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Stephanos B. when he speaks of Xt<pviov *qt4iptov.

Siphnos possessed a city of the same name (Ptol. iii. 15. § 31), and also two other towns, Apol Ionia and Minoa, mentioned only by Stephanus B. The ancient city occupied the same site as the modern town, called Kastron or Seraglio, which lies upon the eastern side of the island. There are some remains of the ancient walls; and fragments of marble are found, with which, as we have already seen, the public buildings in antiquity were decorated. A range of mountains, about 3000 feet in height, runs across Siphnos from SE. to NW.; and on the high ground between this mountain and the eastern side of the island, about 1000 feet above the sea, lie five neat villages, of which Stavri is the principal. These villages contain from 4000 to 5000 inhabitants; and the town of Kastron about another 1000. The climate is healthy, and many of the inhabitants live to a great age. The island is well cultivated, but does not produce sufficient food for its population, and accordingly many Siphniuns are obliged to emigrate, and are found in considerable numbers in Athens, Smyrna, and Constantinople. (Tournefort,

Voyage, cfc. vol. i. p. 134, seq. transl.; Fiedler, Rexse, vol. ii. p. 125, seq.; Ross, RtUe auf den

Gricck. Itiseln, voL i. p. 138, seq.)

[graphic][merged small]

SIPIA, in Gallia, is placed by the Table on a route from Condate (Rennes) to Juliomugus ( A Tigers). The distance from Condate to Sipia is xvi. and this distance brings us to a little river Seche at a place called Vi-seche, the Vi being probably a corruption of Vadum. The same distance xvi. measured from Vi-teche brings us to Combaristum (Cornbre) on the road to Angers. But see the article Combaristum. The Seche is a branch of the Vilaine (D'Anville, Notice, #c.). [G. L.]

SIPONTUM, or SIPUNTUM, but in Greek always SIPUS (SnroDr - Ovvtos: Eth. 'Xiiroivrios, Sipontinus: Sta Maria di Siponto), a city of Apulia, situated on the coast of the Adriatic, immediately S. of the great promontory of Garganus, and in the bight of the deep bay formed by that promontory with the prolongation of the coast of Apulia. (Strab. vi. p. 284.) This bay is now called the Gulf of Manfredonia, from the city of that name which is situated within a few miles of the site of Sipontum. The Cerbalus, or Cervaro, and the Candeiaro fall into this bay a short distance S- of Sipontum, and form at their mouth an extensive lapune or saltwater pool ((rropa\iutrrj, Strab. I. c), now called the Pantano SaUo. Like most places in this part of Apulia the foundation of Sipontum was ascribed to Diomed(Strab. I.e.}: but with the exception of this vague and obscure tradition, which probably means no more than tbst the city was one of those belonging to the Daunian tribe of Apulians, we have no account of its being a Greek colony. The name is closer/ analogous in form to others in this part of

Italy (Hydruntum, Butuntum, &c): and its Greek derivation from mji(a, a cuttle-fish (Strab. I.e.), is in all probability fictitious The Greek form Sipus, is adopted also by the Roman poets. (Sil. Ital. viii. 633; Lucan. v. 377.) The only mention of Sipontum in history before the Roman conquest is that of its capture by Alexander, king of Epirns, about B.C. 330. (Liv. viii. 24). Of the manner in which it passed under the yoke of Rome we have no account; but in B. c 194 a colony of Roman citizens was settled there, at the same time that those of Salernum and Buxentum were established on the other sea. (Liv. xxxiv. 45.) The lands assigned to the colonists are said to have previously belonged fr> the Arpani, which renders it probable that Sipontum itself had been merely a dependency of that city. The new colony, however, does i.ot seem to have prospered. A few years later (b.c. 184) we are told that it was deserted, probably on account of malaria; but a fresh body of colonists was sent there (Liv. xxxix, 22), and it seems from this time to have become a tolerably flourishing town, and was frequented as a seaport, though never rising to any great consideration. Its principal trade was in corn. (Strab. vi. p. 284; Mel. ii. 4. § 7; Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Ptol. iii. 1. § 16; Pol. x. 1.) It is, however, mentioned apparently as a place of some importance, during the Civil Wars, being occupied by M. Antonius in B. C 40. (Appian, B. C. v. 56; Dion Cass, xlviii. 27.) We learn from inscriptions that it retained its municipal government and magistrates, as well as the title of a colony, under the Roman Empire (Mommscn, Inter. R. N. 927—929); and at a later period Paulus Diaconus mentions it as still one of the " urbes satis opolentae " of Apulia. (P.Diac. Hist. Lang. ii. 21.) Lucan notices its situation immediately at the foot of Mount Garganus (" subdita Sipus inontibus" Lucan, v. 377). It was, however, actually situated in the plain and immediately adjoining the marshes at the mouth of the Candeiaro, which must always have rendered the site unhealthy; and in the middle ages it fell into decay from this cause, till in 1250 Manfred king of Naples removed all the remaining population to a site about a mile and a half further N., where he built a new city, to which he gave the name of Manfredonia. No ruins of the ancient city are now extant, but the site is still marked by an ancient church, which bears the name of Sta Maria di Siponto, and is still termed the cathedral, the archbishop of Manfredonia bearing officially the title of Archbishop of Sipontum. (Craven's Southern Tour, p. 67; Romanelli, voL ii. p. 209 ) The name of Sipontum is found in the Itineraries {/tin. Ant, p. 314; Tab. PeuC), which give a line of road proceeding along the coast from thence to Barium, passing by the Salinae at the mouth of the Palua Salapina. and therefore following the narrow strip of beach which neparaied that la^nne from the sea. There is still ago<id horse-road along this beach; but the distances given in the Itineraries are certainly corrupt. [E. H. B.]

Sl'PYLUS (SlirwAoj), a mountain of Lydia between the river Hermus and the town of Smyrna; It is a branch of Mount Tniolus, running in a northwestern direction along the Hernms. It is a rugged, much torn mountain, which seems to owe its proent form to violent convulsions of the earth. The mountain is mentioned even in the Iliad, and was rich in metal. (Horn. xxiv. 615; Strab. i. p. 58, xii. p. 579, xiv. p.680.) On the eastern slope of the mountain, there once existed, according to tradition, an ancient city, called Tantalis, afterwards Sipylus, the capital of the Haeonians, which was believed to have been swallowed np by an earthquake, and plunged into a crater, afterwards tilled by a lake, which bore the name of Sale or Saloe' (Strab. i. p. 58, zii. p. 579; Steph. B. s. v.; Plin. v. 81; Paus. vii. 24. §7). Pliny relates that the spot once occupied by Sipylus was successively occupied by other towns, which he calls Archaeopolis, Colpe and Lebade. Pausanias (v. 13. § 4) calls the lake the marsh of Tantalus, and adds that his tomb was conspicuous near it, and that the throne of Pelops was shown on the summit of the mountain above the temple of (Cybele) Plastene. The tops of the houses of Sipylus were believed to have been seen under the water for some time after (Paus. vii. 24. § 7); and some modern travellers, mistaking the ruins of old Smyrna for those of Sipylus, imagine that they have discovered both the remains of Sipylus and the tomb of Tantalus. Chandler ( Travels in Aria Minor, p. 331) thought that a small lake of limpid water at the north-eastern foot of Mount Sipylus, not far from a sepulchre cut in the rock, might be the lake Sale; but Hamilton (Researches, i. p. 49, foil.) has shown that the lake must be sought for in the marshy district of Manissa,

In speaking of Mount Sipylus, we cannot pass over the story of Niobe, alluded to by the poets, who is said to have been metamorphosed into stone on that mountain in her grief at the loss of her children. (Horn. //. xxiv. 614; Soph. Antig. 822; Ov. Met. vi. 310; Apolliid. iii. 5; Paus. viii. 2. § 3.) Pausanias (i. 21. § 5) relates that he himself went to Mount Sipylus and saw the figure of Niobe formed out of the natural rock; when viewed close he saw only the rock and precipices, but nothing resembling a woman either weeping or in any other posture; but standing at a distance you fancied yon saw a woman in tears and in an attitude of grief. This phantom of Niobe, says Chandler (p. 331), whose observation has been confirmed by subsequent travellers, may be defined as an effect of a certain portion of light and shade on a part of Sipylus, perceivable at a particular point of view. Mount Sipylus now bears the name of Saboundji Dagh or Sipuli Dagh. [L. S.]

SIRACELLAE (Itin. Ant. p. 332; lb. p. 333, Siracelle; It. Hier. p. 602, Sirogellae; Tab. Pent. Syrascellae; and in Geog. Rav. iv. 6, and v. 12, Syrascele), a place in Thrace, on the road from Trajanopolis to Callipolis, and on the main road to Constantinople. Its distance from Trajanopolis is variously given in the Itin. Ant., and the readings of the MSS. differ,— one stating the distance to be as much as 59,000 paces, another as little as 50,000. According to Mannert (vii. p. 205), its site is near the modern Chachan or Rnstpieur (?) of P. Lucas (7Vot» Voy. p. 47); but Richard places it near Zerna, and Lapie near Malgara or Migalgara; the uncertainty of the Itinerary above mentioned being probably the cause of this discrepancy. [J. H.]

SIRACE'NE. [Smoc.]

SIRACE'Nl (2ipairt)voi', Ptol.v.9. §§ 17, 19), a great and mighty people of Asiatic Sarmatia on the east shore of the Maeotis, beyond the Rha and on the Achardeus, in the liistrict called by Strabo (xi. 504) Siracene. They appear under various names. Thus Strabo (xi. p. 506) and Mela (i. 19) call them Siraccs; Tacitus ( A nn. xii. 15, seq.) Siraci (in Strabo, xi. p. 492, Zioaxoi); and in an inscription (Bockh, ii. p. 1009) we find the form 2ipix°'.

They were governed by their own kings, and the Romans were engaged in a war with them, A. D. 50. (Tac. /. c; Strab. i"6. p. 504.) [T. H. D.]

SIRAE or SEIRAE. [psophis.]

SIRAE. in Macedonia. [Sims.]

SIRANGAE (Stpdyycu or Sjjpdyvai, Ptol. iv. 6. § 17), a tribe in the interior of Libya. [T. H. D.]

SIRBES. [xakthus.]

SIRBI. [sekdi.]

SIRBITUM, a city of Aethiopia, above which the mountains cease, and at a distance of 14 days' sail from Meroe. (Plin. vi. 30. s. 35.) From these particulars Mannert (x. pt. i. p. 171) is induced to regard it as the modern Senaar. [T. H. D.]

SIRBO'NIS LACUS (^ SipsWt or SipSWJoj .\iVvn, Herod, ii. 6; Diodor. i. 30; Ptol. iv. 5. §§ 12, 20; Strab. i. pp. 50, 65, xvii. 760—763; Zlpgvy, Steph. B.s. v.; Plin. v. 12. s. 14: Sebatet-Barduil), was a vast tract of morass, the centre of which formed the Sirbonian lake, lying between the eastern angle of the Delta, the Isthmus of Suez, Mount Casius, and the Mediterranean sea. With the latter it was at one time connected by a natural chaiiue (to ffcprvjua), running through bars of quick>aml and shingle (t4 fidpaBpa), which separated the sea from the morass. The limits of the Serbonian bog have, however, been much contracted in later ages by the elevation of the sea-horde and the drifting of the sands, and the lake is now of inconsiderable extent. The Sirbonian region is celebrated in history for having been the scene of at least the partial destruction of the Persian army in B. c. 350, when Darius Ochus was leading it, after the storming of Sidon, to Acgypt, in order to restore the authority of Persia in that kingdom. Diodorus (i. 30) has probably exaggerated the serious disaster into a total annihilation of the invading host, and Milton (P. L. ii. 293) has adopted the statement of Diodorus, when he speaks of

"that Serbonian bog

Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old
Where armies whole have sunk."

The same Persian army, however, afterwards took Pelusium, Bubastis, and other cities of the Delta. The base of the Deltaic triangle of Acgypt was reckoned by Herodotus (ii. 6) from the bay of Plinthine to the lake of Serbonis. [W. B. D.]

SIRENU'SAE I'NSULAE. [miseiivab. ProMontorium].

SIRICAE, a place in Cappadocia on the road from Comana to Melitene, and 24 miles NW. of the first. (Itin. Ant. pp. 210,211.) According to Lapie, near the BenbodagK [T. H. D.]

SIRIO, in Gallia, is placed by the Itins. on a road from Burdigala (Bordeaux) to Aginnum (Agen). The distance is probably corrupt in the Table, whu h places Sirio x. from Bordeaux; for the true distance is xv. or xvi. Gallic leagues. D'Anville fixes Sirio (the Pont de Siron) near the point where the Mnall river Siron or Ciron joins the Garonne on the left bank. [G. L.]

SIRIS (2Tpis: Eth. 2ipfn;j, but also SjpiVov; Sirites), an ancient city of Magna Graecia, situated at the month of the river of the same name flowing into the Tarentine gulf, and now calleti the Sinno. There is no doubt that Siris was a Greek colony, and that at one time it attained to a great amount of wealth and prosperity; but its history is extremely obscure and uncertain. Its first origin was generally ascribed to a Trojan colony; and, as a proof of this an ancient statue of Minerva wa3 shown there which claimed to be the true Trojan Palladium (Strab. vi. p. 264; Lycophr. Alex. 978 — 985). Whatever may have been the origin of this legend, there seems no doubt that Siris was originally a city of the Chones, the native Oenotrian inhabitants of this part of Italy (Strab. I c). A legend found in the Etymologicon (*. v. Sipis), according to which the city derived its name from a daughter of Morges, king of the Siculi, evidently points in the same direction, as the Morgetes also were an Oenotrian tribe. From these first settlers it was wrested, as we are told, by a body of Ionian colonists from Colophon, who had tied from their native city to avoid the dominion of the Lydians. (Strab. I. c.; Athenae. xii. p. 523.) The period of this emigration is very uncertain; but it appears probable that it most have taken place not long after the capture of the city by Gyges, king of Lydia, about 700 — 690 B. c. Archilochus, writing about 660 B. c, alludes to the fertility and beauty of the district on the banks of the Siris; and though the fragment preserved to us by Athenaeus does not expressly notice the existence of the city of that name, yet it would appear from the expressions of Athenaeus that the poet certainly did mention it; and the fact of this colony having been so lately established there was donbtless the cause of his allusion to it (Archil. ap. Alien, xii. p. 523). On the other hand, it seems clear from the account of the settlement at Metapontum (Strab. vi. p. 265), that the territory of Siris was at that time still unoccupied by any Greek colony. We may therefore probably place the date of the Ionian settlement at Siris between 690 and 660 B. c We are told that the Ionic colonists gave to the city the name of Polieum (IloAff Iov, Strab. vi. p. 264; Steph. B. s. v. SFpis); but the appellation of Siris, which it derived from the river, and which seems to have been often given to the whole district (^ used as equivalent to y\ Siprrij), evidently prevailed, and is the only one met with in common use. Of the history of Siris we know literally nothing, except the general fact of its prosperity, and that its citizens indulged in habits of luxury and effeminacy that rivalled those of their neighbours the Sybarites. (Athen. xii. p. 523.) It may be received as an additional proof of their opulence, that Damasns, a citizen of Siris, is noticed by Herodotus among the suitors for the daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon, about 580 —560 B. c, on which occasion Siris and Sylwris among the cities of Italy alone furnished claimants. (Herod, vi. 127.) This was probably about the period that Siris was at the height of its prosperity. But an Ionian city, existing as it did in the midst of the powerful Achaean colonies, must naturally have been an object of jealousy to its neighbours ; and hence we are told that the Metapontines, Sybarites, and Crotoniats formed a league against Siris; and the war that ensued ended in the capture of the city, which appears to have been followed by the expulsion of the inhabitants (Justin, xx. 2). The date of the destruction of Siris cannot be fixed with any approach to certainty: it was probably after 550 B. c, and certainly preceded the fall of its rival Sybaris in B. c. 510. Its ruin appears to have been complete, for we meet with no subsequent mention of the city, and the territory is spoken of as open to colonisation at the time of the Persian War, B. c. 480. (Herod, viii. 62.)

Upon that occasion we learn incidentally that the Athenians considered themselves as having a claim of old standing to the vacant district of the Sirites,

and even at one tin e thought of removing thither with their wives and families. (Herod. L c.) The origin of this claim is unknown; but it seems pretty clear that it was taken up by the Athenian colonists who established themselves at Thurii in B. c. 443, and became the occasion of hostilities between them and the Tarentines. These were at length terminated by a compromise, and it was agreed to found in common a fresh colony in the disputed territory. This appears to have been at first established on the site of the ancient city, but was soon after transferred to a spot 3 miles distant, where the new colony received the name of Heracleia, and soon rose to be a flourishing city. (Strab. vi. p. 264; Diod. xii. 36.) [heraCleia.] According to Strabo, Siris still continued to exist as the port or naval station of Heracleia; but no other mention of it is found, and it is not clear whether Strabo himself meant to speak of it as still subsisting in his day. No remains of it are extant, and the exact site does not appear to have been determined. But it may be placed on the left liank of the river Siris (now called the Sinno), at or near its mouth; a position which well accords with the distance of 24 stadia (3 miles) from Heracleia, the remains of which are visible at Policoro, near the river Agri, the ancient Aciris. [heracleia.]

The river Siris is mentioned by Lycophron (Alex. 982), as well as by Archilochus in a passage already cited (ap. Athen. xii. p. 523); but the former author calls it 2/ro, and its modern name of Sinno would seem to be derived from an ancient period ; for we find mention in the Tabula of a station 4 miles from Heracleia, the name of which is written Semnum, probably a corruption for Ad Simnum or Sinnum. The Siris and Aciris are mentioned in conjunction by Pliny as well as by Strabo, and are two of the most considerable streams in Lucania. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15; Strab. vi. p. 264.) The name of the former river is noticed also in connection with the first great battle between Pyrrhus and the Romans, B. C. 280, which was fought upon its banks (Plut. Pyrrh. 16). It has been absurdly confounded by Floras and Orcsius with the Liris in Campania. (Flor. i. 18. § 7; Oros. iv. I.)

The fertile district of the Siritis (fi Sipmi or Sciprra) is a portion of the level tract or strip of plain which borders the gulf of Tarentum from the neighbourhood of Rocca Imperiale to the mouth of the Bradano. This plain stretches inland from the mouth of the Sinno to the foot of the hill on which stands the modern city of Turn, about 8 miles from the sea. It is a tract of extraordinary natural fertility, but is now greatly neglected, and, in common with all this coast, desolated by malaria. [E. H. B.]

SIRIS, SIRAE, SERRHAE (2(pis, Herod, viii. 115; Sirae, Liv. xlv. 4; 2e/5*ai, Hierocl.: Eth. Sipoiraloyets, Herod, v. 15; Steph. B.: Serrit), a town of Macedonia, standing in the widest part of the great Strymonic plain on the last slopes of the range of mountains which bound it to the NE. Xerxes left a part of his sick here, when retreating to the Hellespont (Herod. 2. c): and P. Aemilius Paulus, after his victory at Pydna, received at this town, which is ascribed to Odomautice, a deputation from Perseus, who had retired to Samothrace. (Liv. I. c.) Little is known of Serrhae, which was the usual form of the name in the 5th century (though from two inscriptions found at Serre's it appears that Sirrha, or Sirrhae, was the more ancient orthography, and that which obtained at least until the division of the empire), until the great spread of the Servian kingdom. Stephen Dushan in the 14th century seized on this large and flourishing city, and assumed the imperial crown here, where he established a court on the Roman or Byzantine model, with the title of Emperor of Romania, Sclavonia, and Albania. (Niceph. Greg. p. 467.) After his death a partition of his dominions took place but the Greeks have never since been able to recover their former preponderance in the provinces of the Strymonic valley. Sultan Murad took this town from the Servians, and when Sigismund, king of Hungary, was about to invade the Ottoman dominions, Bayezid (Bajazet Ilderim) summoned the Christian princes who were his vassals to his camp at Serrhae, previous to his victory at Nicopolis, A. D. 1396. (J. von Hammer, Gesch. des Ostium. J&iches, vol. i. pp. 193, 246, 600.)

Besides the Macedonian inscriptions of the Roman empire found by Leake (Inscr. 126) and Cousinery, the only other vestige of the ancient town is a piece of Hellenic wall faced with large quadrangular blocks, but composed within of small stones and mortar forming a mass of extreme solidity. Servian remains are more common. (Leake, Northern Greece^ vol. iii. pp. 200—210.) [E. B. J.]

Sl'RMIO (Scrnuone), a narrow neck or tongue of land, projecting out into the Lake Benacus (Logo di Gardd), from its southern shore. Though a con-piruous and picturesque object in all views of the lake from it* southern shores, it is unnoticed by any of the geographers, and its name would probably have been unknown to us, but for the circumstance that Catullus, who was a native of the neighbouring Verona, had a villa on its shores, and has sung the praises of Sinnio in one of the most charming odes in the Latin language (Catull. xxxi.). The name of Sinnio is, however, found in the Itineraries, which place a u Sennione mansio" on the road from Brixia to Verona, and just midway between the two cities, 22 M. P. from each {Itin Ant p. 127). This must, however, have been situated at the entrance of the peninsula, probably where a road turned off to it, as it is clear that the highroad could never have turned aside to the promontory itself.

Extensive substructions and other remains of an ancient villa are still visible at the extremity of the promontory, where it juts out into the lake: but these undoubtedly belong to an abode on a much more magnificent scale than the villa of Catullus, and probably belong to some villa of the imperial times, which had replaced the humbler dwelling of the poet. [E.H.B.]

SI'RMIUM (Zf/yuov), an important city in the south-eastern part of Lower Pannonia, was an ancient Celtic place of the Taurisci, on the left bank of the Savus, a little below the point where this river is joined by the Bacuntius (Pliu. iii. 28.) Zosimus (ii. 18) is mistaken when he asserts that Sirmium was surrounded on two sides by a tributary of the Ister. The town was situated in a most favourable position, where several roads met {It Ant pp. 124, 131 j It Hieros. p. 563), and during the wars against the Dacians and other Danubian tribes, it became the chief depot of all military stores, and gradual y rose to the rank of the chief city in Pannonia. (Herodian, vii. 2.) "Whether it was ever made a Roman colony is not quite certain, though au inscription is said to exist containing the words Dec. Colon. Sirmiens. It contained a large manufactory of amis, a spacious forum, an imperial palace, and other public build

ings, and was the residence of the admiral of the first Flavian fleet on the Danube. (Amm. Marc xvii. 13, xix. 11; NotU. /nip.) The emperor Probus was born at Sirmium. (Vopisc. Prob. 3, 21; comp. Strab. ii. p. 134; Ptol. Ii. 16. § 8, viii. 7. § 6; Steph. B. $. P.\ Eutrop. ix. 17; Aethicus, p. 715, ed. Gronov.; Geog. Rav. iv. 19.) The city is mentioned for the last time by Procopius (Ii. Goth. iii. 33, 34), as being in the hands of the A van, but when and how it perished are questions which history docs not answer. Extensive ruins of it are still found about the modern town of MUroviU. (See Orelli, Inscript n. 3617; Marsili, Damtbius, p. 246, f.ll.) [L.S.]

SIRNIDES, a group of small islands off the promontory Sammonium in Crete. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 20.)

SIROC (Xpwx), a town of Parfhyene, noticed by Isidorus. (Stoith. Parth. c 12, ed, Muller.) It ia not clear whether there is any corresponding modern town; but Rennell thinks it is represented by the present Serakks. {Geog. Herod, p. 297.) Ptolemy places a district which he calls Siracene among the Astabeni, a people who occupied part of Hyrcania (vi. 9. § 5). It is not impossible that Sin»c and Siracene may be thus connected. [V.]

SISAPON (Zuromtfr, Strab. iii. p. 142). a considerable town in His pan ia Baetica. (Cic Phil. ii. 19; Plin. iii. 1. 8. 3.) It lay N. of Corduba, between the Baetis and the Anas, and was celebrated for its silver mines and veins of cinnabar (Strab. I c: Vitruv. vii. 9; Plin. xxxiii. 7. s. 40; INoseor. v. 109.) The town of Almaden in the Sierra Morena, with which Sisapon is identified, still possesses a rich mine of quicksilver. "The mine is apparently inexhaustible, becoming richer in proportion as the shafts deepen. The vein of cinnabar, about 25 feet thick, traverses rocks of quartz and slate; and runs towards Almadenejos. Virgin quicksilver occurs also in pyrites and hornstein.'* M Between 20,000 and 25,000 quintals of mercury are now procured annually." (Ford, Handbook of Spain, p. 70; comp. Laborde, /tin. ii. p. 133; Dillon's Travels, ii. pp. 72, 77.) The name of this town ia variously written It appears on coins as '* Sisipo M (Sestini, p. 87), whilst others have the correct name. (Florez, Med. iii. p. 119; Mionnet, i. p. 25, and Supp. i. p. 114.) The form M Sisalone" (/fin. Ant. (p. 444) is probably corrupt. It appears to be the same town called 'Xiaav&rn by Ptolemy (ii. 6 § 59), who, however, places it in the territory of the Oretani, in Hispaiua Tarraconensis, on which indeed it borders. [T. H. D.]

SISAR. [usar.]

SISARA QZurdpa, Ptol. iv. 3. § 17), a lake in Africa Propria, in the neighbourhood of Hippo Diarrhytus. Now Benizert or Bizerta. [T. H. D.]

S1SARACA (2i(rapa<fa, PtoL ii. 6- § 52), a town of the Murbogi or Turniodigi in Hispania Tarraconensis. For coins, see Sestini, p. 197. [T.H.D.]

SISAURANUM (to 3Uffoupo»w, Procop. Per*. ii. 19, '/-■ Aedif. ii. 4), a fortress of Mesopotamia, above Dan, noticed by Procopius. It is not elsewhere mentioned. C^'-J

SI'SCIA, SEGESTA, or SEGE'STICA (Swriria, "Xryiora, Sryto-Ttfrfj), a great town in the south of Upper Pannonia, on the southern bank of the Savus, on an island formed by that river and two others, the Colapis and Odra, a canal dug by Tiberius completing the island. (Dion Cass. xlix. 37.) It was situated on the great road from Acmona to Sirmium. (It. Ant. pp. 259, 260, 265, 266, 272, 274: Plin. iii. 28.) According to Pliny the name Segestica belonged only to the island, and the town was called Siscia; while Strabo (vii. p. 314) says that Siscia was a fort in the neighbourhood of Segestica; but if this was so, it must be supposed that subsequently the fort and town became united as one place. (Comp. Strab. iv. p. 202, v. p. 214, vii. p. 218; Appian, lUyr. 16, 23. &c.) Siscia was frum the first a strongly fortified town; and after its capture by Tiberius, in the reign of Augustus (Appian, Dion Cass., IL cc.; Veil. Pat. ii. 113), it became one of the most important places of Pannonia; for being situ, ated on two navigable rivers, it not only carried on considerable commerce (Strab. v. pp. 207, 214), but became the central point from which Augustus and Tiberius carried on their undertakings against the Pannonians and Illyrians. Tiberius did much to enlarge and embellish the town, which as early as j that time seems to have been made a colonia, for' Pliny mentions it as such: in the time of Septimius Severus it received fresh colonists, whence in inscriptions it is called Col. Septimia Siscia. The town contained an imperial mint, and the treasury for what was at a later time called the province Savia; at the same time it was the station of the small fleet kept on the Savus. Siscia maintained its importance until Sirmium began to rise, for in proportion as Sirmium rose, Siscia sank and declined. (Camp. Zosim. ii. 48; Orelli, Inscript. n. 504, 505, 2703, 3075, 3346, 4993.) The modern town of Stuck, occupying the place of the ancient Siscia, contains many interesting remains of antiquity. (Marsili, Danubius, p. 47; Schbnwisner, Antiq. Sabariae, p. 52, foil.; Muchar, Norikum, i, p. 159.) [L. S.]

SITACE (SiTdVcn), a large town, first noticed by Xenophon (Anab. ii. 4. § 13), situated • about 8 parasangs from the Median Wall, and 15 from the Tigris and the mouth of the Physcus. The exact situation cannot be now determined, but several travellers have noticed, in this neighbourhood, extensive ancient remains, which may perhaps belong to this city. (Mannert, v. pt ii. p. 281; Niebuhr, ii. p. 305: Ives, Travels, cfc. p. 133.) [V.l

SITACUS (2iTaKd>, Arrian, Ind. c. 38), a river of Persia, to which Nearchus came in his celebrated coasting voyage. It is in all probability the same as that called by Pliny Sitiogagus (vi. 23. s. 26); although his statement that, from its mouth, an ascent could be made to Pasargada in 7 days, is manifestly erroneous. There is no reason to doubt that it is at present represented by a stream called Sita-Rhegidn. (Vincent, Voy. of Nearchus, i. p. 385 ; D Anville, Mem. de lAcad. xxx. p. 158; Hitter, Erdhmde, vii. p. 763.) [V.]

SITHO'NIA (tiBuriv, Herod, vii. 123; Steph. B.; Virg. Bucol. x. 66; Hor. Carm. i. 18. 9: Longos), the central of the three prongs which run out into the Aegean from the great peninsula of Chalcidice, forming a prolongation to the peak called Solomon or Kholomim. The Sithonian peninsula, which, though not so hilly as that of Acte, is not so inviting as Pallene, was the first, it appears, to be occupied by the Chalcidic colonists. A list of its towns is given in Chalcidice. [E. B. J.]

SITIA, a place in Hispania Baetica. (Plin. iii. l.s. 3.) [T.H.D.]

S1TIFI (Simpi, Ptol. iv. 2. § 34), a town in the interior of Mauretania Caesariensis, situated in an extensive plain not far from the borders of

Numidia, and on the road from Carthage to Cirta. (Itm. Ant. pp. 24, 29, 31, &c.; com p. Amm. Marc, xxviii. 6.) At first, under the Numidian kings, it was but an unimportant place; but under the Roman dominion it became the frontier town of the new province of Numidia, was greatly enlarged and elevated to be a colony; so that on the subsequent division of Mauretania Caesar, into two smaller provinces it became the capital of Mauretania Sitifensis. Under the dominion of the Vandals, it was the capital of the district Zale'. (Zd€n, Procop. B. Vand. ii. 20.) It is still called Set{f, and lies upon an eminence in a delightful neighbourhood. Some ruins of the ancient town are still to be seen. (Shaw's Travels, p. 49.) [T. H. D.]

SITILLIA, in Gallia, is placed by the Table on a road from Aquae Bormonis (Bourbon TArchambault) to Pocriniuin, supposed to be Perrigni. Sitillia is xvi. from Aquae Bormonis and xiiii. from Pocrinium Sitillia is probably a place named Tiel (D'Anville JVotice, etc.)' [G. L.]

SITIOGAGUS. [sitacus.]

SITOMAGUS, a town of the Iceni or Simeni, in the E. part of Britannia Romans, (/tin. Ant. p. 480.) Camden (p. 456) identifies it with Thet/ord in Norfolk, whilst others seek it at Stowmarhet, Souihwold, and Saxmundham. In the Tab. Pent, it is erroneously written " Sinomachus." [T. H. D.]

SITONES, a population conterminous with the Sniones, from whom theydifier only in beins: governed by a female: "in tantum non mudo a libertate sed etiam a servitute degenerant. Hie Sueviae finis." (Tac. Germ. 45.) The Sitonian locality is some part of Finland; probably the northern half of the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia.

The statement that they were under a female rule is explained as follows. The name by which the East Bothnian Finlanders designate themselves is /fatnu-laiset (in the singular- &ainu-lainen). The Swedes call them Qvaent (Kutams). The mediaeval name for their country is Cajan-i&. Now qvituta in the Norse language = woman, being our words queen and quean; and in the same Norse tongue the land of the Qvaens would be Cvena-land,- as it actually is, being Cwaen-land (Queen-laud) in AngloSaxon. Hence the statement of Tacitus arises out of information concerning a certain Cwaen-land, erroneously considered to be a terra feminarum, instead of a terra Quctenorum. The reader who thinks this fanciful should be informed that in Adam of Bremen, writing in the 12th century, when the same country comes under notice, the same confusion appears, and that in a stronger form. The Sitonian country is actually terra Jeminarum. More than this, the feminae become Amazons: "circa haeo litora Baltici maris ferunt esse Amazonas, quod nunc terra feminarum dicitur, quas aquae gustu aliqui dicunt concipere..... Hae simul viventes, spemunt consortia virorum, quos etiam, si advenerint, a se viriliter repellnnt," c. 228. (Zeuss, Bit Deutschen, cjv., 8. v. Kwenen.)

It is worth noticing that King Alfred's locality of the Cwenas is, in respect to their relations to the Svias, exactly that of Tacitus,—CVeno-land succeeding Swa-land.

The Sitones seem to have been the ancient representatives of the Finns of Finland,—the Fenni of the ancients being the Laps. This is not only what the words Sitones and Qvaen suggest, but the inference from the word Fenni also. To the Finlander, Fin is a strange name. The Swede calls him Qcavn;

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