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R'-man aqueduct near Nemausus, now called

tlie Pont du Gard Gin of Nicaea in Bithyrria Coin of Nicomedeia

Map of the neighbourhood of Nicopolis in
Epeirns - - - -

Coin of Nicopolis in Epeiras
Gin of Nola -
Can of Nnceria in Campania
Coin of Nnceria in Brattium
Coin of Nysa in Caria ...
Coin of Obnlco - - - -

Coin of Odessus ....
Coin of Oeniadae - - - -

Coin of Olbia in Scjthia ...
Ground plan of the Olvmpieium -
Plain of Oljrmpia ...
Plan of the Altis at Olympia (after Leake)
Plan of Orchomenua •
Coin of Orchomenua ...
Coin of Orescii -
Coin of Orippo - -
C ia of Orthagoria -
Cjin of 0»ca ....
Ci«n of Ossa ....
Coin of Osset ....
Plan of Ostia and its environs
Plan of Paestum - - - -

Coins of Paestum ...
Coin of Pale ....
Coin of Pindosift ....
Coin of Paoormns ...
Coin uf Panticapaeom -
Coin of Pari am •
Coin of Paros - - - , -

Can of Patrae -
Coin of Pella in Macedonia
Coin of Pellene •
Coin of Pelusium ...
Coin of Pergamus in Mysia
Coin of Perge • -

Coin of Perinthus ...
Coin of Phaestus ...
Coin of Pharsalus ...
Coin of Phaselis »
Coin of Pheneus ....
Ground plan of the temple of Apollo at

Coin of Philippi - - -

Map of the neighbourhood of Phlius
Coin of Phocaea - - - -

Coin of Pbocis ....
Map illustrating the Battle of Plataea
Coin of Plataea -

General plan of Pompeii ...

Plan of part of Pompeii ...

Bird's-eye view of the Forum of Pompeii

Temple of Venus at Pompeii (the forum and temple of Jupiter in the background)

Street of the Tombs at Pompeii

Coin of Populonium

Coin of Pordoselene ...

Coin if Praeaus or Priansus

Coin of Priene ....

Plan of Psophis

Map of the bay of Pylus

Map of Pylus and its immediate neighbourhood •

Coin of Rhaucus «

Coin of Rhegium • t ""

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Coin of Rhesaena

Coin of Rhithymna ... Coin of Rhodus

Plan of the Roman hills ...

Map of ancient Rome, with portions of the modern city in red

The Capitoline Wolf ...

Plan of the Romulean city

Tomb of Cains Bibulus

Tomb of Enrysaces

Plan of the Capitoline hill

Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus (from a coin of Vespasian) - - -

Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus restored

Arch of Tabularium ...

Supposed Tarpeian rock - -

Plan of the Forum during the Republic

The Forum in its present state

Temple of Janus (from a coin)

Temple of Vesta (from a coin)

Tabularium and temples of Vespasian, Saturn, and Concord

Temple of Saturn ...

Shrine of Cluacina (from a coin)

Columns of the temple of Castor and Pollux

Rostra (from a coin) ...

Columna Duilia ....

Basilica Aemilia (from a coin)

Puteal Libonis or Scribonianum

The Forum Romanum under the Empire, and the Imperial Fora ...

The Miliarium ....

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina

Arch of Septimius Severus

Temple of Mars Ultor ...

Forum Trajani ....

Basilica Ulpia ....

Column of Trajan ...

Temple of Trajan ...

The Septizonium

Arch of Titus restored ...
Arch of Constantino ...
Temple of Hercules ...
Temple of Pudicitia Patricia
Cloaca Maxima - - - -

Macellum ....
Arch of Drusus -

Tomb of Metella Caecilia ... Pantheon of Agrippa ... Antonine Column (Column of M. Aurclius) Sculptures on pedestal of Column of Antoninus Pius . - - Arch of Aurclius

Mole of Hadrian restored ...

Theatre of Marcellus

Colosseum ....

Ground plan of the Colosseum

Elevation of Colosseum ...

Pons Sublicins, restored by Canina

Insula Tiberina, with the Pons Fabricius

and Pons Cestius
Coin of Rome
Coin of Rubi
Coin of Saguntum
Map of the island of Salamis
Coin of Sulamis -
Coin of Salapia -
Coin of Same
Coin of Samos
Coiu of Samosata •

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Coin of Sardes .
Nuraghe in Sardinia
Coin of Segesta -
Coin of Segobriga
Coin of Seleuceia in Syria
Coin of Seleuceia in Cilicia
Coin of Selge
Plan of Selinos -
Coin of Selinos -
Plan of the Battle of Sellasia
Coin of Seriphos -
Coin of Sicilia
Map of the site of Sicyon (from Leake)
Plan of the ruins of Sicyon (from the Frt

Commission) -
Coin of Sicyon ...
Gate of Signia ...
Coin of Siphnos -
Coin of Smyrna ...
Coin of Soli ...
Coin of Solus -
Map of Sparta and its environs
Coin of Suessa Aurunca -
Coin of Sybaris - - -

Plan of Syracusae

Plan of the Fort Euryalus near Syracusae
View of the Fort Euryalus
Coins of Syracusae
Coin of Tabae
Coin of Tanagra -
Coins of Tarentum
Coin of Tarsus -
Coin of Tauromenium
Coin of Teanum Sidicintun
Coin of Teate
Coin of Tcgea
Coin of Temenothyra
Coin of Terns as •

[table]

A DICTIONARY

or

GREEK AND ROMAN GEOGRAPHY.

IABADIUS.

IABADIUS QlaSaSlou vrjaos, Ptol. vii. 2. § 29, viii. 27. § 10), an island off the lower half of the Golden Chersonesus. It is said by Ptolemy to mean the " Island of Barley," to have been very fertile in grain and gold, and to have had a metropolis called Aroybe. There can be little doubt that it is the same as the present Java, which also signifies "barley." Humboldt, on the other hand, considers it to be Sumatra (Krituche Untert. i. p. 64); and Mannert, the small island of Banco., on the SB. side of Sumatra. [V]

JABBOK Ciosmko*, Joseph.; 'Ia&Sx, LXX.), a stream on the east of Jordan, mentioned first in the history of Jacob {Gen. xxxii. 22). It formed, according to Joseph us, the northern border of the Amorites, whose country he describes as isolated by the Jordan on the west, the Anion on the sonth, and the Jabbok on the north. {Ant iv. 5. § 2.) He farther describes it as the division between the dominions of Sihon, king of the Amorites, and Og, whom he calls king of Galadene and Ganlonitis (§ 3)—the Bashan of Scripture. In the division of the land among the tribes, the river Jabbok was assigned as the northern limit of Gad and Reuben. (Deal. iii. 16.) To the north of the river, in the country of Bashan, the half tribe of Manasseh had their possession (13,14.) [ammonitae ; Amokitks.] It is correctly placed by Eusebios {Onomast. g.v.) between Amnion, or Philadelphia, and Gerasa (<7erash); to which S. Jerome adds, with equal truth, that it is 4 miles from the latter. It flows into the Jordan. It is now called ELZerlca, and " divides the district of Moerad from the country called ElBelia." (Barckhardt's Syria, p. 347.) It was crossed in its npper part by Irby and Mangles, an hour and twenty minutes (exactly 4 miles) SW. of Geratk, on their way to Et-Szalt {Travels, p. 319, comp. p. 475.)' [G. W.]

JABESH i'liStis, LXX.; 'litis, 'IoeWii, 'IosWj, Joseph.), a city of Gilead, the inhabitants of which were exterminated, during the early times of the Judges (see xx. 28), for not having joined in the national league against the men of Gibeah (xxi. 9, Stc). Three centuries later, it was besieged by the Ammonite king, Kahash, when the hard terms offered to the inhabitants by the invaders roused the indignation of Saul, and resulted in the relief of the town and the rout of the Ammonites. (1 5am. xi.) It was probably in requital for this deliverance that the inhabitant- of Jabesh-Gilead, having heard of the Indignity offered to the bodies of Saul and his sons

Vol. a

JACCETANt

after the battle of Gilboa," arose, and went all night, and took the body of Saul, and the bodies of his sons, from the wall of Beth-shan, and came to Jabesh and burnt them there; and they took their bones and buried them under a tree at Jabesh, and fasted seven days." (1 Sam. xxxi. 11 —13; 2 Sam. ii.4 —7.) It was situated, according to Eusebius, in the hills, 6 miles from Pella, on the road to Geraih; and its site was marked in his time by a large village (s. vv. 'ApiataB and 'Idfiu). The writer was unsuccessful iu his endeavours to recover its site in 1842; but a tradition of the city is still retained iu the name of the valley that runs into the plain of the Jordan, one hour and a quarter south of Wady Mu>, in which Pella is situated. This valley is still called Wady Yabet, and the ruins of the city doubtless exist, and will probably be recovered in the mountains in the vicinity of this valley. [G. W.]

JABNEH. [iamnia.] JACCA. [jaccetani; Vascones.] JACCETA'NI Clfiuricrrarof),the most important of the small tribes at the S. foot of the Pyrenees, in Hispania Tarraconensis, E. of the Vascones, and N. of the Ilergetes. Their country, Jaccetania {'laKKtravia'), lay in the N. of Arragon, below the central portion of the Pyrenacan chain, whence it extended towards the Iberus as far as the neighbourhood of Ilerda and Osca; and it funned a part of the theatre of war in the contests between Sertorius and Pompey, and between Julius Caesar and Pompey's legates, Afranius and Petreius. (Strab. iii. p. 161; Caes. B. C. i. 60: concerning the reading, see Lacetani; Ptol. ii. 6. § 72.) None of their cities were of any consequence. The capital, Jacca {Jaca, in Biscaya), from which they derived their name, belonged, in the time of Ptolemy, to the VasCones, among whom indeed Pliny appears to include the Jaccetani altogether (iii. 3. s. 4). Their other cities, as enumerated by Ptolemy, and identified, though with no great certainty, by 1,'kert (vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 425),are the following: — Iespus (Wmrdy, Igualeda); Ceresus {Ktptois, S. Columba de Ceralto); Anabis ('AvdSir, Tarrega); Bacasis (BuKoffiV. Manreta, the district round which is still called Bages); Telobis (ttjaosis, Martorell); Ascerris ('AffKf^i's, Sagarrd); Uduba (06Sovpa, Cardona); Lissa or Lesa {Aijaa. near ilatvreso); Seteusis (2«TtAfft'» fl SfAeyo-ls, SoUima); Cinna (Kivva, near Guisona), perhaps the same place as the Scissum of Livy (xxi. 60, where the HSS. have Scissis, Stissum, Sisa), and the Cissa of

I

Poly bias (in. 7G: coins, a/>.'Scstini, pp. 132, 16.3; Num. Goth.)- [P. S.]

IA'DERA ('IcioVpa, Ptol. iii. 16. § 10; 'Id&apa, Nicet. p. 348 ; ladera, Plin. iii. 26; Iadcr, Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 13; Peut Tab.; Geog. Rav.; on the orthography of the name see Tzchucke, ad Melam, he. vol. ii. pt. 2. p. 275: Eth. Iadertinus, Hirt. Ii. A. 42: Zara), the capital of Liburnia in Illyricum. Under Augustus it was made a Roman colony. (** Parens coloniae," Inscr. ap. Farlati, Illyr. Sacr., vol. v. p. 3; comp. Ptol. I. c.) Afterwards it bore the name of DmooiiA. and paid a tribute of 1 10 pieces of gold to the Eastern emperors (Const Porph. dc Adm. Imp. 30), until it was lianded over, in the reign of Basil the Macedonian, to the Slavonic princes. Zara, the modern capital of Dalmatia, and well known for the famous siege it stood against the combined French and Venetians, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade (Gibbon, c. Ix.; Wilken, die Kreuzz. vol. v. p. 167), stands upon the site of ladera. Little remains of the ancient city; the (;t'A-gate called Porta di San Chrysoyono is Roman, hut it seems likely that it lias been brought from Aenona. The gate is a single arch with a Corinthian pilaster at each side supporting an entablature.

Eckhc] (vol. ii. p. 152) doubts the evidence of any coins of ladera, though some have been attributed to it by other writers on numismatics. (Sir G. Wilkinson, Dalmatia and Montenegro, vol. i. p. 78; J. F. Neigebaur, IXe Sudslaven, pp. 181 — 191.) [E.B.J.]

IADO'NI, a people in the extreme NAY. of Hisp:inia Tarraeonensis, mentioued only by Pliny, who places them next to the Arrotrebae. (Plin. iv. 20. s. 34.; [P. S.1

IAETAorIETAE('IfTaf,Steph.B.: Eth.'I*Ta?uy, Id.; but Diodorus has'io.it7vos,and this is confirmed by coins, the legend of which is uniformly 'Icuruwr, Eekhel, vol. i. p. 216: in Latin, Cicero has Ietini, but Pliny letenses), a town of the interior of Sicily, in the NW. of the island, not very far from Panorama. It was mentioned by Philistus (ap. Steph. B. s. t\) as a fortress, and it is called by Thncydides also (if the reading 'Urds be admitted, in vii. 2) a lurtress of the Siculians (*r«*xor Twv SiKeAwy), which was taken by Gylippus on his march from Himera through the interior of the island towards Syracuse. It first appears as an indej«ndent city in the time of Pyrrhus, and was attacked by that monarch on account of its strong position and the advantages it offered for operations against Panormus; but the inliabitants readily capitulated. (Diod. xxii. 10, p. 498.) In the First Punic War it was occupied by a Carthaginian garrison, but after the fall of Panonnus drove out these troops and opened its gates to the Romans. (Id. xxiii. 18, p. 505.) Under the Roman government it appears as a municipal town, but not one of much importance. The Ietini are only noticed in passing by Cicero among the towns whose lands had been utterly ruined by the exactions of Verres; and the letenses are enumerated by Pliny among the " populi stipendiarii" of the interior of Sicily. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14.) Many MSS. of Cicero read Letini. and it is probable that the Arjrov of Ptolemy (iii. 4. § 15) is only a corruption of the same name.

The position of Iaeta is very obscurely intimated, but it appears from Diodorus that it was not very remote from Panormus, and that its site was one of great natural strength. Silius Italicus also alludes to its elevated situation (" celsus Ietas," xiv. 271).

Faze]In assures us that there was a mediaeval fortress called lata on the summit of a lofty mountain, about 15 miles from Palermo, and 12 N. of Entella, which was destroyed by Frederic II. at tli« same time with the latter city; and this he supposes, probably enough, to be the site of Iaeta. lie says the mountain was still called Monte di Iato, though more commonly known as Monte di S. C<w»mano, from a church on its summit. (Fazell. X. p. 471; Amic. Lex. Top. Sic. vol. it p. 291.) The spot is not marked on any modem map, and does not appear to have been visited by any recent travellers. The portion thus assigned to Iaeta agTees well with the statements of Diodorus, but is wholly irreconcilable with the admission of 'Uriis into the text of Thucydides (vii. 2): this reading, however, is a mere conjecture (see Arnold's note), and must probably be discarded as untenable. [E. H. B. \

[graphic]

COIN OF IAETA.

JAEZER Clatyp, LXX.; laffy> and 'Atri&p, Euseb.), a city of Gilead, assigned to the tribe of Gad by Moses. In Numbers (xxxii. 1), " the land of Jazer*' is mentioned as contiguous to " the land of Gilead, and suited to cattle." In Jeremiah (xlviii. 32), " the sea of Jazer " occurs in some versions, as in the English; but Reland (s. v. p. 825) justly remarks, that this is not certain, as the passage may be pointed after the word " sea," and "Jazer." as a vocative, commence the following clause. But as "the land of Jazer " is used for the country south of Gilead, so the Dead Sea may be designated " the sea of Jazer." Eusebius (Onomast. s. v. 'Aatlop) places it 8 miles west of Philadelphia or Ammon; and elsewhere (s. v. 'ickt^p), 10 miles west of Philadelphia, and 15 from Esbon (Heshbon). He adds, that a large river takes its rise there, which runs into the Jordan. In a situation nearly corresponding with this, between Szalt and Esbus, Burckhardt passed some ruins named Szyr, where a valley named Wady Szyr takes iU rise and runs into the Jordan. This is doubtless the modern representative of the ancient Jazer. "In two hours and a half (from Szali) we passed, on our right, the Wady Szyr, which has its source near the road, and falls into the Jordan. Above tlie source, on the declivity of the valley, are the ruins called Szyr." (Syria, p. 364.) It is probably identical with the Tdfapos of Ptolemy which he reckons among the cities of Palestine on the east of the Jordan (v. 16). fG. W.]

LA'LYSUS ('idXvaos, *ldhv<rcros, or HiXvaoos: Eth. lo\wrffiOj), one of the three ancient Doric cities in the island of Rhodes, and one of the six towns constituting the Doric hexapolis. It was situated only six stadia to the south-west of the city of Rhodes, and it would seem that the rise of the latter city was the cause of the decay of Ialysns; for in the time of Strabo (xiv. p. 655) it existed only as a village. Pliny (v. 36) did not consider it as an independent place at all, but imagined that lalysus was the ancient name of Rhodes. Orychoma, the citadel, was situated above lalysus, and still existed in the time of Strabo, It is supposed by some that

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