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) has now advanced far beyond its ancient limits, so that the city, eTen in the third century A. D., was at least fonr miles from the Mediterranean. The principal produce of the neighbouring lands was flax, and the linum Pelusiacum (Plin. xix. 1. s. 8) was both abundant and of a Tery fine quality. It was, however, as a borderfortress on the frontier, as the key of Aegypt as regarded Syria and the sea, and as a place of great strength, that Pelusiam was most remarkable. From its position it was directly exposed to attack by the invaders of Aegypt; several important battles were fought under its wails, and it was often besieged and taken. The following are the most memorable events in the history of Pelusinm:

1. Sennacherib, king of Assyria, B. c. 720—715, in the reign of Sethos the Aetbiopian (25th dynasty) advanced from Palestine by the way of Libna and Iiachish upon Pelusium, but retired without fighting from before its walls (Isaiah, xxxi. 8 ; Herod, ii. 141 ; Strab. xiii. p. 604). His retreat was ascribed to the favour of Hephaestos towards Sethos, his priest. In the night, while the Assyrians slept, s host of field-mice gnawed the bow-strings and shield-straps of the Assyrians, who fled, and many of them were slain in their flight by the Aegyptians. Herodotns saw in the temple of Hephaestos at Memphis, a record of this victory of the Aegyptians, viz. a statue of Sethos holding a mouse in his hand. The story probably rests on the fact that in the symbolism of Aegypt the mouse implied destruction. (Cum]'. Horapoll. Hieroglyph, i. 50; Aelian, H. An. vi. 41.)

2. The decisive battle which transferred the throne of the Pharaohs to Cambyses, king of the MedoPersians, was fought near Pelusium in B. C. 525. The fields around were Btrewed with the bones of the combatants when Herodotus visited Lower Aegypt; nnd the skulk of the Aegyptians were distinguishable from those of the Persians by their superior hardness, a fact confirmed by the mummies, and which the historian ascribes to the Aegyptians shaving their heads from infancy, and to the Persians covering them up with folds of cloth or linen. (Herod, ii. 10, seq.) As Cambyses advanced at once to Memphis, Pelusium probably surrendered itself immediately after the battle. (Polyaen.Stratag.vii. 9.)

3. In B. c. 373, Pharnabazus, satrap of Phrygia, and Iphicrates, the commander of the Athenian armament, appeared before Pelusium, but retired without attacking it, Nectanebus, king of Aegypt, baring added to its former defences by laying the neighbouring binds under water, and blocking op the navigable channels of the Nile by embankments. (Diodor. xv. 42 ; Nepos, Iphicr. c. 5.)

4. Pelusinm was attacked and taken by the Persians, B. c. 309. The city contained at the time a garrison of 5000 Greek mercenaries under the command of Philophron. At first, owing to the rashness of the Thebons in the Persian service, the defendants bad the advantage. But the Aegyptian king Nectanebus hastily venturing on a pitched battle, his troops were cut to pieces, and Pelusium surrendered to the Tbeban general Lac rates on honourable conditions. (Diodor. xvi. 43.)

5. In B. c. 333, Pelnsinm opened its gates to Alexander the Great, who placed a garrison in it under the command of one of those officers entitled "Companions of the King." (Arrian, Exp. Alex. iii. 1, seq.; Quint Curt. iv. 33.)

b. In B.C. 173, Antiochus Epiphanes utterly

defeated the troops of Ptolemy Philometor under the walls of Pelusium, which he took and retained after be had retired from the rest of Aegypt. (Polyb. Legal. § 82; Hieronym. in Daniel xi.) On the fall of the Syrian kingdom, however, if not earlier, Pelusium had been restored to its rightful owners, tinea

7. In B. c. 55, it belonged to Aegypt, and Marcus Antonius, as general of the horse to the Roman proconsul Gabinius, defeated the Aegyptian army, and made himself master of the city. Ptolemy Auletes, in whose behalf the Romans invaded Aegypt at this time, wished to put the Pelusians to the sword; but his intention was thwarted by Antonius. (Plut Anton, c 3; Val. Max. ix. 1.)

8. In B.C. 31, immediately after his victory at Actium, Augustus appeared before Pelusium, and was admitted by its governor Seleucus within its walls.

Of the six military roads formed or adopted by the Romans in Aegypt, the following are mentioned in the Itinerarium of Antoninus as connected with Pelusium :—

1. From Memphis to Pelusium. This road joined the great road from Pselcis in Nubia at Babylon, nearly opposite Memphis, and coincided with it aa far as Scenae Veteranorum. The two roads, via. that from Pselcis to Scenae Veteranorum, which turned off to the east at Heliopulis, and that from Memphis to Pelusium, connected the latter city with the capital of Lower Aegypt, Trajan's canal, and Arsinue, or Suez, on the Sinus Heroopolites.

2. From Acca to Alexandreia, ran along the Mediterranean sea from Raphia to Pelusium.

Pelusium suffered greatly from the Persian invasion of Aegypt in A. D. 501 (Eutychii, Annal), but it offered a protracted, though, in the end, an ineffectual resistance to the arms of Amrou, the son of Asi, in A. D. 618. As on former occasions, the surrender of the key of the Delta, was nearly equivalent to the subjugation of Aegypt itself. The khalifs, however, neglected the harbours of their new conquest generally, and from this epoch Pelusium, which had been long on the decline, now almost disappears from history. Its ruins, which have no particular interest, are found at Tineh, near DamieUa. (Champollion, I'Egypte, vol. ii. p. 82; Denon, Detcript. de lEgypte, vol. i. p. 208, iii. p. 306.) [W. B. D.]

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com or TELUBIUM.

PEME (It. Ant p. 156), probably the same as the Pempte (J\ip.mi) of Stephanus B. (s. v.), a town of Aegypt, in the Heptanomis, 20 miles above Memphis, on the left bank of the Nile, now called III mix. In the old editions of Pliny (v. 29. s. 35) we find a place called Pemma, belonging to the Nomads dwelling on the borders of Aegypt and Aethiopia; but Sillig, instead of "Cysten, Femmani, Gadagalen." reads "Cysten, Macadagalen."

PENEITJS. I. The chief river of Thossaly [thessaija.]

2. The chief river of Elis. [elis.]

PENESTAE.inThcssaly. See IHcLofAntiq. *.».

PENESTAE, a people of IUyricum, who appear to have possessed a large tract of mountainous country to the N. of the Dassaretae, and extending tu the E. as far as the frontier of Macedonia, while on the W. and N\V. it almost reached to the I.abeate8 and the dominion! of Gentius. (Liv. xliii. 20, 21, 22. 23, 25, xliv. 11.) The principal city of this warlike tribe was Use A* A ; besides which they had the two fortresses of Draodactoi and Oaknkum. [E. B.J.]

PENIEL or PENUEL (i. e. "Face of God," El5or 0«oC, LXX.), a place beyond Jordan, where Jaccb wrestled with the angel {Gen. xxxii. 30), and where a town was afterwards founded by the tribe of Gad. (Judges, viii. 8.)

PE'NIUS, a small river of Colchis, falling into the Euxine, on which stood a town of the same name. (Plin. iv. 4; Ov. ex Pont iv. 10. 47.)

PENNELOCUS, in the Antonine Itin., and PENNOLl'COS in the Peutinger Table, is" a place in Gallia in the country of the Nantoates, between Viviscus ( Vevay) and Tamaja (SL Maurice). In the Itins. the distance of Pennelocus from Viviscus is marked viiiL; but it is uncertain whether they are Roman miles or Gallic leagues. It is generally assumed that VUkneuve at the eastern end of the Lake of Geneva is the site of Pennelocus, but the distance from Vevay does not agree. D'Anville found in some old maps a place called Penne on the direction of the road, but the position of Penne does not agree with the distances in the Itins. Pennelocus was in the Vallis Pennina or the Valais. [G.L.]

PENWNAE ALPES. [ali-hs, p. 108, a.]

PENNOCRUCIUM, a town in the territory of the Comavii, in Britannia Romana, sometimes identified with Penkridge in Staffordshire, bnt more probably Stretton. {Itin. Ant. p. 470; Camden, p. 636.) [T. H. D.]

PENTADEMI'TAE (ntyraSmiuTai), a tribe of Teuthrania in Mysia, which is mentioned only by Ptolemy (v. 2. § 15). [L. S.]

PENTA'POLIS. [cyrenaica.]

PENTEDA'CTYLOS (Plin. vi. 29. s. 34; TltrraiixrvXoy Spos, Ptol. iv. 5. § 25), a mountain in Egvpt, on the Arabian Gulf, S. of Berenice.

PE'NTELE. [attica, p. 327, a.]

PENTELEIUM (ntrrfaur), a fortress near Pheneus, in the north of Arcadia, situated upon a mountain of the same name. For details see PheNeus.

PENTEXICUS MONS. [attica, pp. 322, a., 323, b.]

PENTRI (n«Vrooi), a tribe of the Samnites, and apparently one of the most important of the subdivisions of that nation. Their capital city was Bovtamum (Liv. ix. 81), in the very heart of the Samuite territory, and it is therefore probable that they occupied the whole of that rugged and mountainous district which extends from the frontiers of Latium, in the valley of the I.iris, to those of the Frentani, towards the Adriatic. But it is impossible to determine their exact limits, or to separate their history from that of the remaining Samnites. It is probable, indeed, that, throughout the long wars of the Romans with the Samnites, the Pentri were the leading tribe of the latter people, and always took part in the war, whether specified or not. The only occasion when we hear of their separating themselves from the rest of their countrymen, is during the Second Punic War, when we are told that all the other Samnites, except the Pentri, declared in favour of Hannibal after the battle of Cannae, B. ov 316.

(Liv. xxii. 61.) This is the last occasion on which we find their name in history; all trace of the distinction between them and the other Samnites scans to have been subsequently lost, and their name is not even mentioned by Strabo or Pliny. The geographical account of their country is given under the article Samnium. [E. H. B.]

PEOR (+07100, LXX.), a mountain in the laud of Moab. (Numb, xxiii. 28.) It is placed by Eusebios (*. v. 'ApaSwd M»dg) between Livias and Esbos, over against Jericho.

PEOS ARTE'MIDOS. [spec* Aktemidos.] PEPARE'THUS (n«r<Vijfloi: Eth. nexapifiios), an island in the Aegaean sea, lying off the coast of Thessaly, to the east of Halonnesus. Pliny describes it as 9 miles in circuit, and says that it was formerly called Evoenus (iv. 12. s. 23). It was said to have been colonised by some Cretans under the command of Staphylus. (Scymn. Ch. 579; Horn. Hymn. A poll. 32.) Peparethus was an island of some importance, as appears from its frequent mention in history, and from its possessing three towns (rplwoAit, Scylax, p. 23), one of which bore the same name ns the island. (Strab. ix. p. 436.) The town suffered from an earthquake in the Peloponnesian War, B. c. 426. (Thuc iii. 89.) It was attacked by Alexander of Pherae (Diod. xv. 95), and the island was laid waste by Philip, because tile inhabitants, at the instigation of the Athenians, had taken possession of Halonnesus. (Dem. de Cor. p. 248, Epist. PhiL p. 162.) In B. c. 207, Philip sent a garrison to the city of Peparethus, to defend it against the Romans (Liv. xxviii. 5); but he destroyed it in B. C. 200, that it might not fall into the bands of the latter. (Liv. xxxi. 28.) Peparethus was celebrated in antiquity for its wine (Athen. i. p. 29; Heracl. Pont Fragm. 13: Plin. xiv. 7. s. 9) and oil. (Ov. Met. vii. 470.) Diocles, the earliest Greek historian who wrote upon the foundation of Rome, was a native of Peparethus. [See Diet, of Biogr. Vol. I. p. 1010.] Peparethns is now called Khilidhrdmia, and still produces wine, which finds a good market on the mainland. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 112.)

PEPERINE (ntirtpln,), an island off the SW. coast of India, which undoubtedly derived its name from producing pepper. (Ptol. vii. 1. § 95.)

PEPHNUS (n«>i<oj, Pans.; Tl«py6r, Steph. B.), a town of Laconia, on the eastern coast of the Messenian gulf, distant 20 stadia from Thalamae. In front of it was an island of the same name, which Pausanias describes as not larger than a great rock, in which stood, in the open air, brazen statues of the Dioscuri, a foot high. There was a tradition, that the Dioscuri were born in this island. The island is at the mouth of the river Milea, which is the minor Pamisus of Strabo (viii. p. 361). In the island, there are two ancient tombs, which are called those of the Dioscuri. The Messenians said that their territories originally extended as far as Pephnus. [MESSEMA,p.345,a.] (Pans. iii.26. §§ 2,3; GelL, Itmer. of the Morea, p. 238; Leake, ttorea, voL i. p. 330, Pclopomesiaca, p. 178; Boblaye, Recherches, $c. p. 93 ; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. ii. pp. 283, 284.)

PEPU'ZA (rifioi/fa), a town in the western part of Phrygia, which is mentioned only by late writers. It gave its name to an obscure body of heretics noticed by Epiphanius (Haeres. xlviii. 14) ; but they did not exist long, since their town was ruined and deserted when, he wrote. (Comp, Philostorg. flirt Ecel. iv. 8, where it ia called Petusa; Aristaen. Comm. in Cam. 8, where its name is Pezusa.) Kiepert (ap. Franz, Funf. Inschriflen, p. 33) believes that its site may possibly be marked by the ruins found by Arundell (Discoveries m As. Mm. i. pp. 101, 127) near Besh-Shekr and Kalmkefi. in the south of Ushah. [L. S.]

PEICAEA (n«pafa), the name of several districts lying beyond (a-epar) a river or on the other side of a sea.

1. The district of Palestine lying beyond the Jordan, and more particularly the country between the Jordan on the W, the city of Pella on the N., the city of Philadelphia and Arabia Petraea on the E., and the land of the Moabites on the S. [paLaestisa, p. 532 ]

2. ('H T£k 'pomiov wcoaia, Strab. xiv. pp. 651, 652; Polyb. xvii. 2, 6, 8, zxzi. 25; Liv. xxxii. 33, zxziii. 18; x&Pa 4 T*K 'poomsk Tj iv Ttj ^refoa*, Scylaz, p. 38), a portion of the S. coast of Caria, opposite to Rhodes, and subject to it. It commenced st Mt. Phoenix, and extended as far as the frontiers of Lycia. (Strab. L c.) The peninsula containing Mt. Phoenix was called the Rhodian Chersonesus. (Plin. zxxL 2, 20; Died. v. 60, 62.) For a description of this district, which is very beautiful and fertile, see Vol. I. pp. 519., b, 520, a.

3. (Tltpaia TtvtSlav, Strab. xiiL p. 596), a small district on the coast of Mysia, opposite to Tenedus, and extending from the promontory Sigeium to Alexandria Troas.

PERAEA. [cokikthos, p. 685, b.]

PERAETHEIS. [megalopolis, p. 310, a.]

PERCEIANA (Itm. Ant. p. 432), a town of Hispania Baetica, lying S. of Merida. For its coins see Sestini. p. 107. [T. H. D.]

Perco'te(ti»pki4t»|: Eth. TltpKiiaios), an ancient town of Mysia, on the Hellespont, between Ahydos and Lampsacus, and probably on the little river Percotes. (Horn. II. ii. 835, xi. 229; Xenoph. Bellen. v. 1. § 23.) Percote continued to exist long after the Trojan War, as it is spoken of by Herodotus (v. 117), Scylax (p. 35), Apollonius Rhodius (i. 932), Arrian (Anab. i. 13), Pliny (v. 32), and Stephanos Byz. (a. r.). Some writers mention it among the towns assigned to Themistocles by the king of Persia. (Pint. Them. 30; Athen. i. p. 29.) According to Strnbo (xiii. p. 590) its ancient name had been Peroope. Modern travellers are unanimous in identifying its site with Bergia or Bergan, a small Turkish town on the left bank of a small river, situated on a sloping hill in a charming district. (Sibthorpe's Journal, in Walpole's Turkey, i- p. 91; Ricbter, WaUfahrUn, p. 434.) [L. 8.]

PERCOTES (ntpKirrni), a small river of Mysia, Bowing from Mount Ida into the Hellespont. (Horn. II ii. 835.) It is easily identified as the stream flowing in the valley of the modern town of Bergat. [Comp. Percotk.] [L. S.]

PERDICES, a town in Mauretania Caesariensis, 25 M.P. from Sit iris, perhaps Rai-eUOuad. (It. Ant. pp. 29, 36; Coll. Episc. c 121.)

PERGA. [perob.]

PERGAMUM. [ilium.]

PETJGAMUM (Jlipyauor: Eth. neo7W"k, Pergamenus), sometimes also called PERGAMUS (PtoL v. 2. | 14, viii. 17. § 10; Steph. B. «. v.), an ancient city, in a most beautiful district of Teuthrania in Mysia, on the north of the river CaTcus. Near the point where Pergatnum was situated, two other rivers, the Selinus and Cetius, emptied them

■elves into the CaTcus; the Selinus flowed through the city itself, while the Cetius washed its walls. (Strab. ziii. p. 619; Plin. v. 33; Pans. vi. 16. § 1; Liv. zzzvii. 18.) Its distance from the sea was 120 stadia, but communication with the sea was effected by the navigable river CaTcns. Pergamum, which is first mentioned by Xenophon (Anab. vii. 8. § 8), was originally a fortress of considerable natural strength, being situated on the summit of a conical hill, round the foot of which there were at that time no houses. Subsequently, however, a city arose at the foot of the hill, and the latter then became the acropolis. We have no information as to the foundation of the original town on the hill, but the Pergameninns believed themselves to be the descendants of Arcadians, who had migrated to Asia under the leadership of the Heracleid Telephus (l'aus. i. 4. § 5); they derived the name of their town from Pergamus, a son of Pyrrhns, who was believed to have arrived there with his mother Andromache, and, after a successful combat with Arius, the ruler of Teuthrania, to have established himself there. (Paus. i. 11. §2.) Another tradition stated that Asclepius, with a colony from Epidaurus, proceeded to Pergamum; at all events, the place seems to have been inhabited by many Greeks at the time when Xenophon visited it. Still, however, Pergamum remained a place of not much importance until the time of Lysimachns, one of the generals of Alexander the Great. This Lysimachus chose Pergamum as a place of security for the reception and preservation of his treasures, which amounted to 9000 talents. The care and superintendence of this treasure was intrusted to Philetaerus of Tium, an ennuch from his infancy, and a person in whom Lysimachus placed the greatest confidence. For a time 1 hiletaerns answered the ezpectations of Lysimachus, but having been ill-treated by Arsinoe, the wife of his master, he withdrew his allegiance and declared himself independent, B. c. £83. As Lysimachus was prevented by domestic calamities from punishing the offender, Philetaerus remained in undisturbed possession of the town and treasures for twenty years, contriving by dexterous management to maintain peace with his neighbours. He transmitted his principality to a nephew of the name of Eumenes, who increased the territory he had inherited, and even gained a victory over Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, in the neighbourhood of Sardes. After a reign of twenty-two years, from n. c. 263 to 241, he was succeeded by his consin Attains, who, after a great victory over the Galatians, assumed the title of king, and distinguished himself by his talents and sound policy. (Strab. xiii. pp. 623, 624; Polyb. zviii. 24; Liv. zxxiii. 21.) He esponsed the interests of Rome against Philip of Macedonia, and in conjunction with the Rhodian fleet rendered important services to the Romans. It was mainly this Attalus that amassed the wealth for which his name became proverbial. He died at an advanced age, in B.C. 197, and was succeeded by his son Eumenes II., from B.C. 197 to 159. He continued his friendship with the Romans, and assisted them against Antiochus the Great and Perseus of Macedonia; after the defeat of Antiochus, the Romans rewarded his services by giving to him all the countries in Asia Minor west of Mount Taurus. Pergamum, the territory of which had hitherto not extended beyond the gulfs of Elaea and Adramyttium, now became a large and powerful kingdom. (Strab. I. c; Liv. xxxviii. 39.) Eumenes III. was marly killed at Delphi by assassins said to have been hired by Perseus; yet at a later period he favoured the cause of the Macedonian king, and thereby incurred the ill-will of the Romans. Pergamum was mainly indebted to Eumenes II. for its embellishment and extension. He was a liberal patron of the arts and sciences; he decorated the temple of Zeus Nicephorus, which had been built by Attains outside the city, with walks M I J plantations, and erected himself many other public buildings; but the greatest monument of his liberality was the great library which he founded, and which yielded only to that of Alexandria in extent and value, (Strab. L c; Athen. i. p. 3.) He was succeeded by his son Attains II.; but the government was carried on by the late king's brother Attalus, sumamed Philadelphus, from B.C. 159 to 138. During this period the Pergamenians again assisted the Romans against the Pseudo-Philip. Attalus also defeated Diegylis, king of the Thracian Caeni, and overthrew Prusias of Bithynia. On his death, his ward and nephew, Attalus III., surnamed Philometor, undertook the reins of government, from B. C. 138 to 133, and on his death bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. Soon after, Aristonicus, a natural son of Eumenes II., revolted and claimed the kingdom of Pergamum for himself; but in B. G. 130 he was vanquished and taken prisoner, and the kingdom of Pergamum became a Roman province under the name of Asia (Strab. I c, xiv. p. 646.) The city of Pergamum, however, continued to flourish and prosper under the Roman dominion, so that Pliny (Z. c.) could still call it "longe clarissimum Asiae Pergamumit remained tiie centre of jurisdiction for the district, and of commerce, as all the main-roads of Western Asia converged there. Pergamum was one of the Seven Churches mentioned in the book of Revelations. Under the Byzantine emperors the greatness and prosperity of the city declined; but it still exists under the name of Bergamah, and presents to the visitor numerous ruins and extensive remains of its ancient magnificence. A wall facing the south-east of the acropolis, of hewn granite, is at least 100 feet deep, and engrafted into the rock; above it a course o£ large substructions forms a spacious area, upon which once rose a temple unrivalled in sublimity of situation, being visible from the vast plain and the Aegean sea. The ruins of this temple show that it was built in the noblest style. Besides this there are ruins of an ancient temple of Aesculapius, which, like the Nicephorion, was outside the city (Tac. Ann. iii. 63; Paus. v. 13. § 2); of a royal palace, which was surrounded by a wall, and connected with the CaTcus by an aqueduct; of a prytaneum, a theatre, a gymnasium, a stadium, an amphitheatre, and other public buildings. All these remains attest the unusual splendour of the ancient city, and all travellers speak with admiration of their stupendous greatness. The numerous coins which we possess of Pergamum attest that Olympia were celebrated there; a vase found there represents a torch-race on horseback; and Pliny (x. 25) relates that public cock-fights took place there every year. Pergamum was celebrated for its manufacture of ointments (Athen. xv. p. 689), pottery (Plin. xxxv. 46), aud parchment, which derives its name (charta Pergamena) from the city. The library of Pergamum, which is said to have consisted of no less than 200,000 volumes, was given by Antony to Cleopatra. (Comp. Spon and Wheler, Voy. i. p. 260, &c; Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage Pittoresque, ii. p. 25, &c;

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COIN OF PEKGAHUS IN MY51 A.

PE'RGAMUS (Tltpyafios, Herod, vii. 112), a fortress in the Pieric hollow, by which Xerxes passed in his march, leaving Mt. Pangaeum on his right. It is identified with Pravista, where the lower maritime ridge forms a junction with Pangaeum, and separates the Pieric valley from the plain of Philippi. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 178.) [E.B.J.]

PE'RGAMUS (Ilfpyanos), a town of Crete, to which a mythical origin was ascribed. According to Virgil it was founded by Aeneas (Aen. iii. 133), according to Velleius Paterculus (i. 1) by Agamemnon, and according to Servius by the Trojan prisoners belonging to the fleet of Agamemnon {ad Virg. Aen. I. c). Lycurgns, the Spartan legislator, was Baid to have died at this place, and his tomb was shown there in the time of Aristoxenus. (Plat. iyc. 32.) It is said by Servius (I. c.) to have been near Cydonia, and is mentioned by Pliny (iv. 12. s. 20) in connection with Cydonia, Consequently it must have been situated in the western part of the island, and is placed by Pashley at Platanid. {Travels in Crete, vol. ii. p. 23.) Scylax says (p. 18, Huds.) that the Dictynnaeum stood in the territory of Pergamns.

PERGA'NTIUM (nepydmov. Elk. mfrfimos, Steph. B. ». v.), a city of the Ligures. It is the small island named Breganson, on the south coast of France. It is separated by a narrow channel from a point on the mainland which is turned towards ilest, one of the Stoechades or Islet dEitres. [G. L.]

PERGE or PERGA (Mpy*: Etn- ncpy*<°s), »" ancient and important city of Painphylia,'between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus, at a distance of 60 stadia from the mouth of the latter. (Strab. xiv. p. 667; Plin. v. 26; Pomp. Mel. i. 14; Ptol. v. 5. § 7.) It was renowned for the worship of Artemis, whose temple stood on a hill outside the town, and in whose honour annual festivals were celebrated. (Strab. I. c; Calliin. Hymn, in Dion. 187; Scylax, p. 39; Dionys. Per. 854.) The coins of Perge represent both the goddess and her temple. Alexander the Great occupied Perge with a part of his army after quitting Phaselis, between which two towns the road is described as long and difficult (Arrian, Anab. i. 26; comp. Polyb. v. 72, xxii. 25;

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Lit. xsxviii. 37.) We learn from the Acts of the Apostles (sir. 24, 25) that Paul and Barnabas preached the gospel at Perge. (Comp. Aclt, xiii. 13.) In the ecclesiastical notices and in Hierocles (p. 679) Perge appears as the metropolis of Pamphylia. (Comp. Steph. B. «. v.; Eckhel, Boctr. Num. i. 3, p. 12.) There are considerable ruins of Perge about 16 miles to the north-east of Adalia, at a place now called Eski-Kalesi. (Comp. Leake, Asia Minor, p. 132; Texier, Descript. de lAsie Mia., where the ruina are figured in 19 plates; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 190,- &c.) f L. S.]

FERIMirLA(rUpi>>i/\a, Ptol. vii. 2. § 5), the name of a town of some commercial importance on the W. side of the Sinus Magnus (or gulf ufSiam), on a tongue of land anciently called the Aurea Chersonesus, and now known by the name of Malacca. Lassen places it in lat. 7° X. In its immediate neighbourhood was a small bay or indentation of the coast, which was called the Sinus Perinmlicus {TltpifiovKixhs Koatos). [V.] PERIMUXICUS SINUS. [perimtji.a.] PERINTHUS (-> nepivBos, Ptol. iii. 11. § 6, viii. 11. § 7; Xenoph. Anab. vii. 2. § 8: Elh. YltpivBios), a great and nourishing town of Thrace, situated on the Propontis. It lay 22 miles W. of Selymbria, on a small peninsula (Plin. iv. 18) of the bay which bears its name, and was built like an amphitheatre, on the declivity of a hill (Diod. xvi. 76.) It was originally a Samian colony (Marcian, p. 29; Pint. Qu. Or. 56), and, according to Syncellus (p. 238), was founded about B. c. 599. Panof ka, however (p. 22), makes it contemporary with Samothrace, that is about B. c. 1000. It was particularly renowned for its obstinate defence against Philip of Macedon (Diod. xvi. 74—77; Plut. Phoc 14). At that time it appears to have been a more important and flourishing town even than Byzantium; and being both a harbour and a point at which several main roads met, it was the seat of an extensive commerce (Procop. de Aed. iv. 9). This circumstance explains the reason why so many of its coins are still extant; from which we learn that large and celebrated festivals were held here (Mionnet, i. p. 399— 415; Eckhel, Doctr. Num. vol. iv. p. 445; Morell. Spec. Rei Num, tab. xiii. 143). According to Tzetzes (ChU. iii. 812), it bore at an early period the name of Mygdonia; and at a later one, but not before the fourth century of our era, it assumed the name of Heracleia; which we find sometimes used alone, and sometimes with the additions H. Thraciae and H. Perinthus. (Procop. I. c. and B. Vand. i. 12; Zosim. i. 62; Justin, xvi. 3 ; Eutrop. ix. 15; Amm. Marc. xxii. 2; I tin. AnL pp. 175, 176, 323 ; Jorn. de Regn. Succ. p. 51, &c On the variations in its name, see Tzschucke, ad Melam, ii. 2, vol. iii. j>t. ii. p. 102, seq.) Justinian restored the old imperial palace, and the aqueducts of the city. (Procop. ic) It ia now called Eslci Eregli, and still con

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tains Rome ancient ruins and inscriptions. (See Clarke's Travels, viii. p. 122, sqq.) [T. H. D.]

PERISADYES (XltpioaSvis, XlfpicaSm), an IIlyrian people, near the silver mines of Dainastium, whose name seems to be corrupt. (Strab. vii. p. 326* Kramer and Groskurd, ad loc.')

PERITUR, a place in Lower Pannonia (Kin. Hicrot. p. 562), probably the same as the one mentioned in the Peuting. Table under the name of Piretis, and in the Antonine Itinerary (p. 266) under that of Pyrri or Pyrrum, and situated on the road from Petovio to Siscia. (See Wesseling, ad It. Uieros. I. c.) fL. S.]

PERIZZl'TES. [palaestina, p. 529.J PERMESSUS. [boeotia, p. 413, a.j PERNE (niprri), a small island off the coast of Ionia, which, during an earthquake, became united with the territory of Miletus. (Plin. ii. 91.) There was also a town in Thrace of this name, which ia mentioned onlv by Steph. B. (*. r.) [L. S.]

PERNICIACUM, or PERNACUM in the Table, in North Gallia, is placed on a road from Bagacum (ZJarai) to Aduatuca (Tonjero). The road passed from Bagacum to Geminiacum (Gemblou). From Geminiacum to Pemiciacum is xii. in the Anton. Itin., and xiiii. in the Table; and from Pemiciacum to Aduatuca is xiv. in the Itin. and xvi. in the Table. The road is generally straight, but there is no place which we can identify as the site of Pemiciacum; and the geographers do not agree on any position. [G. L.]

PERORSI (Xlipopaoi, Tlvpopaot, Ptol. iv. 6. §§ 16,17; Polyb.ap. Plin. v. 1.1.8, vL 35),a people of Libya, subdued by Suetonius Paulliuus, who inhabited a few fertile spots Bpread over the long extent of maritime country between the Canarii, who dwelt opposite to the Fortunate Islands, and the Pharusii, who occupied the banks of the Senegal. (Leake, London Geog. Journ. vol. ii. p. 17.) [E.B.J.]

PERPERE'NA (rUp-Mp-jwO, » place in Mysia, on the south-east of Adrainyttium, in the neighbourhood of which there were copper mines and good vineyards. It was said by some to be the place in which Thucydides had died. (Strab. xiii. p. 607; Plin. v. 32; Steph. B. i. v. Tlaprdpui/, from whom we learn that some called the place Perine; while Ptol. v. 2. § 16, calls it Perpere or Permere; Guleu, Tltpl tiixv/Aas, p. 358; comp. Sestini, p. 75.) Some, without sufficient reason, regard Perperena as identical with Theodosiupolis, mentioned by Hierocles (p. 661). [L-S.] PERRANTHES. [ajibracia.] PERRHAEBI, PERRHAE'BIA. [thessalia.] PERRHIDAE. [attica, p. 330, a.] PERSABO'RA (Tlripaagupa, Zosim. iii. 17), a very strong place in Mesopotamia, on the W. bank of the Euphrates, to which the emperor Julian came in his march across that country. Zosimus, who gives a detailed account of its siege, states that it was in size and importance second only to Ctesiphon. Ammianus, speaking of the same war, calls the place Pirisabora (xxiv. c. 2) ; and Lihanius Soph, mentions a city of the same name as the then ruling king of Persia, evidently supposing that it derived its name from Sapor (or Sha/ipur). (Orafc Fun. p. 315.) Forbiger has conjectured that it is represented by the present Aubar, and that it was situated near the part of the river Euphrates whence the canal Nahr-sares flows, and no great distance from the Sipphara of Ptolemy (v. 18. <j 7). [V.J

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