the channel communicating with the Caspian to dry up.

At present it must be allowed that, in the absence of more data, the existence of this great Aralo-Caspian basin within the "historic period," must be a moot point; though the geological appearances prove by the equable distribution of the same peculiar organic remains, that the tract between the Aral and the Caspian was once the bed of an united and continuous sea, and that the Caspian of the present day is the small residue of the once mighty AraloCaspian Sea,

Strabo (xi. pp. 507—517) was acquainted with the true position of this river, and has exposed the errors committed by the historians of Alexander (p. 508), who confounded the mountains of the l'aropamisus — or Paropanisus, as all the good MSS. of Ptolemy read (Asie Centrale, vol. i. pp. 114—118) — with the Caucasus, and the Jaxartes with the Tanai's. All this was imagined with a view of exalting the glory of Alexander, so that the great conquenu might be supposed, after subjugating Asia, to havo arrived at the Don and the Caucasus, the scene ot the legend where Hercules unbound the chains of the fire-bringing Titan.

The Jaxartes,according to Strabo(p. 510), took its rise in fhe xmntains of India, and he determines it as the frontier between Sogdiana and the nomad Scythians (pp. 514, 517), tbe principal tribes of which i were the Sacae, Dahae, and Massagetae, and adds (p. 518) that its "embouchure " was, according to Patrocles, 80 parasangs from tbe mouth of tbe Oxus. Pliny (vi. 18) says that the Scythians called it "Silis," probablj a form of the name Syr, which it now bears, and that Alexander and his soldiers thought that it was tbo Tanals. It has been conjectured that the Alani, in whose language tbe word tan (Tan-aTs, Dan, Don) signified a river, mar have brought this appellative first to the E., and then tu the VY. of the Aralo-Caspiar bnsi.., iu t'ueir migrations, and thus have contributed u> confirm an error so flattering to tbe vanity of tbe Macedonian conqucrors. (Arie Central*, vol. ii. pp. 254, 291; coop, Schafarik, Slav. Alt vol. i. p. 500.) Pomponius Mela (iii. 5. § 6) merely states that it watered the vast countries of Scythia and Sogdiana, and discharged itself into that E. portion of the Caspian which was called Scythicus Sinus. ,

Arrian, in recounting the capture of Cyropolis (Awib. iv. 3. § 4), has mentioned the curious fact, that the Macedonian army entered the town by the dried-up bed of the river; these desiccations are itot rare in .the sandy steppes of Central Asia, — as fur instance, in the sudden drying up of one of the arms of the Jaxartes, known under the name of Tanghi-Daria, the account of which was first brought to Europe in 1820. (Comp. J (mm. Geog. Soc. voL xiv. pp. 333—335.)

Ptolemy (vi. 12. § 1) has fixed mathematically the sources, as well as the "embouchure," of the Jaxartes. According to him the river rises in lat. +.)° and long. 125°, in the mountain district of the Comeui (^ optivii KauySdr, § 3: Muz-Tdgh), and throws itself into the Caspian in lat. 48° and long. 97°, carrying with it the waters of many affluents, the principal of which are called, the one Bascatis (BairitaTij, § 3), and the other Dkhus (atj^os, § 3). He describes it as watering three countries, that of the "Sacae," " Sogdiana,"and "ScythiaintraImaum." In the first of these, upon its right bank, were found the Comari (Ko/aafwi) and Cakatae (KofKrrat, vi. 13. § 3); in the second, on the left bank, the Axikses CAvidotis") and Dkkpsiaki (Apcif>ia»oi), who extended to the Oxus, the Taciioki (Tax»po<), and Iath ('i<£tioi, vi. 12. § 4); in Srythia, on the N. bank of the Syr, lived the JaxAktae (Jla^ipreu), a numerous people (vi. 14. § 10). and near the " embouchure," the Akiacae ( A^Kutai, vi. 14. § 13). Ammianus Marcellinus (xxiii. 6. § 59), describing Central Asia, in the upper course of the Jaxartes which falls into the Caspian, speaks of two rivers, the Akaxatbs and Dvmas (probably the Dermis of l'tolemy), " qui per jugs vallesqne praecipites in campestrem planitiein decurrentes Oxiain nomine paludem efiiuiunt longe Uteque diffusam." This is the first intimation, though very vague, as to the formation of the Sea of Aral, and requires a more detailed examination. [oxia Palus.]

The obscure Geographer of Ravenna, who lived, as it is believed, about the 7th century A. D., mentions the river Jaxartes in describing Hyrcania.

Those who wish to study the accounts given by mediaeval and modern travellers, will find much vainaMe information in the " Dissertation on the River .1 .xartes" annexed to Levchine, Horde* el Steppes d-s Kirghiz-Kaznks, Paris, 1840. This same writer (up. 53—70) has described the course of the SyrJJuria which has its source iu the mountains ul

Kachkar-Datan, a branch of the range called by the Chinese the "Mountains of Heaven," and, taking a NW, course through the sandy steppes of KizilKoum and Kara-Koum, unites its waters with those of the Sea of Aral, on its E. shores, at the gulf of Kamechlou-Bachi. [E. B. J.]

JAXAMATAE ('io{umutcu, 'lo^ajaaTcu, 'Ifouarai, Ixomatae, Amm. Marc xxii. 8. § 31; Exomatae, Val. Flacc Argonaut, vi. 144, 569) a people who first appear in history during the reign of Satyrus 1IL, king of Bosporus, who waged war with Tirgatao, their queen. (Polyaeu. viii. 55.) The ancients attribute them to the Sarmatian stock. (Scymn. Fr. p. 140; Anon. Peripl. Eux. p. 2.) Poniponius Mela (i. 19. § 17) states that they were distinguished by the peculiarity of the women being as tried warriors as the men. Ptolemy (v. 9) has placed them between the Don and Volga, which agrees well with the position assigned to them by the authors mentioned above. In the second century of our era they disappear from history. Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 340), who considers the Sarmatians to belong to the Median stock, connects them with the Median word " mat" = " people,"as in the termination Sanroinatae; but it is more probable that the Sannatians were Slavonians. [E. B. J.]

JA'ZYGES, IA'ZYCES ('la(vyes, Steph. B. lazyx), a people belonging to the Sarmatian stock, whose original settlement, were on the Put us Maeotis. (Ptol. iii. 5. § 19; Strab. vii. p. 306; Arrian, A nab. 1,3; Amm. Marc xxii. 8. § 31.) They were among the barbarian tribes armed by Mithridates (Appian, Mithr. 69); during the banishment of Ovid they were found on the Danube, and in Bessarabia and Wallachia (£p. tx Pont. i. 2, 79, iv. 7, 9, Trist. ii. 19. 1.) In A. D. 50, either induced by the rich pastures of Hungary, or forced onwards from other causes, they no longer appear in their ancient seats, but in the plains between the Lower Theiss and the mountains of Transylvania, from which they had driven out the Daciaus. (Tac. Ann. xii. 29; Plin. iv. 12.) This migration, probably, did not extend to the whole of the tribe, as is implied in the surname "Metanastae;" henceforward history speaks of the Iazyges MetaNastae (TaftryM oi Mtravdarai), who were the Sarmatians with whom the Romans so frequently came iu collision. (Comp. Gibbon, c. xviii.) In tho second century of our era, Ptolemy (iii. 7) assigns the Danube, the Theiss, and the Carpathians as the limits of this warlike tribe, and enumerates the following towns as belonging to them: — Uscenum

(OifoKflw); Boit.MANUM Or GnKMANUM (fiSppawOV,

id. r6fftavoy); Aiiieta or Abinta ('AehjTo, aL

"ASuTa); TltlSSUM (Tpiffo<il'); Candanum (KdV

l»W)i 1'akca (TlapKii); Pkssium (Tldaaioy); and Partiscum (XlapTioKov). These towns were, it would seem, constructed not by the Iazyges themselves, who lived in tents and waggons, but by the former Slave inhabitants of Hungary; and this supposition is confirmed by the fact that the names are partly Keltic and partly Slavish. Mannert and Reichard (Forbiger, vol. iii. p. 1111) have guessed at the modern representatives of these places, but Schafarik {Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 514) is of opinion that no conclusion can be safely drawn except as to the identity of Peslh with Pessium, and of Potuije with Partiscum.

The Iazyges lived on good terms with their neighbours on the W., the German Quadi (Tac. Hist. iii. j), with whom tliey united for the purpose of subjugating the native Slaves and resisting the power of Borne. A portion of their territory was taken from them by Decebalus, which, after Trajan's Dacian conquests, was incorporated with the Roman dominions. (Dion Cass, xlviii. 10,11.) Pannonia and Moesia were constantly exposed to their inroads; but, A.d. 171, they were at length driven from their last holds in the province, and pushed across the Danube, by M. Aurelius. In mid-winter they returned in great numbers, and attempted to cross the frozen stream; the Romans encountered them upon the ice, and inflicted a severe defeat. (Dion Cass. Ixxi. 7, 8, 16.) At a later period, as the Roman Empire hastened to its fall, it was constantly exposed to the attacks of these wild hordes, who, beaten one day, appeared the next, plundering and laving waste whatever came in their way. (Amm. Marc. xvii. 12, 13, xxix. 6.) The word " peace" was unknown to them. (Flor. iv. 12.)

They called themselves " Sarmatae Limigantes," and were divided into two classes of freemen and slaves, "Sarmatae Liberi," " Sarmatae Servi." Ammianus Marcellinus (xvii. 13. § 1) calls the subject class " Limigantes" (a word which has been falsely explained by ■' Limitanei"), and St. Jerome (Chron.) says that the ruling Sarmatians had the title " Arcagarantes." By a careful comparison of the accounts given by Dion Cassius, Ammianus, Jerome, and the writer of the Life of Constantine, it may be clearly made out that the Sarmatian Iazyges, besides subjugating theGetae in Daciaand on the Lower Danube, had, by force of arms, enslaved a people distinct from the Getae, and living on the Theiss and at the foot of the Carpathians. Although the nations around them were called, both the ruling and the subject race, Sarmatians, yet the free Sarmatians were entirely distinct from the servile population in language, customs, and mode of life. The Iazyges, wild, bold riders, scoured over the plains of the Danube and Theiss valleys on their unbroken horses, while' their only dwellings were the waggons drawn by oxen in which they carried their wives and children. The subject Sarmatians, on the other hand, had wooden houses and villages, such as those enumerated by Ptolemy (£ c); they fought more on foot than on horseback, and were daring Beamen, all of which peculiarities were eminently characteristic of the ancient Slaves. (Schafarik, vol. i. p. 250.)

The Slaves often rose against their mastere, who sought an alliance against them among the Victofali and Quadi. (Ammian. I. c.; Euseb. Vit. Constant. iv. 6.) The history of this obscure and remarkable warfare (a. I>. 334) is given by Gibbon (c. xviii.; comp. Le Beau, Bas Empire, vol. i. p. 337; Manso, Leben Constantins, p. 195). In A. D. 357—359 a new war broke out, in which Constantins made a successful campaign, and received the title "Sarmaticus." (Gibbon, c. xix.; Le Beau, vol. ii. pp. 245—273.) In A. D. 471 two of their leaders, Benga and BabaT, were defeated before Singidunnm (Belgrade) by Theodoric the Ostrogoth. (Jomand. de Reb. Get. 55; comp. Gibbon, c. xxxix.; Le Beau, vol. vii. p. 44.) The hordes of the Huns, Gepidae, and Goths broke the power of this wild people, whose descendants, however, concealed themselves in the desert districts of the Theiss till the arrival of the Maeyars.

Another branch of the Sarmatian Iazyges were settled behind the Carpathians in Podlachia, and were known in history at the end of the 10th century of our era; it is prcbable that they were among

the northern tribes vanquished by Hermanric in A. D' 332—350, and that they were the same people as those mentioned by Jornandes (de Reb. Get. 3) under the corrupt form Ikaunxes.

There is a monograph on this subject by Hennig (Comment de Rebus lazygum & Iazcingorum, Regiomont, 1812); a full and clear account of the fortunes of these peoples will be found in the German translation of the very able work of Schafarik, the historian of the Slavish races.

In 1799 a golden dish was found with an inscription in Greek characters, now in the imperial cabinet of antiquities at Vienna, which has been referred to the Iazyges. (Von Hammer, Oman, Gesch. vol. iii. p. 726.) [E. B. J.]

IBAN ("IGar, Cedren. vol. ii. p. 774), a city which Cedrenus (I. c.) describes as the metropolis of Vasbouragan Qarrp6iroKis 8i aSrn rov Baa-napaxdv').

The name survives in the modern Vdn. St. Martin, the historian of Armenia (Mem. sw I'Armenie, vol. i. p. 117), says that, according to native traditions, Vdn is a very ancient city, the foundation of which was attributed to Semiramis. Ruined in course of time, it was rebuilt by a king called Van, who lived a short time before the expedition of Alexander the Great, and who gave it his name; bat, having again fallen into decay, it was restored by Vagh-Arshag (Valarsases), brother to Arsases, and first king of Armenia of the race of the Arsasidae. In the middle of the 4th century after Christ it was captured by Sapor II. (Bitter, Erdkunde, vol. ix. pp. 787, 981; London Geoff. Journal, vol. via. p. 66.) [artemita Buana.] [E. B. J.]

IBER. [ibkrds.]

IBE'RA, a city of Hispania Citerior, mentioned only by Livy, who gives no explicit account of its site, further than that it was near the Iberus (Ebro'), whence it took its name; but, from the connection of the narrative, we may safely infer that it was not far from the sea. At the time referred to, namely, in the Second Punic War, it was the wealthiest city in those parts. (Liv. xxiii. 28.) The manner in which Livy mentions it seems also to warrant the conclusion that it was still well known under Augustus. Two coins are extant, one with the epigraph Mun. Hibera Julia on the one side, and Ilkrcavonia on the other; and the other with the head of Tiberius on the obverse, and on the reverse the epi. graph M. H. J. ILKRCAVONIA; whence it appears to have been made a municipium by Julius, or by Augustus in his honour, and to have been situated in the territory of the Ilercaones. The addition Dert. on the latter of these coins led Harduin to identify the place with Dortosa, the site of which, however, on the left bank of the river, does not agree with the probable position of Ibera. Florez supposes the allusion to be to a treaty between Ibera and Dertosa. The ships with spread sails on both coins, indicate its maritime site, which modern geographers seek on the S. side of the delta of the Ebro, at S. Carlos de la Rapita, near Amposta, Its decay is easily accounted for by its lying out of the great high road, amidst the malaria of the riverdelta, and in a position where its port would be choked by the alluvial deposits of the Ebro. It seems probable that the port is now represented by the Salinas, or lagoon, called Puerto de los Aljaqites, which signifies Port of the Jaws, i. e. of the river. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4; Harduin, ad loc.; Marca, Hisp. ii. 8; Florez, Med. de Esp. vol. ii. p. 453; Sestini, p. 160; Rosrhe, Lex. Num. s. v.; Eckhel, vol. i. pp. 50, 51: Ukert, vol. ii. pt, 1. pp. 416, 417; Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 210.) [ P. S.]

IBERIA (q 'Iffqpia), the extensive tract of country which lies between the Euxme and Caspian leu, to the S. of the great chain of the Caucasus, and which, bounded on the W. by Colchis, on the E. bj Albania, and the S. by Armenia, is watered by the river Cyrus (Atir). (Strab. xi. p. 499, comp. i. pp.45, 69; Pomp. Mcl. Ui. 5. § 6; Plin. vi. 11; Itol v. 11.) From these limits, it will be seen that the Iberia of the ancients corresponds very nearly with modern Georgia, or Grutia, as it is called by the Russians. Strabo (p. 500) describes it as being hemmed in by mountains, over which there were only four passes known. One of these crossed the Moscuichi Months, which separated Iberia from Colchis, by the Colchian fortress Saba1MSA (Scnarapani), and is the modern road from Mingrelia into Georgia over Suram, Another, on the N., rises from the country of the Nomades in a steep ascent of three days' journey (along the valley of the Terek or TergT); after which the road passes through the defile of the river Abacus, a journey of four days, where the pass is closed at the lower end by an impregnable wall. This, no doubt, is the pass of the celebrated Caucasian Gates [capCasiae Pobtae], described by Pliny (vi. 12) as a prodigious work of nature, formed by abrupt precipices, and having the interval closed by gates with iron bais. Beneath ran a river which emitted a strong sniellf^'" Subter medias (fores),amne diri odoris fluente," Win. I. c). It is identified with the great central road leading from the W. of Georgia by the jass of Ddriyel, so named from a fortress situated on a rock washed by the river Terek, and called by the Georgians Shevis Kari, or the Gate of Shevi. The third pass was from Albania, which at its commencement was cut through the rock, but afterwards went through a marsh formed by the river which descended from the Caucasus, and is the same as the strong defile now called Derbend or "narrow pass," from the chief city of Daghestdn, which is at the extremity of the great arm which branches out from the Caucasus, and, by its position on a steep and almost inaccessible ridge, overhanging the Caspian sea, at once commands the coast-road and the Albanian Gates. The fourth pass, by which Pompeius and Canidius entered Iberia, led up from Armenia, and is referred to the high road from Ertrum, through Kan, to the N. [abacus.]

The surface of the country is greatly diversified with mountains, hills, plains, and valleys; the best portion of this rich province is the basin of the Kir, with the valleys of the Aragavi, Alazan, and other tribntary Btreams. Strabo (p. 499) speaks of the numerous cities of Iberia, with their houses having tiled roofs, as well as some architectural pretensions. Besides this, they had market-places and other public buildings.

The people of the Ibebes or Iberi ^IStipts, Steph. B. t. c.) were somewhat more civilised than their neighbours in Colchis. According to Strabo (p. 500), they were divided into four castes :—

(1.) The royal horde, from which the chiefs, both in peace and war, were taken. (2.) The priests, who acted also as arbitrators in their quarrels with the neighbouring tribes. (3.) Soldiers and husbandmen. (4.) The mass of the population, who were slaves to the king. The form of government was patriarchal. The people of the plain weie peaceful,

and cultivated the soil; while their dress was the same as that of the Armenians and Medes. The mountaineers were more warlike, and resembled the Scythians and Sarmatians. As, during the time of Herodotus (iii. 9), Colchis was the N. limit of the Persian empire, the Iberians were probably, in name, subjects of that monarchy. Along with the othw tribes between the Caspian and the Euxine, they acknowledged the supremacy of Mithridates. The Romans became acquainted with them in the campaigns of Lucullus and Pompeius. In B. C. 65, the latter general commenced his march northwards in pursuit of Mithridates, and had to fight against the Iberians, whom he compelled to sue for peace. (Pint. Pomp. 34.) A. D. 35, when Tiberius set up Tiridatcs as a claimant to the Parthian throne, he induced the Iberian princes, Mithridates and his brother Pharasmanes, to invade Armenia; which they did, and subdued the country. (Tac. A nn. vi. 33 —36; comp. Diet, of Biog. Pharasmanks.) In A.d. 115, when Armenia became a Roman province under Trajan, the king of the Iberians made a form of submitting himself to the emperor. (Eutrop. viii. 3; comp. Dion Cass. lxix. 15; Spartian. Hadrian. 17.)

Under the reign of Constantine the Iberians wero converted by a captive woman to Christianity, which has been preserved there, though mixed with superstition, down to the present times. One of the original sources for this story, which will be found in Ncander (Allgemem Gesch. der Christl Relig. vol. iii. pp. 234—236; comp. Milman, Hist, of Christianity, vol. ii. p. 480), is Rufinus (x. 10), from whom the Greek church historians (Socrat. i. 20; Sozom. ii. 7; Theod. i. 24; Mos. Choren. ii. 83) have borrowed it. In A. D. 365—378, by the ignominious treaty of Jovian, the Romans renounced the sovereignty and alliunce of Armenia and Iberia. Sapor, after subjugating Armenia, marched against Sauromaces, who was king of Iberia by the permission of the emperors, and, after expelling him, reduced Iberia to the state of a Persian province. (Amm. Marc xxvii. 12; Gibbon, exxv ; Le Beau, Has Empire, vol. iii. p. 357.)

During the wars between the Roman emperors and the Sassanian princes, the Iberian Gates had come into the possession of a prince of the Huns, who offered this important pass to Anastosius; but when the emperor built Darus, with the object of keeping the Persians in check, Cobades, or Kobud, seized upon the defiles of the Caucasus, and fortified them, though less as a precaution against the Romans than against the Huns and other northern barbarians. (Procop. H. P. i. 10 ; Gibbon, c xl.; Le Beau, vol. vi. pp. 269, 442, vol. vii. p. 398.) For a curious history of this pass, and its identification with the fabled wall of Gog and Magog, see Humboldt, Atie Cenirale, vol. ii. pp. 93—104; Eichwald, Peripl. des Cusp. Meeres, vol. i. pp. 128—132. On the decline of the Persian power, the Iberian frontier was the scene of the operations of the emperors Maurice and Heraclius. Iberia is now a province of Russia.

The Georgians, who do not belong to the IndoEuropean family of nations, are the same race as tho ancient Iberians. By the Armenian writers they arc still called Virk, a name of perhaps the same original as "l€ypts. They call themselves Kartii, and derive their origin, according to their national traditions, from an eponymous ancestor, Kartlos. Like the Armenians, with whom however, there is no affinity either in language or descent, they have an old version of the Bible into their language. The structure of this language has been studied by Adelung (Mithritlat. vol. i. pp. 430, foil.) and other modern philologers, among whom may be mentioned Brosset, the author of several learned memoirs on the Georgian grammar and language: Klaproth, also, has given a long vocabulary of it, in his Asia Polyglotia.

Armenian writers have supplied historical memoirs to Georgia, though it has not been entirely wanting in domestic chronicles. These curious records, which have much the style and appearance of the half-legendary monkish histories of other countries, are supposed to be founded on substantial truth. One of the most important works on Georgian history is the memorials of the celebrated Oi"pelian family, which have been published by St. Martin, with a translation. Some account of these, along with a short sketch of the History of the Georgians and their literature, will be found in Pricbard {Physical Hist, of Mankind, vol. iv. pp. 261—276). Dubois de Montpereux ( Voyage autour du Cavcase, vol. ii. pp. 8—169) has given an outline of the history of Georgia, from native sources; and the maps in the magnificent Atlas that accompanies his work will be found of great service. [E. B. J.]

IBE'RIA INDIAE ('IsVo, Peripl. M. E. p. 24, ed. Hudson), a district placed by the author of the Periplus between Larica and the Scythians. It was doubtless peopled by some of the Scythian tribes, who gradually made their descent to the S. and SE. part of Scmde, and founded the Indo-Scythic empire, on the overthrow of the Greek kings of Bactria, about n.c. 136. The name would seem to imply that the population who occupied this district had come from the Caucasus. [V.] IBU'RICUM MARE. [hispawum Mare.] IBE'HES, IBE'RI, IBE'RIA. [hispania.] IBERINGAE (Igepiyyai, Ptol. vii. 2. § 18), a people placed by Ptolemy between the Bepyrrhus Mons (Naraka Mts. f) and the Montes Damassi, in India extra Gangem, near the Brahmaputra. [V.] IHE'RUS ('istjp, gen. -ripos, and "ISn/wr; in MSS. often Hiberus: Eii-o), one of the chief rivers of Spain, the basin of which includes the NE. portion of the peninsula, between the great mountain chains of the Pyrenees and Idubeda. [hispania.] It rises in the mountains of the Cantabri, not far froin the middle of the chain, near the city of Juliobriga (the source lies 12 miles W. of Reyhosa), and, flowing with a nearly uniform direction to the SE., after a course of 450 M. P. (340 miles), falls into the Mediterranean, in 40° 42' N. lat., and 0° 50' E. long., forming a considerable delta at its mouth. It was navigable for 260 M. P. from the town of Varia (Varea, in Burgos}. Its chief tributaries were:—on the left, the Sicokis (Segre) and the Gallicus (Gallego), and on the right the Salo (Xalon). It was long the boundary of the two Spains [hispania], whence perhaps arose the error of Appian (Hisp. 6), who makes it divide the peninsula into two equal parts. There are some other errors not worthy of notice. The origin of the name is disputed. Dismissing derivations from the Phoenician, the question seems to depend very much on whether the Iberians derived their name from the river, as was the belief of the ancient writers, or whether the river took its name from the people, as W. vun Humboldt contends. If the former was the case, and if Niebuhx's view is correct, that the popu

Iation of NE. Spain was originally Celtic [hisPania], a natural etymology is at once found in the Celtic aber, i. e. mater. (Polyb. ii. 13, in. 34, 40, et alib.; Scyl. p. 1; Strab. iii. pp. 156, et seq.; Steph. B. ». v.; Mela, ii. 6. § 5; Caes. B. C. i. 60; Liv. xxi. 5, 19, 22, &c; Plin. iii. 3. s. 4, iv. 20. s. 34; Lucan. iv. 23; Cato, Orig. VII. op. Nonius, *. v. Puculentus.) [P. S.]

IBETTES. [samos.]

1BES, a town in the SE. of Hispania Citerior, mentioned by l.ivy (xxviii. 21, where the MSS. vary in the reading), is perhaps the modern Iii, NE. of Valencia. (Coins, ap. Sestini, p. 156; Laborde, Itin. vol. i. p. 293.) [P. S.]

IBIO'NES, VIB10'NES('ie«4res, al. OiitTufrtl, Ptol. iii. 5. § 23), a Slavonian people of Sannatia Europaea, whom Schafarik {Slav. Alt. vol. i. p. 213) looks for in the neighbourhood of a river Iva-lvizaIvinka, of which there are several in Russia deriving their name from "iwa" = " Salix Alba," or the common white willow, [E. B. J.]

IBLIODURUM, in Gallia Belgica, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on the road between Virodunum ( Verdun) and Divodurum (Metz). The termination (durum) implies that it is on a stream. The whole distance in the Itin. between Verdun and Metz is 23 Gallic leagues, or 34 J M. P., which is less than even the direct distance between Verdun and Metz. There is, therefore, an error iu the numbers in the Itin. somewhere between Virodunum and Divodurum, which D'Anville corrects in his usual way. The site of Ibliodurum is supposed to be on the Iron, at a place about two leagues above its junction with the Orne, a branch of the Mosel, and on the line of an old road. [G. L.]

ICA'RIA. [attica, p. 328, b.]

ICA'RIUM MARE. [icarus; Aegaeum Mare.]

I'CARUS, I'CARIA (*I/rapoj, 'lxapla: Nikaria), an island of the Aegean, to the west of Samos, according to Strabo (x. p. 480, xiv. 639), 80 stadia from Cape Ampelos, while Pliny (v. 23) makes the distance 35 miies. The island is in reality a continuation of the range of hills traversing Samos from east to west, whence it is long and narrow, and extends from NE. to SW. Its length, according to Pliny, is 17 miles, and its circumference, according to Strabo, 300 stadia. The island, which gave its name to the whole of the surrounding sea (Icarium Mare or Ptlagus), derived its own name, according to tradition, from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, who was believed to have fallen into the sea near this island. (Ov. Met. viii. 195, foil.) The cape forming the easternmost point of the island was called Drepanum or Dracanum (.Strab. xiv. pp. 637, 639; Horn. Hymn, xxxiv. 1; Diod. Sic. iii. 66; Plin. iv. 23; Steph. B. s. v. Apdxovov), and near it was a small town of the same name. Further west, on the north coast, was the small town of IsTI Cio-toi), with a tolerably good roadstead; to the south of this was another little place, called Oknoe (OivoTj, Strab. 1. c.; Athen. i. p. 30.) According to some traditions, Dionysus was born on Cape Draconum (Theocrit. IdylL xxvi. 33), and Artemis had a temple near Isti, called Tauropolion. The island had received its first colonists from Miletus (Strab. xiv. p. 635); but in the time of Strabo it belonged to the Samians: it had then but few inhabitants, and was mainly used by the Samians as pasture land for their flocks. (Strab. x. pp. 488, xiv. p. 639; Stylax, pp. 22; AeachyLPer*. 887; Thucyd. iii. 92, viii.

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