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tlie most distinct indication of its locality is afforded by a passage of Festus (s. v. Pomonal, p. 250), where he tells us " Pomonal est in agro Solonio, via Ostiensi, ad duodecimum lapidem, diverticulo a miliario octavo." It is thence evident that tlie M ager Solonins" extended westward as far as the Via Ostiensi-, and probably the wholu tract bordering on the territories of Oslia, Laurentum, and Ardea, was known by this na:ue. It may well therefore hare extended to the neighbourhood of Lanuvium also. Cicero tells ns that it abounded in snakes. (De Div ii. 31.) It appears from one of bis letters that he had a villa there, as well as Marius, to which he talks of retiring iu order to avoid contention at Rome (ad AtL ii. 3).

The origin of the name is unknown; it may probably have been derived from some extinct town of the name; but no trace of such u found. Dionysius, indeed, speaks of an Etruscan city of Solonium, from whence the Lucumo came to the assistance of Bomulus (Dionys. ii. 37); but the name is in all probability corrupt, and, at all events, cannot afford any explanation of the Latin district of the name. [E. H. B.]

SOLCRIUS MONS, an offshoot of Mons Argentarius, running to the SW., on the borders of Hispania Tarraconensis and Baetica, and connecting Mount Ortospeda with Mount Ilipula. (Plin. iii. 1. a. 2.) It is probably the same mountain mentioned by Strabo (iii. p. 156) as rich in gold and other mines, and the present Sierra Nevada, [T. H. D.] SO'LUS or SOLUNTUM (SoAoW, Thuc; SoAoOi, Diod.: Eth. 2o\ovyr7vos, Diod., but coins have 2oKoyrivos; Soluntinus: Solanto), a city of Sicily, situated on the N. coast of the island, about 12 miles E. of Panormus, and immediately to the E. of the bold promontory called Capo Zaffarana. It was a Phoenician colony, and from its proximity to Panormus was one of the few which that people retained when they gave way before the advance of the Greek colonies in Sicily, aud withdrew to the NW. comer of the island. (Thuc. vi. 2.) It afterwards passed together with Panormus and Motya into the hands of the Carthaginians, or at least became a dependency of that people. It continued steadfast to the Carthaginian alliance evrn in B. C. 397, when the formidable armanent of Dionysius shook the fidelity of most of their allies (Diod. xiv. 48); its territory was in consequence ravaged by Dionysius, but without effect At a later period of the war (b. C. 396) it was betrayed into the hands of that despot (lb. 78), but probably soon fell again into the power of the Carthaginians. It was certainly one of the cities that usually formed part of their dominions in the island; and in B. c. 307 it was given up by them to the soldiers and mercenaries of Agalhocles, who had made peace with tlie Carthaginians when abandoned by their leader in Africa. (Diod. xx. 69.) During the First Punic War we find it still subject to Carthage, and it was not till after the fall of Panormus that Soluntuin also opened its gates to the Romans. (Id. xxiii p. 505.) It continued to subsist under the Roman dominion as a municipal town, but apparently one of no great consideration, as its name is o.ily slightly and occasionally mentioned by Cicero ( Verr. ii. 42, iii. 43.) But it is still noticed both by Pliny and Ptolemy (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 3, where the name is corruptly written 'O\ov\ls), as well as at a later pt-riod by the Itineraries, which place it 12 miles from Panormus and 12 from Thermae (Termini).

(Itin. Ant p. 91; Tab. Pent.') It is probable that its complete destruction dates from the time of the Saracens.

At the present day the site of the ancient city is wholly desolate and uninhabited. It stood on a lofty hill, now called the Monte Catalfano, at the foot of which is a small cove or port, with a fort, still called the CatteUo di Solanto, and a station for the tunny fishery. The traces of two ancient roads, paved with large blocks of stone, which led up to the city, may still be followed, and the whole summit of the hill is covered with fragments of ancient walls and foundations of buildings. Among these may be traced the remains of two temples, of which some capitals, portions of friezes, &c. have been discovered; but it is impossible to trace the plan and design of these or any other edifices. They are probably all of them of the period of the Roman dominion. Several cisterns for water also remain, as well as sepulchres; and some fragments of sculpture of considerable merit have been discovered on the site. (Fazell. de Keb. Sic. viii. p. 352; Amico, Lex. Top. vol. ii. pp. 192—195; Hoare's Clou. Tour, vol. ii. p. 234; Serra di Falco, Ant. delia Sicilia, vol. v. pp. 60—67.) [E. H. B.]

[graphic][merged small]

SOLYGEIA, SOLYGEIUS. [corinthus, pp. 684, b, 685, a.]

SOLYMA (ta S6\u/m), a high mountain near Phaselis in Lycia. (Strab. xiv. p. 666.) As the mountain is not mentioned by any other writer, it is probably only another name for the Chimaera Mons, the Olympus, or the mountains of the Solymi, mentioned by Homer. (Od. v. 283.) In the Stadiasmus it is simply called the bpos ptya: it extends about 70 miles northward from Phaselis, and its highest point, now called Taghtalu, rises immediately above the ruins of Phaselis, which exactly corresponds with the statement of Strabo. (Leake, Asia Minor, p. 189.) [L. S.]

SOLYMI. [lycia.]

SOMENA. [simeha.]

SONAUTES, according to Pliny (vi. 1), a river in Pontus; while, according to Apollonius Rhodins (ii. 747), the Acheron in Bithynia was anciently called Soonautos (XowvwSrns). [L. S.]

SONEIUM, a place in Moesia Superior, on the borders of Thrace, at the pass of Mount Scomius, called Succi. (Itin. Bieros. p. 567.) Identified with Bagna. [T. H. D.]

SONISTA, a town in Upper Pannonia, on the road from Poetovium to Siscia. (Geog. Rav. iv. 19; Tab. Pent.; It Bieros. p. 561, where it is written Sunista.) Its exact site is unknown. [L. S.]

SO'NTIA (Eth. Sontinus: Sanaa), a town of Lucania, known only from Pliny, who enumerates the Sontini among the municipal towns of that pin. vince (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15). It is probable that it is the same place now called Sanza. situated in the mountains about 12 miles N. of the Gulf of Policastro. [E. H. B.]

SO'NTIUS (Isomo), one of the most considerable of the rivers of Venetia, which has its sources in the Alps, at the foot of the lofty Mt. Terglou, and has from thence a course of above 75 nailed to the sea, which it enters at the inmost bight of the Adriatic, between Aquileia and the Timavus. It receives at the present day the waters of the Natisone and Torre, the ancient Natiso and Turkis, both of which in ancient times pursued independent courses to the sea under the walla of Aquileia, and from the £. those of the Wippack or Vipao, called by the ancients the Fluvius Fuigidus. Though so important a stream, the name of the Sontius is not mentioned by any of the geographers; but it is found in the Tabula, which places a station called Ponte Sonti (Ad Pontein Sontii) 14 miles from Aquileia on the highroad to Aeinona (J^agbach). This bridge, which lay on the main entrance into Italy on this side, was a military point of considerable importance. It checked for a time the march of the emperor Maxim in when advancing upon Aquileia, in A. D. 23S (Herodian, viii. 4; Capit Muximin, 22); and at a later period it was here that Odoacer took up his position to oppose the advance of Theod sius, by whom he was, however, defeated in a decisive battle, A. D. 489 (Cassiod. Chron. p. 472; Id. For. i. 18; Jornand. Get. 57). The Sontius is correctly described by Uerodian, though be does not mention its name, as a large and formidable stream, especially in spring and summer, when it is fed by the melting of the Alpine snows. [E. H. B.]

SONUS (2£rof, Arrian, Ind. c. 4; Plin. vi 18. s. 22), a principal affluent of the Ganges, which flow* in a NE. direction to it from the Vindhga Mountains. lis modern name is Soane. There is no doubt that it has been contracted from the Sanscrit Suvama, golden. The Soas (Swots) of Ptolemy (vii. 1. § 30) is certainly the same river. [V.]

SOPHE'NE (2(#pnr(ii Strab. et alii; aSw^owH, Dion Cass, xxxvi. 36; Procop. de Aedif. iiL 2, B. Pers. i. 21: Kth. ^ai<fmv6s), a district of Armenia, lying between Antitaurus and Mount Manias, separated by the Euphrates from Mehtene iu Armenia Minor, and by Autitaurus from Mesopotamia. Its capital was Carcathiocerta. (Strab. xL pp. 521, 522, 527.) It formed at one time, with the neighbouring districts, a separate west Armenian kingdom, governed by the Sophenian Artanes, but was annexed to the east Armenian kingdom by Tigranes. Sophene was taken away from Tigranes by Pompey. (Strab. xL p. 532; Dion Cass, xxxvi. 26; Plut. Lucull. 24, Pomp. 33.) Nero gave Sophene as a separate kingdom to Sohaemus. (Tac. Ann. xiii. 7.)

SOPIA'NAE, a town in the central part of Lower Pannonia, on the road from Mursa to Sabaria (ft. Ant. pp. 231, 232, 264, 267), was according to Ammianus Marcel 1 in us (xxviii. 1) the birthplace of the emperor Maximinus. Its site is occupied by the modern Fvnfkirchen. [L. S.]

S0KA(2wpa: Eth. Soranus: Sora), a city of Latium, situated in the valley of the Liris, on the ri^ht bank of that river, about 6 miles to the N. of Arpiuum. Though included iu La tium in the more extended sense of that term, as it was understood under the Roman Empire, Sora was originally a Volscian city (Liv. x. 1), and apparently the most northerly possessed by that people. It was wrested from them by the Romans in B. C. 345, being surprised by a sudden attack by the consuls Fabius Domo and Ser. Sulpicius. (Liv. vii. 28.) It was subsequently occupied by the Romans with a colony;

the establishment of this is not mentioned by Livy, but in B. c. 315 he tells us the inhabitants bad revolted and joined the Sainnites. putting to death the Roman colonists. (Id. ix. 23; Diod. xix. 72.) The city was in consequence besieged by the dictator C. Fabius, and, notwithstanding the great defeat of the Romans at Lautulae, the siege was continued into the following year, when the city was at length taken by the consuls C. .Sulpicius and M. Poetelius; the citadel, which was in a very strong and inaccessible position, being betrayed into their hands by a deserter. The leaders of the defection were sent to Rome and doomed to execution; the other inhabitants were spared. (Liv. ix. 23, 24.) Sora was now occupied by a Roman garrison; but notwithstanding this it again fell into the hands of the Samnites in B. C. 306, and it was not recovered by llie Romans till the following year, (id. ix. 43, 44; Diod. xx. 80, 90.) After the close of the Second Samnite War it was one of the points which the Romans determined to secure with a colony, and a body of 4000 colonists was sfnt thither in B. C. 303. (Id. x. 1.) From this time Sora became one of the ordinary " colouiae Latinae" and is mentioned in the Second Punic War among the refractory colonies, which in B. C. 209 refused any further contributions. (Liv. xxvii. 9. xxix. 15. The text of Livy gives Cora in the first passage, and Sora in the second, but the same place ia necessarily meant in both passages, and it is probable that Sora is the true reading.) From this time we hear little more of Sora, which lapsed into the condition of an ordinary municipal town. (Cic. pro Plane. 9). Its rank of a Colonia Latina was merged in that of a municipium by the Lex Julia; but it received a fresh colony under Augustus, consisting, as we learn from an inscription, of a body of veterans from the 4th legion. (Lib. Colon, p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Orell. Inscr. 3681.) Juvenal speaks of it as a quiet country town, where bouses were cheap (Juv. iiL 223); and it is mentioned by all the geographers among the towns of this part of Italy. (Strab. v. p. 238; PtoL iiL I. § 63; SO. ItaJ. viii. 394; Orell. Inscr. 3972.) Nothing more is heard of it under the Roman Empire, but it survived the fall of the Western Empire, and continued throughout the middle ages to be a place of consideration. Sora is still an episcopal see, and much the most important place in this part of Italy, with about 10.000 inhabitants. The modern town undoubtedly occupies the same site with the ancient one, in the plain or broad valk-y of the Liris, resting upon a bold and sleep hill, crowned by the ruins of a mediaeval castle. The ancient citadel, described by Livy, stood on a hill at tlie back of this, called the Rocca di S. Angelo, where some remaius of the ancient walls, constructed of massive polygonal blocks, are still visible. No remains of Roman times are preserved, except a few inscriptions, aud some foundations, supposed to be those of a temple. (Romanelli, vol. iii. pp. 362—366; Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. i. pp. 299—302.) [E. H. B ]

SORA (2o>a or 2.vpa), a town of Papblagonia, noticed only by the latest writers of antiquity, and of unknown site. (Constant. 1'orph. Them, L 7; Novellae, xxix. 1; Hierocl. p. 695; Cone. Sicaen. ii. p. 52; Cone. Cludced. p. 664, where it is called Sura.) [L. S.]

SORA (2«pa, Ptol. vii 1. § 68), a town in the southern part of India, between M. Betti^o and Adeisathron. It was the capital of a nomad race called Sorae (Ptol. I. c), and the royal residence of a king named Arcates. The people are evidently the same as the Surae of Pliny (vi. 20. 8. 23). Lassen places them in the mountains above Madras (see map). [V.]

SORACTE {Monte S. Oreste), a mountain of Etruria, situated between Falerii and the Tiber, about 26 miles N. of Rome, from which it forms a conspicuous object. It is detached from the chain of the Apennines, from which it is separated by the intervening valley of the Tiber; yet in a geological sense it l>elongs to the Apennine range, of which it is an outlying offset, being composed of the hard Apennine limestone, which at once distinguishes it from the Mons Ciminus and the other volcanic hills by which it is surrounded. Though of no great elevation, being only 2420 feet in height, it rises in a bold and abrupt mass above the surrounding plain (or rather table-land), which renders it a striking and picturesque object, and a conspicuous feature in all views of the Campagna. Hence the selection of its name by Horace in a well-known ode (Carm. i. 9) is peculiarly appropriate. It was consecrated to Apollo, who had a temple on its summit, probably on the same spot now occupied by the monastery ofS.Sitvestro, and was worshipped there with peculiar religions rites. His priests were supposed to possess the power of passing unharmed through fire, and treading on the hot cinders with their bare feet. (Virg. Aen. vii. 696, xi. 785—790; Sil. ItaL v. 175—181, vii. 662; Plin. vii. 2.) Its rugged and craggy peaks were in the days of Cato still the resort of wild goats. (Varr. R. R. ii. 3. § 3.)

Soracte stands about 6 miles from Cwita CasteU Itina, the site of the ancient Falerii, and 2 from the Tiber. It derives its modern appellation from the village of Sanf Oreste, which stands at its S. extremity on a steep and rocky hill, forming a kind of step or ledge at the foot of the more elevated peaks of Soracte itself. This site, which bears evident si^ns of ancient habitation, is supposed to be that of the ancient Feronia or Lucus Fkboniak. (Dennis's Etruria, vol. i. p. 179.) [E. H. B.1

SORBIODU'NUM, or SORVIODU'NUM, a town of Britannia Humana, in the territory of the Belgae. (Wk Ant. pp. 483, 486.) It is identified with Old Sarttm, where coins of several Roman emperors have been found, and where the traces of the ancient Roman walls show it to have been about half a mile in circumference. (Camden, p. 113.) [T.H.D.]

SORD1CE, a lake in Gallia. A river Sordus ran out of the E'tang Sordice, in the country of the Sordones or Sordi. [sordones.]

"Slagnnm hie palusque, quippe diffuse patet, Et incolae istam Sordicen cognominant.',

(AvienuB, Or. Mar., as I. Vossius reads it.)

The Sordice is supposed by some geographers to be the E'tang de f^eucate; but others take it to be an e'tang further south, called E'tang de St Nazaire, and the E'tang de I^cucate to be that near Salsulae, which is described by Strabo, Mela, and others. [salsulae ; Ruscino.] [G. L.]

SORDONES, or SAKDONES, as the name has sometimes been written, a people in Gallia. Mela (ii. 5) writes : after the Salsulae fons "is the ora Sordonum, and the small streams Telis and Tichis; the Colonia Ruscino, and the virus Illiberis." Pliny (iii. 4) begins his description of Gallia Narbonensis from the iuot of the Pyrenees He says k Ou

the coast is the regio Sordonum or Sardonuui. and in the interior the Consuaraiit; the rivers Techuin, Veniodubrum; towns, Illiberis and Ruscino." These Sordones are the Sordi of Avienus {Or. Merit, 562): —

u SorduB inde denique
Populus agebat inter avios locos
Ac perdnentes usque ad interius mare,
Qua pinifertae stant Pyrenae vertices,
Inter ferarum lustra ducebat greges,
Et arva late et gurgitem ponti premit: n

as I. Vossius reads the passage in his edition of Mela. The Sordi then occupied the coast of the Mediterranean from the Pyrenees northward, and the neighbouring part of the interior at the north foot of the Pyrenees. Ptolemy, as D'Anville observes, dues not mention the Sordones. and he has made the territory of the Volcae Tectosages comprehend Illiberis and Ruscino. The Sordones probably occupied the wholo of the territory called Rowsillon, and they would Iw in possession of that pass of the Pyrenees called Col de Pertus, which is defended by the fort of Btllegarde. They bordered on the Consorani. [comBORANl.j [G. L.]

SORICA'RIA, a place in Hispania Baetica, mentioned by Hirtius (B. Bisp. c 24), and the same called also " Soritia" by that author (c. 27). Ukcrt (ii. pt. i. p. 361) seeks it in the neighbourhood of the Flumen Salsum (the Salado'), S. of the Baetis, and between Osuna and Antequera, [T. H. D.]

SORINGI (Swpryyoi, PeripL AT. E. p. 34), a people of the southern part of Hindustan, who apparently dwelt along the banks of the Chaberua (Kdceri). Lassen places them below the Sorae, on the slopes of the hills above Madras. [V.j

SORITIA. [soricakia.]

SORNUM, (26pvov, Ptol. iii. 8. § 10), a city of Dacia; now Gieritza. [T. H. I).]

SORO'RES (AD), a station in Lusitania, N. of Emerita. (/tin. Ant. p. 433.) Variously identified with Montanckes and Aliseda. [T. H. I).]

SOSTOMAGUS, in Gadia, is placed by the Jerusalem Itin. between Tolosa (Touhrvse) and Carcaso {Carcassone), 38 miles from Touhmse and 24 from Carcassone. The road is nearly direct, and if the distances are correct, we might perhaps find some name like Sosto in the proper place. Some geographers have found Sostomagus near Castnlnaudari. m [G. L.]

SOTERA, a place in A nana, mentioned by Ammianus {xxiii. 6). It is probably the same as that called bv Ptolemy 2a>Tfipa (vi. 17. § 7). [V.]

SOTfATES or SONTIATES, a people of Aquitania. Schneider (Caesar, B. G. iii. 20) who writes "in Sontiatium fines" has a long note on the various forms of this word. Nicolaus Damascenus (quoted by Athenaeus, vi. p. 249) writes the name Sotiani, but as Caesar was his authority for what he says, he may have altered the form of the word. In Dion Cassius (xxxix. c. 46) the reading is 'Awtdras (ed. Reimarus); but there are other variations in the MSS. In Pliny (iv. 19) we find among the nations of Aquitania "Ausci, Elusates, Sottiates, Osquidates Campestres." Orosius (vi. 8, ed. Haverkamp) has Soutiates, but one MS. has Sotiates and others have Sociates.

In B. c. 56 Caesar sent P. Crassus into Aiptitania. Crassus came from the north, and after sum* moning the men of fighting age who were on the muster rolls of Toulouse, Carcassontjind Narbonne^ be entered the territory of the Satiates, the first of the Aquitauian peoples whom he attacked. The Sotiates were the neighbours of the Elusates a name represented by the town of Eause. A line drawn from Auch (Auaci) on the (Jew to Bazas in the department of La Gironde, passes near Sos, a town which is on the Getise, and in the Gabaret. In the middle ages il was called Sotium. Ancient remains have been found at Sos. Here we have an instance of the preservation of nncient names in this part of France, and there are many other instances.

D'Anville in determining the position of the Sotiates argues correctly that Crassus having parsed through the Santones, a people who had submitted to Caesar (B. G. iii. 12) and would offer no resistance, entered Aquitania by the north, and the Sotiates who were only seven or eight leagues south of the Garonne would be the first tribe on whom he fell. He says that he has evidence of a Roman road very direct from Sos to Eause ; and he is convinced that this is part of the road described in the Jerusalem Itin. between Vasatae and Elusa. On this road the name Scittium occurs in the Itin., and as the distance between Scittium and Elu*a corresponds very nearly to the distance between Sos and Eause, he conjectures that this word Scittium is written wrong, and that it should be Sotium.

The Sotiates, who were strong in cavalry, attacked the Romans on their march, and a battle look place in which they were defeated. Crassus then assaulted their town, which made a stout resistance. He brought up bis rineae and towers to the walls, but the Sotiates drove mines under them, for as they liad copper mines in their country they were very skilful in burrowing in the ground. At last they sent to Crassus to propose terms of surrender {B. G. iii. 21). While the people were giving up their arms on one side of the town, Adcantuannus, who was a king or chief, attempted to sally out on another side with his 600 11 soldum." The Romans met him there, and after a hard fight Adcantuannus was driven back into the town; but he still obtained the same easy terms as the rest.

These Soldurii were a body of men who attached themselves to a chief with whom they enjoyed all the good things without working, so long as the chief lived; but if any violence took off their leader it was their duty to share the same fate or to die by their own hand. This was an Iberian and also a Gallic fashion. The thing is easily understood. A usurper or any desperate fellow'seized on power with the help of others like himself; lived well, and fed his friends; and when his tyranny came to an end, he and all his crew must kill themselves, if they wished to escape the punishment which they deserved. (Plut. Serlor. c. 14; Caesar, B. G. vii. 40: and the passage in Atbenaeus.)

The MSS. of Caesar vary in the name of Adcantuannus. Schneider writes it Adiatunus, and in Atbenaeus it is 'ASidrofiov. Schneider mentions a medal of Pellerin, with REX AALETVflNV'2 and a lion's head on one side, and on the other SOTIOGA. Walckenaer (Geogr. $c. i. 284) may be speaking of the same medal, when he describes one which is said to have beer, found at Toulouse, with a head of Adictanus on one side and the word Sotiagae on the other. He thinks it" very suspected;" and it may be. [G. L.]

SOZO'POHS (SwforoXis). a town noticed only by late writers as a place in Pisidia, on the north of Terinessus, in a plain surrounded on ail aides by

mountains. (Hierocl. p. 672; Evagr. Hist. Eccles.

iii. 33.) It is possibly the same place which Stephanus B. notices under the name of Sozusa. Nicetas (An*, p. 9) mentions that it was taken by the Turks, but recovered from them by John Comnenus. (Comp. Am. p. 169; Cinnamus, p. 13.) The traveller Paul Lucas (Sec Voy. vol. L c. 33) observed some ancient remaius at a place now called Sovxou, south of Aglasoun, which probably belong to Sozopolis. [L. S-]

SOZO'POLIS, a later name of Apollonia in Thrace. [Vol. I. p. 160.] [J. R.]

SPALATHRA (Plin. iv. 9. s. 16; SntXowSpa, Scylax, p. 25; 2*aA.«'0p7j, Steph. B. s.v.; SiraXaBpov, Hellanic op. Steph. B. s. v.: Eth. J»aAatfoalbs), a town of Magnesia, in Thessaly, upon the Pagasaean gulf. It is conjectured that this town is meant by Lycophron (899), who describes Prothous, the leader of the Magnetes in the Iliad, as 6 Ck naAaufywp (XxaAauQpuir'). (See Miiller, ad ScyLlc.)

SPALATUM. [salosa.]

SPANETA, a town in Lower Pannonia, of unknown site, (ft Ant. p. 268; ft Bieros. p. 563; Geog. Rav. iv. 19, who writes Spaneatis. [L. S-]

SPARATA, a place in Moesia Superior, probably on the river Isker. ([tin. Bieros. p. 567.) By the Geogr. Rav. it is called Sparthoufiv. 7). [T. H. D.]

SPARTA (Swdprjj, Dor. Srapro : Eth. Swap. Tm£tj)s, Spartiates, Spartanus), the capital of Laconia, and the chief city of Peloponnesus. It was also called Lacedaemon (AojceoWpwr: Eth. AaKfiainufws, Lacedaemonius), which was the original name of the country. [See Vol. II. p. 103, a.] Sparta stood at the upper end of the middle vale of the Eurotas, and upon the right bank of the river. The position of this valley, shut in by the mountain ranges of Taygetus and Parnon, its inaccessibility to invaders, and its extraordinary beauty and great fertility, have been described in a previous article [laconia]. The city was built upon a range of low hills and upon an adjoining plain stretching SE. to the river. These hills are offshoots of Mt. Taygetus, and rise almost immediately above the rivrr. Ten stadia S. of the point where the Oenus flows into the Eurotas, the latter river is divided into two arms by a small island overgrown with the oleander, where the foundations of an ancient bridge are visible. This is the most important point in the topography of the site of Sparta. Opposite to this bridge the range of hills rises upon which the ancient city stood; while a hollow way (Map./y.) leads through them into the plain to Magula, a village situated about half-way between ifistrd and the island of the Eurotas. Upon emerging from this hollow into the plain, there rUrs on tho left hand a hill, the south-western side of which is occupied by the theatre (Map, A.). The centre of the building was excavated out of the hill; but the two wings of the cavea were entirely artificial, being built of enormous masses of quadrangular stones. A great part of this masonry still remains; but the seats have almost entirely disappeared, because they have for many ages been used as a quarry by the inhabitants of Mistrd. The extremities of the two wings are about 430 feet from one another, and the diameter or length of the orchestra is about 170 feet; so that this theatre was probably the largest in Greece, with the exception of those of Athens and Megalopolis. There are traces of a wall around this hill, which also embraces a considerable part of the adjoining plain to the east. Within the spnoe enclosed by this wall there are two terraces, upon one of which, amidst the rains of a church, the French Commission discovered traces of an ancient temple. In this space there are also some ancient doois, formed of three stones, two upright with the architrave, buried in the ground; but no conjecture can be formed of the building to which they belonged without excavations.

The hill we have been describing is the largest of all the Spartan heights, and is distinguished by the wall which surrounds it, and by containing traces of foundations of some ancient buildings. From it two smaller hills project towards the Eurotas, parallel to one another, and which may be regarded as portions of the larger hill. Upon the more southerly of the two there are considerable remains of a circular brick building, which Leake calls a circus, but Ourtius an amphitheatre or odeum (Map, 3). Its walls are 16 feet thick, and its diameter only about 100 feet; but as it belongs to the Soman period, it was probably sufficient for the diminished population of the city at that time. Its entrance was on the side towards the river. West of this building is a valley in the form of a horse-shoe, enclosed by walls of earth, and apparently a stadium, to which its length nearly corresponds.

To the north of the hollow way leading from the bridge of the Eurotas to Magiila there is a small insulated hill, with a flat summit, but higher and more precipitous than the larger hill to the south of this way. It contains but few traces of ancient buildings (Map, B.). At its southern edge there are the remains of an aqueduct of later times.

The two hills above mentioned, north and south of this hollow way, formed the northern half of Sparta. The other portion of the city occupied the plain between the southern hill and the rivulet falling into the Eurotas, sometimes called the River of Magula, because it flows past that village, but more usually Trypiitiko, from Trypi, a village in the mountains (Map, cc). Two canals, beginning at Afagula, run across this plain: upon the southern one (Map, 66), jnst above its junction with the Trypiotiko, stands the small village of Psyc/iiko (Map, 6). Between this canal and the Trypiotiko are some heights upon which the town of New Sparta is now built (Map, D.). Here are several ancient ruins, among which are some remains of walls at the southern extremity, which look like city-walls. The plain between the heights of New Sparta and the hill of the theatre is covered with corn-fields and gardens, among which are seen fragments of wrought stones, and other ancient remains, cropping out of the ground. The only remains which make any appearance above the ground are those of a quadrangular building, called by the present inhabitants the tomb of Leonidas. It is 22 feet broad and 44 feet long, and is built of ponderous square blocks of stone. It was probably an heroum, but cannot have been the tomb of Leonidas, which we know, from Pausanias (hi. 14. § 1), was near the theatre, whereas this building is close to the new town.

This plain is separated from the Eurotas bya range of hills which extend from the Roman amphitheatre or circus to the village of Psychiko. Between the hills and the river is a level tract, which is not much more than 50 yards wide below the Roman amphitheatre, but above and below the latter it swells into a plain of a quarter of a mile in breadth. Beyond the river Trypiotiko there are a few traces of the foundations of ancient buildings near the little


village of Kalagonii (Map, 7). Leake mentions an ancient bridge over the Trypiotiko, about a quarter of a mile NE. of the village of Kalagonid. This bridge, which was still in use when Leake visited the district, is described by him as having a rise of about one-third of the span, and constructed of large single blocks of stone, reaching from side to side. The same traveller noticed a part of the ancient causeway remaining at either end of the bridge, of the same solid, construction. But as this bridge is not noticed by the French Commission, it probably no longer exists, having been destroyed for its materials. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 157, Pelopoimesiaca, p. 115.)

Such is the site of Sparta, and such is all that now remains of this famous city. There cannot be any doubt, however, that many interesting discoveries might be made by excavations; and that at any rate the foundations of several ancient buildings might be found, especially since the city was never destroyed in ancient times. Its present appearance corresponds wonderfully to the anticipation of Thucydides, who remarks (i. 10) that " if the city of the Lacedaemonians were deserted, and nothing remained but its temples and the foundations of its buildings, men of a distant age would find a difficulty in believing in the existence of its former power, or that it possessed two of the five divisions of Peloponnesus, or that it commanded the whole country, as well as many allies beyond the peninsula,—so inferior was the appearance of the city to its fame, being neither adorned with splendid temples and edifices, nor built in contiguity, but in separate quarters, in the ancient method. Whereas, if Athens were reduced to a similar state, it would be supposed, from the appearance of the city, that the power had been twice as great as the reality." Compared with the Acropolis of Athens, which rises proudly from the plain, still crowned with the columns of its glorious temples, the low hills on the Eurotas, and the shapeless heap of ruins, appear perfectly insignificant, and present nothing to remind the spectator of the city that once ruled the Peloponnesus and the greater part of Greece. The site of Sparta differs from that of almost all Grecian cities. Protected by the lofty ramparts of mountains, with which natnre had surrounded their fertile valley, the Spartans were not obliged, like the other Greeks, to live within the walls of a city pent up in narrow streets, but continued to dwell in the midst of their plantations and gardens, in their original village trim. It was this rural freedom and comfort which formed the chief charm and beauty of Sparta.

It must not, however, be supposed that Sparta was destitute of handsome public buildings. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the Spartan habits, their city became, after the Messenian wars, one of the chief seats of poetry and art. The private houses of the Spartans always continued rude and unadorned, in accordance with a law of Lycurgus, that the doors of every house were to be fashioned only with the saw, and the ceiling with the axe (Plut. Lye. 13); but this regulation was not intended to discourage architecture, but to prevent it from ministering to private luxury, and to restrain it to its proper objects, the buildings for the gods and the state. The palace of the kings remained so simple, that its doors in the time of Agesilaus were said to be those of the original building erected by Aristodemus, the founder of the Spartan monarchy (Xen. Ages. 8. § 7); but the temples of the gods were built with

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