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he calls himself Suoma-Iainen or Hameiainen. On the other hand, it is the Lap of Pinmark that is called a Fin, and it is the Norwegian who calls him so. [fenni.] [K. G. L.]

SITTACE (sittokii, Ptol. vi. 1. § 6), a town of ancient Assyria, at the southern end of this province, on the road between Artemita and Susa. (Strab. xvi. p. 744.) It is called Sitta (sitto) by Diodorns (xvii. 110). It was the capital of the district of Sittacene, which appears to have been called in later times Apolloniatis (Strab. zi. p. 524), and which adjoined the province of Susis (xv. p. 732). Pliny, who gives the district of Sittacene a more northerly direction, states that it bore also the names of A Thelitis and Palaestine (vi. 27. s. 31). It is probably the same conntry which Curtius calls Satrapene (v. 2). [V.] SITTACE'NE. [sittace.] SITTOCATIS (sittokotis, Arrian, Ind. c. 4), a navigable river, which, according to Arrian, flowed into the Ganges. It has been conjectured by Manners that it is the same as the present Sind, a tributary of the Jumna, near Rampur (v. pt. i. p. 69). [V.]

SIUPH (Sioifcp, Herod, ii. 172), a town of the SaTtic nome in the Delta of Egypt. It does not Appear to be mentioned by any other writer besides Herodotus. [T.H.D.]

SIVA (Sfow.), a town in the prefecture of Cilicia in Cappadocia, on the road from Mazaca to Tavium, at a distance of 22 miles from Mazaca. (Ptol. v. 6. S 15; Tab. Peat) [L. a]

SMARAGDUS MONS (SfuipaySos Spot, Ptol. iv. 5. § 15), was a portion of the chain of hills which runs along the western coast of the Red Sea from the Heronpolite gulf to the straits of Bab-el-Afandeb. Between 1st. 24° and 25° in this range is the Mount Smaiagdus, the modern Djebel Zabareh, which derived its natne from the emeralds found there, and early attracted by its wealth the Aegyptians into that barren region. The principal mine was at Djebel-Zabareh; but at Bender-el-Sogheir to N., and at Sekket to S., each a portion of Mount Siriaragdus, there are traces of ancient mining operations. Small emeralds of an inferior quality are still found in this district. (Mannert, Geograph. vol. x. p. 21.) Strabo (xvii. p. 815) and Pliny (xxxvii. 15. s. 16) mention the weulth obtained from these mines. At SeJcket there is a temple of the Ptolemaic era; but the mines were known and wrought at least as early as the reign of Amunoph III., in the 18th dynasty of the native kings of Aeeypt. [W. B. D.]

SMENUS. [lacomia, p. 114, b.]
SMILA. [crossaea.]

SMYRNA (ijiipva: Etk. 2/aupi/oior, Smyrnaeus: Smyrna or Izmir), one of the most celebrated and most flourishing cities in Asia Minor, was situated on the east of the mouth of the Heimus, and on the bay which received from the city the name of the Smyrnaeus Sinus. It is said to have been a very ancient town founded by an Amazon of the name of Smyrna, who had previously conquered Ephesus. In consequence of this Smyrna was regarded as a colony of Ephesus. The Ephesian colonists are said afterwards to have been expelled by Aeolians, who then occupied the place, until, aided by the Colophonians, the Ephesian colonists were enabled to re-establish themselves at Smyrna. (Strab. xiv. p. 633; Steph. B. *. v.; Plin. v. 31.) Herodotus, on the other hand (i. 150), states that Smyrna originally belonged to

the Aeolians, who admitted into their city some Colophonian exiles; and that these Colophonians afterwards, during a festival which was celebrated outside the town, made themselves masters of the place. From that time Smyrna ceased to be an Aeolian city, and was received into the Ionian confederacy (Comp. Paus. vii. 5. § 1.) So far then as we are guided by authentic history, Smyrna belonged to the Aeolian confederacy until the year B. c. 688, when by an act of treachery on the part of the Colophonians it fell into the hands of the Ionians, and became the 13th city in the Ionian League. (Herod. I. c.; Paus. I. e.) The city was attacked by the Lydian king Gyges, but successfully resisted the aggressor (Herod, i. 14; Paus. ix. 29. § 2.) Alyattes, however, about B. c. 627, was more successful; he took and destroyed the city, and henceforth, for a period of 400 years, it was deserted and in ruins (Herod, i. 16; Strab. xiv. p. 646), though some inhabitants lingered in the plnce, living Kwnrfidv, as is stated by Strabo, and as we must infer from the fact that Scylax (p. 37) speaks of Smyrna as still existing. Alexander the Great is said to have formed the design of rebuilding the city (Paus. vii. 5. § 1); but he did not live to carry this plan into effect; it was, however, undertaken by Antigonus, and finally completed by Lysiinachus. The new city was not built on the site of the ancient one, but at a distance of 20 stadia to the south of it, on the southern coast of the bay, and partly on the side of a hill which Pliny calls Mastusia, but principally in the plain at the foot of it extending to the sea. After its extension and embellishment by Lysimachus, new Smyrna became one of the most magnificent cities, and certainly the finest in all Asia Minor. The streets were handsome, well laved, and drawn at right angles, and the city contained several squares, porticoes, a pnblic library, and numerous temples and other public bnildings; but one great drawback was that it had no drains. (Strab. I. c; Marm. Oxon. n. 5.) It also possessed an excellent harbour which could be closed, and continued to be one of the wealthiest and most flourishing commercial cities of Asia; it afterwards became the seat of a conventus juridicus which embraced the greater part of Aeolis as far as Magnesia, at the foot of Mount Sipylus. (Cic p. Flacc. 30; Plin. v. 31.) During the war between the Romans and Mithridates, Smyrna remained faithful to the former, for which it was rewarded with various grants and privileges. (Liv. xxxv. 42, xxxvii. 16, 54, xxxriii. 39.) But it afterwards suffered much, when Trebonius, one of Caesars murderers, was besieged there by Dolabella, who in the end took the city, and put Trebonius to death. (Strab. I. c; Cic. rhil. xi. 2; Liv. Epti. 119; Dion Cass, xlvii. 29.) In the reign of Tiberius, Smyrna had conferred upon it the equivocal honour of being allowed, in preference to several other Asiatic cities, to erect a temple to the emperor (Tac. Ann. iii. 63, iv. 56). During the years A. D. 178 and ISO Smyrna suffered much from earthquakes, but the emperor M. Aurelius did much to alleviate its sufferings (Dion Cass. lxxi. 32.) It is well known that Smyrna was one of the places claiming to be the bi thplace of Homer, and the Smyrnaeans themselves were so strongly convinced of their right to claim this honour, that they erected a temple to the great bard, or a 'O^ptiov, a splendid edifice containing a statue of Homer (Strab. L a; Cic. p. Arch. 6): they even showed a cave in the neigh*

nourhood of their city, on the little river Meles, where the poet was said to hare composed his works. Smyrna was at all times not only a great commercial place, but its schools of rhetoric and philosophy also were in great repute. The Christian Church also flourished through the zeal and care of its first bishop Polycarp, who is said to have been pnt to death in the stadium of Smyrna in A. D. 166 (Iren. iii. p. 176) Under the Byzantine emperors the city exjwrienced great vicissitudes: having been occupied by Tzachas, a Turkish chief, about the close of the 11th century, it was nearly destroyed by a Greek fleet, commanded by John Ducas. It was restored, however, by the emperor Comnenus, but again subjected to severe sufferings during the siege of Tamerlane. Not long ifter it fell into the hands of the Turks, who have retained possession of it ever since. It is now the great mart of the Levant trade. Of Old Smyrna only a few remains now exist on the north-eastern side of the bay of Smyrna; t he walls of the acropolis are in the ancient Cyclopean style. The ancient remains of New Smyrna are more numerous, especially of its walls which are of a solid and massive construction; of the stadium between the western gate and the sea, which, however, is stripped of its marble seats and decorations; and of the theatre on the side of a hill fronting the bay. These anil other remains of ancient buildings have been destroyed by the Turks in order to obtain the materials for other buildings; but numerous remains of ancient art have been dug out of the ground at Smyrna. (Chandler's Travels in Asia, pp. 76, 87; Proke*ch. Denkwierdigkeiten, i. p. 515, foil.; Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 46, foil.; Sir C. Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 10, foil.) [L. S.]

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COIN OP SMYRNA.

SMYRNAEUS SINUS (?nvpvatuv K4\*os), also called the bay of Hermus ("Epftcto? icoAiroi), from the river Hermus, which flows into it, or the bay of Melea (M#A^rov «.), from the little river Meles, is the bay at the head of which Smyrna is situated. From its entrance to the head it is 350 stadia in length, but is divided into a larger and a smaller basin, which have been formed by the deposits of the Hermus, which have at the same time much narrowed the whole bay. A person sailing into it had on his right the promontory of Celaenae, and on his left the headland of Phocaea; the central part of the bay contained numerous small islands. (Strab. xiv. p. 645; Pomp. Mela, i. 17; Vit. Bom. 2; Steph. B. *. v. X/xtipva.) [L. S.]

SOANAS (Xodvas, Ptol. vii. 4. § 3), a small river of Tuprobane {Ceylon), which flowed into the sea on the western side of the island. Lassen (in bis map) calls it the Kilau. On its banks lived a people of the same name, the Soatti (Ptol. vii. 4. § 9.) [V.]

SOANDA or SOANDUM (SdaxSa or ZJwoor), a castle of Cappadocia, between Therms and Sacoena. (Strab. ziv. p. 663; It Ant. p. 802.) Tbe

same place seems to be alluded to by Frontinus (iii. 2. § 9), who calls it Suenda. Hamilton (Researches, ii. p. 286, foil.) identifies it with Ssoglumli Dcre, a place situated on a rock, about 8 miles on the south-west of Karahissar, but other geopraphers place it in a different locality. [L. S.]

SOAS. [sonus.]

SOATRA (26arpa), or probably more correctly Savatra (2avarpa), as the name appears on coins, was an open town in Lycaonia, in the neighbourhood of Apameia Cibotus, on the road from thence to Laodiceia The place was badly provided with water (Strab. xiv. p. 668; Ptol. v. 4. § 12; Hierocl. p. 672; Tab. Peut.'), whence travellers are inclined to identify its site with the place now called Su Vermes*, that is, " there is no water here." [L. S.]

SOATRAE, a town in Lower Moesia (Itin. Ant. p. 229), variously identified with Pravadi and KiopitenL In the Tab. Pent, and by the Geogr. Kav. (iv. 6) it is called Scatrae [T. H. D.]

SOBU'RA (5u6V'par ipnr6ptov), a place on the eastern coast of 1/indnstan, mentioned in the Periplus (p. 34). It is probably the same as the modern Sabras, between Pondicherry and Madras. (See Lassen's map.) [V.]

SOCANAA or SOCANDA (iaxavia or SoxtdV5a). a small river of Hyrcania, noticed by Ptolemy (vi. 9. § 2). It is probably the present Gvrgan. Ammianus Marcellinns speaks of a place called Socunda, on the shores of the Hyrcanian or Caspian sea (xxiii. 6). ' [V.]

SO'CRATIS PNSULA (ZaKpirovs rijvos), an island of the Sinus Arabian (Red Sea), placed by Ptolemy (vi. 7. § 44), who alone mentions it, in long. 70°, lat. 16° 40', and therefore off the N. coast of his Elisari, the Sabaei of other geographers, 30' east of his Accipitrum Insula ('ItpdVcw) and 2° 20' south of them. They are probably identical with tbe Farsan islands, of the E. I. Company's Chart, described by commanders Moresby and Elwon, in their Sailing Directions for the Red Sea, as " the largest all along this coast, situated upon the extensive banks west of Gheesan. They are two in number, but may be considered as forming ono island, being connected by a sandy spit of shoalwater, across which camels frequently pass from one to the other." The westernmost is Farsan Kebecr (= the greater), 31 miles in length, extending from lat. 16° 35' long. 42° IS' to lat. 16° 54' long. 41° 47'. Farsan Seggeer (=the smaller) is, on its NE. side, 18 miles in length, and extends to lat. 17° 1$': their whole breath is only 12 miles. Tbe land is of considerable height, interspersed with some plains and valleys: the hilly parts are coral ruck (pp. 38, 39; C. Mttller, Tabulae in Geog. Grace. Mm. tab. viii). In other comparative atlases, adopted by Arrowsmith, tbe modem name is given as Kotumbul Is., considerably to the N.of the Farsan, described by the same writers as lying only 2 miles from the main, a small island about ^ a mile in length and therefore not likely to have been noticed by Ptolemy, who obviously mentions only the more important. (Sailing Directions, p. 50.) Mannert identifies the Socratis Insula with Niebuhr's Fir an, where the traveller says the inhabitants of Loheia have a pearl fishery. This name does not occur in the "Sailing Directions," but is probably tbe same as Farsan. (Mannert, Geographic von Arabien, p. 49; Nicbuhr, Description de VArabic, p. 201.) [G. W.]

SOCUNDA. [socakaa.]

SODOM (to S<(So/io, Strab. xv. p. 764; Steph. B. ». v.; Sodoma, -Oram, Tertul. Apolog. 40; Sodoma, -ae, Sever. Sulp. i. 6 ; Sedul Carm. i. 105; Sodamom, Solin. 45. § 8; Sodomi, Tertull. Carm. de Sodom. 4), the infamous city of Canaan situated near the Dead Sea in an exceedingly rich and fruitful country, called in its early history " the plain of Jordan" and described as " well watered everywhere, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt, as thou comest to Zoar." (Gen. xiii. 10—12.) It is also reckoned one of " the cities of the plain" (xiii. 12. xix. 29), and was probably the capital of the Pentapolis, which consisted of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Bela, afterwards Zoar (pent. xxix. 23; Gen. xiv. 8, xix. 22), all of which towns, however, had their several petty kings, who were confederate together against Chedorlaomer king of Klam and his three allies, Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Kllasar, and Tidal king of nations. After Chedorlaomer had succeeded in reducing these sovereigns to subjection, they served him twelve years; in the thirteenth year they revolted, and in the fourteenth year were again vanquished by their northern enemies, when the conquerors were in their turn defeated by Abraham, whose nephew Lot hod been carried captive with all his property. The sacred historian has preserved the names of four of the petty kings who at this time ruled the cities of the plain, viz. Bera of Sodom, Birsha of Gomorrah, Shinab of Admah, and Shemeber of Zeboiim; and the scene of the engagement was "the vale of Siddim, which is the salt sea" (Gen. xiv.), an expression which seems clearly to imply that the battle-field at least, was subsequently submerged; the admission of which fact, however, would not involve the consequence that no lake had previously existed in the plain; although this too may be probably inferred from the earlier passage already cited, which seems to describe a wide plain watered by the river Jordan, as the plain of Egypt is irrigated by the Kile: and as this vale of Siddim was full of slime-pits (beds of bitumen),its subsidence naturally formed the Asphalt I.ake. The catastrophe of the cities, as described in the sacred narrative, does not certainly convey the idea that they were submerged, for fire and not water was the instrument of their destruction (Gen. xix.; S. Jade 7); so that the cities need not necessarily have been situated in the middle of the valley, but on the sloping sides of the hills which confined the plain, from which they would still be appropriately denominated "cities of the plain." (Roland, Palaestina. p. 255.) This is remarked in order to remove what has been regarded as a fundamental objection to the hypotheses of a late traveller, who claims to have recovered the sites of all the cities of the Pentapolis, which, as he maintains, are still marked by very considerable ruins of former habitations. Whatever value may be attached to the iilenlification of the other four, there is little doubt I hat the site of Sodom is correctly fixed near the smith-western extremity of the lake, where the modern native name Usdom or Esdom, containing all the radicals of the ancient name, is attached to a plain and a hill (otherwise called Khashm or JebeU el-Milhh, i. e. the salt hill), which consequently has long been regarded as marking the site of that accursed city. This singular ridge has been several tunes explored and described by modern travellers, whose testimony is collected and confirmed by Dr. Robinson (Bibi. Res. vol. ii. p. 481—483); but it was reserved for the diligence or imagination of M. de

Sanlcy to discover the extensive debris of this ancient city, covering the small plain and mounds on the north and north-east of the salt-ridge, and extending along the bed of Wady Zuwexrah (Voyage autour de la Mer Morte, voL ii. pp. 71 — 74). On the other side of the question M. Van de Velde is the latest authority. ( Syria and Palestine in 1851 and 1852, pp. 114, 115, note). Lieut Lynch, of the American exploring expedition, baa given a striking view of this salt mountain, illustrative of his description of the vicinity of Usdom. ( Expedition to the Dead Sea, pp. 306—308.) [G.W.]

SODRAE (SiSpai), a tribe met with by Alexander the Great in the lower Punjab, near Pattalene, according to Diodorus (xvii. 102). The name is probably of Indian origin, and may represent the caste of the Sudras. [V\]

SOGDI (507801), one of the smaller tribes noticed by Arrian (Anab. vi. 15) as encountered by Alexander in the lower Panjab. By their name, they would appear to represent an immigration from the north. [V.]

SOGDIA'NA (ij 2oy5«u<li, Strab. ii. p. 73, xi. p. 516; Ptol. vi. 12, &c), a widely extending district of Central Asia, the boundaries of which are not consistently laid down by ancient authors. Generally, it may be stated that Sogdiana lay between the Oxus and the Jaxartes, as its N. and S. limits, the former separating it from Bactriana and Ariana, the latter from the nomad populations of Scythia. (Strab. xi. pp. 511, 514; Ptol. vi. 12. § 1.) To the W. the province was extended in the direction of the Caspian sea, but, in early times at least, not to it; to the E. were the Sacae and the Seres. The district comprehended the greater part of the present Turkestan, with the kingdom of Bokhara, which bears to this day the name of Sogd. The character of the country was very diversified; some part of it being very mountainous, and some part, as the valley of Bokhara, very fertile and productive. The larger extent would seem to have been, as at present, a great waste. (Arrian, A nab. iv. 16; Curt. vii. 10. § 1.) At the time when Alexander visited the country, there appear to have been extensive forests, filled with all manner of game, and surrounded, at least in some parts, with walls, as preserves. Alexander is said to have hunted down 4000 wild beasts. (Curt. viiL 1. § 19)

The principal mountain chains are those called the Montes Oxii to the N. (at present the Pamer Mountains,) the Comedarpm Montes (probably the range of the Ak-togh or White Mountains) to the and the Montes Sogdii (the modern name of which is not certain, there being a doubt whether they comprehend the Belw-tagh as well as the Kara-tagh). The two great rivers of the country were those which formed its boundaries; the Oxus (Gihon or Amu-Darja) and the Jaxartes (Sihon or Syr-Darya). There are, also, besides these main streams, several smaller ones, feeders of the grent rivers, as the Demus, Bascatis, and the Pulytimetus, the latter, doubtless, the stream which flows beside the town of Sogd. The generic name of the inhabitants of Sogdiana is Sogdii or Sogdiani (Arrian, iv. 16, 18; Plin. vi. 16; Curt. iii. 2. § 9, &c), a race who, as is stated by Strabo (xi. p. 517), appeur, in character at least, to have borne a great resemblance to their neighbours of Bactriana. Besides these, Ptolemy and other writers have given a li»t of other names,— those, probably, of local tribes, who occupied different parts of the province. Many of these show by the form of their name that if not directly of Indian descent, they are clearly connected with that country. Thus we have the Pasicae, near the Montes Oxii; the Thacori (Takurt) on the Jaxartes; the Oxydrancae, Drybactae, and Gandari (Gandhdras), under the mountains; the Mardyeni {Madras'), Chorasnui (Khvmresmians), near the Oxus; and the Cirrodes (KiriUu) near the same river. (Wilson, Ariana, p. 164.)

The historians of Alexander's march leave us to Buppose that Sogdiana abounded with large towns; but many of these, as Professor Wilson has remarked (I. o.), were probably little more than forts erected along the lines of the great rivers to defend tlie country from the incursions of the barbarous tribes to its N. and E. Yet these writers must have had good opportunity of estimating the force of these places, as Alexauder appears to have been the best part of three years in this and the adjoining piovince of Bactriana. The principal towns of which the names have been handed down to us, were Cyreschata or Cyropolis, on the Jaxartes (Steph. B. *. r.; Curt. vi. 6); Gaza (Ghaz or Ghazna, Ibn Haukfl, p. 270); Alexandreia Ultima Anion, iii. 30; Curt. I. c.; Atom. Marc, xxiii. 6), uiibtless in the neighbourhood of, if not on the site of the present Khojend; Alexandreia Oxiana (Ptol. vi. 12. § 5; Steph. B. s. v.); Nautaca (Arrian, iii. 28, iv. 18), in the neighbourhood of Karshi or Nuksheb; Branchidae (Strab. xi p. 518), a place traditionally said to have been colonised by a Greek population; and Marginia (Cart vii. 10. § 15), probably the present Marghinan. (Droysen, Rhein. Mas. 2 Jahr. p. 86; Mannert, iv. p. 452; Barnes, Tiavtls, i. p. 350; Memoirs of Bdber, p. 12; De Sacy, Notices et Extraiis, iv. p. 354; Thirlwall, Uist. of Greece, vi. p. 284.) [V.] SOGDII MONTES. [soqdiana.] SOGIU'NTII, an Alpine people mentioned by Pliny (iii. 20. s. 24). Nothing but resemblance of name gives us any indication of the position of many small mountain tribes, but the names remain frequently very little changed. The position of the Sogiuntii is conjectured to be shown by the name Saitze or Suuches, NE. of Briangon in the department of Hautes Aipes. Bat this is merely a guess; and even the orthography of the name Sogiuutii is not certain. [G. L.]

SOLE, a small town in the interior of Hyrcania, mentioned by Ammianus (xxiii. 6). [V.]

SOLEN (2«W, Ptol. vii. 1. §§ 10, 34), a small river of S. India, which has its sources in M. Bettigo, and flows thence into the Sinus Colchicus or Gulf °f Manaar. It is not certain which of two rivers, the Vaiparu or the Tamraparni, represent it at present: Lassen inclines to the latter. [V.] SOLENTA. [olykta Ihsula.] SOLKNTUM. [solus.] SOLETUM (Sofeto), a town of Calabria, situated in the interior of the Iapygian peninsula, about 12 miles S. of Lupiae (iecce). It is mentioned only by Pliny, in whose time it was deserted (" Solelum desertutn," Plin. iii. 11. s. 16), but it must have been again inhabited, as it still exists under the ancient name. That the modern town occupies the ancient site is proved by the remains of the ancient walls which were still visible in the days of Galateo, and indicated a town of considerable magnitude (Galateo, dr Sit. lapyg. p.81; Komanelli,vol.ii.p.26.)rE. H. B.] SOLI (2oAoi: Elh. 2o\ds or oj), an im

portant town on the coast of Cilicia, between the mouths of the rivers Lamas and Pyramus, from each of which its distance was about 500 stadia. (Strab. xiv. p. 675; Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. § 170, &c.) The town was founded by Argives joined by Lindians from Rhodes. (Strab. xiv. p. 671; Pomp. Mela, i. 13; Liv. xxxvii. 56.) It is first mentioned in history by Xeuophon (Anab. i. 2. § 24) as a maritime town of Cilicia; it rose to such opulence that Alexander the Great could fine its citizens for their attachment to Persia with 200 talents. (Arrian, A nab. ii. 5. § 5; Curt. iii. 17.) During the Mithridatic War the town of Soli was taken and destroyed by Tigranes, king of Armenia, who probably transplanted most of its inhabitants to Tigranocerta. (Dion Cass, xxxvi. 20; Plut. Pomp. 28; Strab. xi. p. 532 ) But the place was revived by Pompey, who peopled it with some of those pirates who had fallen into his hands, and changed its name into Pompeiupolis. (Jlofiirnioviro\ii, Pint /. c.; Strab. xiv. p. 671; Appian, Mithr. 105; Ptol. v. 8. § 4: Plin. v. 22; Steph. B. s. v.; Tac. Ann. ii. 58; Hierocl. p. 704.) Sob' was the birthplace of Chrysippus the philosopher, and of two distinguished poets, Philemon and Aratus, the latter of whom was believed to be buried on a hill near the town. The Greek inhabitants of Soli are reported to have spoken a very corrupt Greek in consequence of their intercourse with the natives of Cilicia, and hence to have given rise to the term solecism (o"oAoi*io/ios). which has found its way into all the languages of Europe; other traditions, however, connect the origin of this term with the town of Soli, in Cyprus. (Diog. Laert. i. 2. § 4; Eustath. ad Dion. Per. 875; Suid. s.v. SoAot.) The locality and the remains of this ancient city have been described by Beaufort (Karamania, p. 261, foil.). "The first object that presented itself to us on landing," says he, " was a beautiful harbour or basin, with parallel sides and circular ends; it is entirely artificial, being formed with surrounding walls or moles, which are 50 feet in thickness and 7 in height. Opposite to the entrance of the harbour a portico rises from the surrounding quay, and opens to a double row of 200 columns, which, crossing the town, communicates with the principal gate towards the country. Of the 200 columns no more than 42 are now standing; the remainder lie on the spot where they fell, intermixed with a vast assemblage of other ruined buildings which were connected with the colonnade. The theatre is almost entirely destroyed. The city walls, strengthened by numerous towers, entirely surrounded the town. Detached ruins, tombs, and sarcophagi were found scattered to some distance from the walls, on the outside of the town, and it is evident that the whole country was once occupied by a numerous and industrious people." The natives now call the place Mezetlu. (Comp. Leake, Asia Minor, p. 213, foil.) The little river which passed through Soli was called Liparis, from the oily nature

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of its waters. (Vitruv. viii. 3; Antig. Caryst. 150; Plin. I c.) Pliny (mi 2) mentions bituminous springs in the vicinity, which are reported by Beaufort to exist at Bilchardy, about six hours' walk to the north-east of Mczetiu. [L. S.]

SOLI or SOLOE (2oAoi, Ptol. v. 14. § 4), an important seaport town in the W. part of the N. coast of Cyprus, situated on a small river. (Strab. xiv. p. 683.) According to Plutarch {Sol. 26) it was founded by a native prince at the suggestion of Solon and named in honour of that legislator. The sojourn of Solon in Cyprus is mentioned by Herodotus (v. 113). Other accounts, however, make it an Athenian settlement, founded uuder the auspices of Phalerus and A Camas (Strab. I. c), or of Demophon, the son of Theseus (Plut. L e). We learn from Strabo (I c.) that it had a temple of Aphrodite and one of Isis; and from Galen {de Simp. Med. ix. 3, 8) that there were mines in its neighbourhood. The inhabitants were called Solii {26\iot), to distinguish them from the citizens of Soli in Cilicia, who were called SoAeu (Diog. Laert V. Solon, 4). According to Pococke (ii. p. 323), the valley which surrounded the city is still called Solea; and the ruins of the town itself may be traced in the village olAligora. (Comp. Aesch Pert. 889; Scyl. p. 41; Sladiasm. M. Magni, 295, seq.; Const. Porphyr. de Them. i. p. 39, ips.; Hierocl. p. 707, &c.). [T. H. D.]

SOLIA. [arab Hksperi.] SOLICI'NIUM, a town in the Agri Decumates, in South-western Germany, on Mount Pirus, where Valentinian in A. D. 369 gained a victory over the Alemanni. (Aram. Marc, xxvii. 10, xxviii. 2, xxx. 7.) A variety of conjectures have been made to identify the site of the town, but there are no positive criteria to arrive at any satisfactory conclusion. [L. S.]

SOLIMARIACA, in Gallia, is placed in the Antonine ltin. on the road from Andomatunum (Ixmgrei) to Tullum Leucorum {Toul), and nearly half-way between Mosa {Meuse) and Tullum. There is a place named Souloue, which in name and in position agrees with Solimariaca. "The trace of the Roman road is still marked in several places by its elevation, both on this side of Soulosse and beyond it on the road to Toul." (D'Anville, Notice, <fc.)[G. L.] SOL1MN1A, a small island of the Aegaean sea, oft" the coast of Thessaly, near Scopelos. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23.)

SOLIS INSULA (Plin. vi. 22. s. 24), an island mentioned by Pliny between the mainland of India and Ceylon, in the strait. There can be no doubt that it is the present Ramiseram Cor, famous fur a temple of Rama, It bore also the name of Kupv [cory.] [V.]

SOLIS FONS. [oasis, p. 458.]

SOLIS PORTUS ('HAlou M^", Ptol. vii.4. § 6), a harbour near the SE. corner of Taprobane {Ceylon). It has been conjectured by Forbiger that it is the present Vendelusbai,—a name we do not discover on the best maps. Its position, south of the Malea mountains {Adam's Peak), is certain. [V.]

SOLIS PROMONTO'RIUM {'Upa 'HMou axpa), "Sacra solis extrema," a promontory of the east coast of Arabia at the south of the Persian gulf, between the mouth of the river Lar and Rhegma, in the country of the Nariti. (Ptol. vi. 7. 8 14.) [lar; Khkoma.] [G.W.]

SO'LLIUM (SdAAwK: Eth. Joaamiij), a town on the coast of Acarnania, on the Ionian sea.

Its exact site is uncertain, but it was probably in the neighbourhood of Palaerus, which lay between Leucas and Alyzia. [palaerus.] Leake, however, places it S. of Alyzia, at Stravolimidna (i. e. Port Stravo). Sollium was a Corinthian colony, and as such was takeu by the Athenians in the first year of the Peloponnesian War (b. c. 431), who gave both the place and its territory to Palaerus. It is again mentioned in B. C. 426, as the place at which Demosthenes landed when he resolved to invade Aetolia. (Time ii. 30, iii. 95, comp. v. 30; Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 18, seq.)

SOLM1SSUS (2oA/uo-<r<fj). a hill near Ephesus, rising above the grove of Leto, where the Curetea, by the loud noise of their arms, prevented Hera from hearing the cries of Leto when she gave birth to her twins. (Strab. xiv. p. 640.) [L. S.]

SOLOMATIS (soaovotu. Arrian, Ind. c 4), a river named by Arrian as one of the feeders of the Ganges. There has been much difference of opinion as to what modem stream this name represents. Mannert thinks that it is one of the affluents of the Jumna (v. pt, i. p. 69); while Benfey, on the other hand, considers it not unlikely that under the name of Solomatis lurks the Indian Saraivdti or Sarsooti, which, owing to its being lost in the sands, is fabled by the Indians to flow under the earth to the spot where the Ganges and Jumna join, near Allahabad. (Benfey, art. Indien, in Ersch und Gruber, p. 4.) [V.]

SOLO'NA {Eth. Solonas: Ci'tfei del Sole), a town of Gallia Cispadana, mentioned only by Pliny among the municipal towns of the 8th region (Plin. iii. 15. s. 20), but the name of the Solonates is found also in an inscription, which confirms its municipal rank (Gruter, Itiscr. p. 1095. 2). Unfortunately this inscription, which was found at Ariminum, affords no clue to the site of Solona: it is placed conjecturally by Cluver at a place called Cilta del Sole about 5 miles SW. of Forli: but this site would seem too close to the important town of Forum Livii. (Cluver. Ital. p. 291.) [E. H.B.]

SOLO'NIUM (SoAaVwr), in Gallia Narbunensis, where C. Pomptinus defeated the Allobroges, B. C 61. (Dion Cass, xxxvii. c 48; Liv. EpiL 103, where it is said, " C. Pontinius Praetor Allobroges qui rebel laverant ad Salonem (Solonem ?) domuit.") It has been conjectured that Solonium is SaUunaz. in the department of Ain, near the small river Brivas; but this is merely a guess. The narrative of Dion is useless, as usual, for determining anything with precision. Other guesses have been made about the position of Solonium ; one of which is too absurd U) mention. [G. L.]

SOLO'NIUS AGER {SoKuviov, Plut.), was the name given to a district or tract in the plain of Latium, which appears to have bordered on the territories of Ostia, Ardea, and Lanuviuin. But there is some difficulty in determining its precise situation or limits. Cicero in a passage in which he speaks of a prodigy that happened to the infant Roscius, places it " in Solonio, qui est campus agri I*anuvini" {de JJiv. i. 36); but there are some reasons to suspect the last words to be an interpolation. On the other hand, Livy speaks of the Antiates as making incursions "in agrum Ostiensem, Ardeatem, Solonium" (viii. 12). Plutarch mentions that Marius retired to a villa that he possessed there, when he was expelled from Rome in B. c. 88; and from thence repaired to Ostia. (Plat, Mar. 35.) But

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