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2. (Tlt-pa: Elh. Tltrpivoi, Petrinns: Petralm), a city of Sicily, mentioned both by Pliny and Ptolemy among the inland towns of the island. Cicero also notices the Petrini among the communities that suffered from the exactions of Verres (Cic. Verr. iii. 39; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. §14); anil their name is mentioned at an earlier period by Diodorus as submitting to the Romans during the First Punic War. (Diod. xxiii. 18; Exc. H. p, 505.) The name is written Petraea by Silius Italicns (xiv. 248), and the Petrinae of the Antonine Itinerary is in all probability the same place, (/tin. Ant. p. 96.) Though so often mentioned by ancient authors, they afford very little clue to its position; but it is probable that the name is retained by the modem Petralia, a small town about 8 miles W. of Gangi, supposed to represent the ancient Engyum. [esgtum.] Ptolemy indeed places these two towns near one another, though he erroneously transfers them both to the neighbourhood of Syracuse, which is wholly at variance with the mention of Petra in Diodorus among the towns subject to the Carthaginians as late as B. c. 254. (Cluver. SiciL p. 367.) [E. H. B.]

3. A fortress of Macedonia, among the mountains beyond Li bet bra, the possession of which was disputed by the Thessalian Perrhaebi and the Macedonian kings. (Liv. xxxix. 26, xlir. 82.) It commanded a pass which led to Pythium in Thessaly, by the back of Olympus. By this road L. Aemilius Paullus was enabled to throw a detachment on the rear of the Macedonian army which was encamped on the Enipeus, after the forces of Perseus had been overthrown at the pass of Petra by P. Scipio Nasica, who had been sent against it with the consul's eldest son Q. Falius Maximus. (Liv. xlv. 41.) Petra was situated on a great insulated rock naturally separated from the adjoining mountain at the pass which leads from Elosona or Servia into the maritime plains of Macedonia. Here, which is at once the least difficult and most direct of the routes across the Olympene barrier, or the frontier between Macedonia and Thessaly, exactly on the Zygos, are the ruins of Petra. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. pp. 337,430.) [E. B. J.]

4. A fortress of the Maedi, in Thrace. (Liv. xl. 22.)

5. A town in Ulyricum, situated upon a hill upon the coast, which had only a moderately good harbour. (Caes. B. C. iii. 42.)

6. A place in the Corinthia. [Vol. I. p. 685, a.]

7. A place in the immediate neighbourhood of Elis. [Vol. I. p. 821, a.]

PETRA II. In Asia. 1. (neVpa, Ptol. V. 17. § 5, viii. 20. § 19; Ilrrpo or nerptu, Suid. s. e. YtviBhtos; the Sela of the Old Testament, 2 Kingsjxiv. 7; Isaiah, xvi. I: respecting its various names see Robinson, Biblical Researches, vol. ii. Notes and III p. 653), the chief town of Arabia Petraea, once the capital of the Idumaeans and subsequently of the Nabataei, now Wady Musa. [nabataei.]

Petra was situated in the eastern part of Arabia Petraea, in the district called under the Christian emperors of Rome Palaestina Tertia ( Vet. Rom. Itbi. p. 721, Wessel.; Malala, Chronogr. xvi. p. 400, ed. Bonn). According to the division of the ancient geographers, it lay in the northern district, Gebalene; whilst the modern ones place it in the southern portion, Esh-Sherah, the Seir, or mountain-land, of the Old Testament (Genesis, xxxvi. 8).

It was seated between the Dead Sea and the Elanitic gulf; being, according to Diodorus Siculns (xix. 98), 300 stadia S. of the former, whilst the Tab. Peut. places it 98 Roman miles N. of the latter. Its site is a wilderness overtopped by Mount Hor, and diversified by cliffs, ravines, plains, and Wadys, or watered valleys, for the most part but ill cultivated. Strabo (xvi. p. 779) describes it as seated in a plain surrounded with rocks, hemmed in with barren and streamless deserts, though the plain itself is well watered. Pliny's description (vi. 32), which slates the extent of the plain at rather less than 2 miles, agrees very nearly with that of Strabo, and both are confirmed by the reports of modern travellers. "It is an area in the bosom of a mountain, swelling into mounds, and intersected with gullies." (lrby and Mangles, ch. viii.) It must not, however, be understood to be completely hemmed in with rocks. Towards the N. and S. the view is open ; and from the eastern part of the valley the summit of Mount Hor is seen over the western cliffs. (Robinson, ii. p. 528.) According to Pliny (I. c.) Petra was a place of great resort for travellers.

Petra was subdued by A. Cornelius Palma, a lieutenant of Trajan's (Dion Cass, lxviii. 14), and remained under the Roman dominion a considerable time, as we bear of the province of Arabia being enlarged by Septimius Severus A. D. 195 (id. lxxv. 1,2; Eutrop. viii. 18). It must have been during this period that those temples and mausoleums were made, the remains of which still arrest the attention of the traveller; for though the predominant style of the architecture is Egyptian, it is mixed with florid and over-loaded Roman-Greek specimens, which clearly indicate their origin. (Robinson, ii. p. 532.)

The valley of Wady Musa, which leads to the town, is about 150 feet broad at its entrance, and is encircled with cliffs of red sandstone, which gradually increase from a height of 40 or 50 feet to 200 or 250 feet. Their height has been greatly exaggerated, having been estimated by some travellers at 700 and even 1000 feet (lrby and Mangles, ch. viii.; Stephens, ii. p. 70; see Robinson, ii. p. 517 and note). The valley gradually contracts, till at one spot it becomes only about 12 feet broad, and is so overlapped by the cliffs that the light of day is almost excluded. The ravine or Sik of Wady Musa extends, with many windings, for a good English mile. It forms the principal, and was anciently the only avenue to Petra, the entrance being broken through the wall. (Diod. Sic. ii. 48, xix. 97; Robinson, ii. p. 516; Laborde, p. 55.) This valley contains a wonderful necropolis hewn in the rocks. The tombs, which adjoin or surmount one another, exhibit now a front with six Ionic columns, now with four slender pyramids, and by their mixture of Greek, Roman, and Oriental architecture remind the spectator of the remains which are found in the valley of Jehoshaphat and in other ports of Palestine. The further side of the ravine is spanned by a bold arch, perhaps a triumphal one, with finely-sculptured niches evidently intended for statues. This, like the other remains of this extraordinary spot, is ascribed by the natives either to the Pharaohs or to the Jins or evil genii. Along the bottom of the valley, in which it almost vanishes, winds the stream mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, the small but charming Wady Musa. In ancient times its bed seems to have been paved, as many traces still show. Its stream was spanned by frequent bridges, its sides strengthened with stone walls or quays, and numerous small canals derived from it supplied the inhabitants with water. But now its banks are overspread with hyacinths, oleanders, and other flowers and shrubs, and overshadowed by lofty trees.

Opposite to where the Sik terminates, in a second ravine-like but broader valley, another monument, the finest one at Petra, and perhaps in all Syria, strikes the eye of the traveller. This is the Khiiznehj—well preserved, considering its age and Bite, and still exhibiting its delicate chiselled work and all the freshness and beauty of its colouring. It has two rows of six columns over one another, with statues between, with capitals and sculptured pediments, the upper one of which is divided by a little round temple crowned with an urn. The Arabs imagine that the urn contains a treasure,—El KhmneA.wlience the name,—which they ascribe to Pharaoh (Robinson, ii. p. 519). The interiordoesnot correspond with the magnificence of the facade, being a plain lofty hall, with a chamber adjoining each of its three sides. It was either a mausoleum, or, mere probably, a temple.

From this spot the cliffs on both sides the Wady are pierced with numerous excavations, the chambers of which are usually small, though the facades are occasionally of some size and magnificence; all. however, so various that scarce two are exactly alike. After a gentle curve the Wady expands, and here on its left side lies the theatre, entirely hewn out of the rock. Its diameter at the bottom is 120 feet (Irby and Mangles, p. 428), and it has thirty-three, or, according to another account, thirty-eight, rows of seats, capable of accommodating at least 3000 spectators. Strangely enough, it is entirely surrounded with tombs. One of these is inscribed with the name of Q. Praefectus Florentinus (Laborde, p. 59), probably the governor of Arabia Petraea under Hadrian or Antoninus Pius. Another has a Greek inscription, not yet deciphered. A striking effect is produced by the bright and lively tints of the variegated stone, out of which springs the wild fig and tamarisk, while creeping plants overspread the walls, and thorns and brambles cover the pedestals and cornices (Isaiah, xxxiv. 13). Travellers are agreed that these excavations were mostly tombs, though some think they may originally have served as dwellings. A few were, doubtless, temples for the worship of Baal, but subsequently converted into Christian churches.

Proceeding down the stream, at about 150 paces from the theatre, the cliffs begin to expand, and soon vanish altogether, to give place to a small plain, about a mile square, surrounded with gentle eminences. The brook, which now turns to the W., traverses the middle of this plain till it reaches a ledge of sandstone clifls, at a distance of rather more than a mile. This was the site of Petra, and is still covered with heaps of hewn stones, traces of paved 6trects, and foundations of houses. There are remains of several larger and smaller temples, of a bridge, of a triumphal arch of degenerate architecture, and of the walls of a great public building—Kusr Faron, or the palace of Pharaoh.

On an eminence south of this is a single column (Zub Faron, i. e. hasta virilis Pharaonis), connected with the foundation-walls of a temple whose pillars lie scattered around in broken fragments. Laborde (p. 59) thinks that the Acropolis occupied an isolated hill on the W. At the NW. extremity of the cliffs is the Deir, or cloister, hewn in the rock. A ravine, like the Sik, with many

windings, leads to it, and the approach is partly by a path 5 or 6 feet broad, with steps cut in the rock with inexpressible labour. Its facade is larger than that of the Khttzneh; but, as in that building, the interior does not answer to it, consisting of a large square chamber, with a recess resembling the niche for the altar in Greek ecclesiastical architecture, and bearing evident signs of having been converted from a heathen into a Christian temple. The destruction of Petra. bo frequently prophesied in Scripture, was at length wrought by the Mahometans. From that time it remained unvisited, except by some crusading kings of Jerusalem; and perhaps by the single European traveller, Thetmar, at the beginning of the 13th century. It was discovered by Burckhardt, whose account of it still continues to be the best. (Robinson, ii. p. 527.) Laborde's work is chiefly valuable for the engravings. See also Irby and Mangles, 7Vat?e&,ch.viii; Robinson,BibiResearches, vol. ii.p. 512,seq. [T. H. D.]

2. A town in the land of the Lazi in Colchis, founded by Joannes Tzibus, a general of Justinian, in order to keep the Lazi in subjection. It was situated upon a rock near the coast, and was very strongly fortified. (Procop. B.Pers. ii. 15, 17.) It was taken by Chosroes in A. D. 541, and its subsequent siege by the Romans is described by Gibbon as one of the most remarkable actions of the age. The first siege was relieved; but it was again attacked by the Romans, and was at length taken by assault after a long protracted resistance, A. D. 551. It was then destroyed by the Romans, and from that time disappears from history. Its ruins, which are now called Oudjenar, are described by Dubois. (Procop. B. Pert. ii. 17, 20, 30, B, Goth iv. 11,12; Gibbon, c. xlii. vol. v. p. 201, ed. Smith; Dubois, Voyage auiour du Caucase, vol. iii. p. 86, seq.)

3. A very strong fortress in Sogdiana, held by Arimazes when Alexander attacked it. (Curt, vii. 11; comp. Arrian.iv. 19; Strab.xi. p.517.) It is probably the modern Kohiten, near the pass of Kolugha or Derbend. [See Diet, of Biogr. Vol. I. p. 286.]

PETRAS MAJOR (n«Vpoy & /xfjas, Scyl. p. 45; Ptol. iv. 5. § 3 ; Stadiasm. § 33), a harbour of Mannarica, a day's sail from Plyni Portus, and the same as the large harbour which Strabo (xviL p. 838) places near Ardanis Prom., and described as lying opposite to Chersoncsus of Crete, at a distance of 3000 stadia. It agrees in position with Port Bardiah, where there are springs to the W. of Afarsa Soloum. [E. B. J.]

PETRAS MINOR (n^Tpoj b y.titp6s, Scyl. I c.; Ptol. iv. 5. § 2; Stadiasm. § 39), a harbour of Marmarica. half a day's sail from Antipyrgus. It has been identified with Mayharab-el-Heabes, where there are a great number of catacombs remarkable for their Graeco-Aegyptian style. The^e curious excavations, of which plans are given in Pacho {Voyage dans la Marmariqtte, Planches, pi. v.), are to be identified according to that traveller (p. 49), with the sinuous caverns of Bombaka (B6fx6aia), resembling the Aegyptian " hypogaea," which the Greeks called "Syringes," mentioned by Synesius (Ep. 104); but Barth (Wanderungcn, p. 512) has shown that the description of th*» bishop of Ptolemais cannot be applied to the^e catacombs and their locality. A coin with the epigraph I1E-PA, which Pellerin referred to this port in Marmarica is by Eckhel (iv 116) assigned to a Cretan mint [E. B. J.]

PETRIANA, a fortress in the N. of Britannia Romana, between the Wall and the river Irthing, where the Ala Petriana was quartered. Camden (p. 1020) identifies it with Old Penrith; but Horsley (Brit Bom. p. 107) and others fix it, with more probability, at Cambeck Fort or Castle-steeds. (Not. Imp.) It is called Banna by the Geogr. Rav. (Horsley, p. 498.) [T. H. D.]

PETRINA. [petra, No. 2.]

PETROCO'RII (n€TpoKo>i01, Ptol. ii. 7. § 12), & Gallic people, whom Ptolemy places in Aquitania. He names the chief city Vesunna, which is Perigord Caesar mentions them (vii. 75) as sending a contingent of 5000 men to aid in raising the siege of Alexia; this is all that he says about them. The passage in Pliny (iv. 19. s. 33) in which he describes the position of the Petrocorii is doubtful: "Cadurci, Nitiobriges (a correction, see Nitiobriges), Tarneque amne discreti a Tolosanis Petrocorii." This passage makes the Tarnis (Tarn) the boundary between the territory of Tolosa (Toulouse) and the Petrocorii, which is not true, for the Cadurci were between the Petrocorii and the territory of Toulouse. Scaliger proposed to write the passage thus: "Cadurci, Nitiobriges, Tarne amni discreti a Tolosanis; Petrocorii." But this is not true, for the Nitiobriges did not extend to the Tarn. Strabo (iv. pp. 190,191) mentions the Petrocorii among the people between the Garonne and the Loire, and as near the Nitiobriges, Cadurci, Lemovices, and Arverni. He says that there are iron mines in the country. The Petrocorii occupied the diocese of Perigueux and Sarlat (D'Anville). Besides Vesunna their territory contained Corterate, Trajectus, Diolindum, and some other small places. [G. L.]

¥ETBeMAir¥ALUM, in Gallia, is placed by the

Antonine Itinerary on a road which runs from Carocotinum through Rotomagus (Bouen) to Lutetia (Ports). It also appears ou a road from Caesaromagus (Beauvais) to Briva Isarae or Pontoise, on the Oise, a branch of the Seine. In the Table the name is written Petrumviaco. The site is uncertain. The name bears some resemblance to that of Magni; but the site of Magni does not accurately correspond to the distances in the Itineraries. [G. L.]

PETRONII VICUS, in Gallia Narbonensis. Honor^ Boache gives an inscription found at Pertuis, on the right bank of the Druentia (Durance), about 4 leagues north of Aquae Sextiae (Aix), in which inscription the place is called " vicus C. Petronii ad ripam Druentiae." (D'Anville, Notice, d*c.) [G. L.]

PETROSACA. [mantimeia, p. 262, b.]

PETUARIA. [parisi.]

PEUCE (n«wrn, Ptol. iii. 10. § 2; Strab. vii. p. 305), an island of Moesia Inferior, formed by the two southernmost mouths of the Danube. It derived its name from the abundance of pine-trees which grew upon it. (Eratosth. in Schot Apollon. iv. 310.) It was of a triangular shape (Apollon. /. c), and as large as Rhodes. By Martial (vii. 84. 3) it is called a Getic island; by Valerius Flaccus (viii. 217) a Sarmatian one. It has been identified with the modem island of Piczina or St. George, between Badabag and Ismail; but we must recollect that these parts were but little known to the ancients, and that in the lapse of time the mouths of the Danube hare undergone great alterations. (Plin. iv. 12. s. 24 j Mela, ii. 7; Avien. Descr. Orb. 440; Dion. Perieg. 401; Claud. IV Cons. Honor. 630, &c.) [T. H. D.]

PEUCELAOTIS (newKAoirir, Arriau, Anab.

iv. 22, Indie. 4; HfVKoXarra, Strab. xv. p. 698; Plin. vi. 17. s. 21: Eth. Peucolaitae, Plin.; rieuiraAe??, Dionys. Per. 1142), a district of India on the NW. frontier, along the Cophen or Cdbul river, in the direction of the Punjab. The actual name of the town, which was probably Peucela, is nowhere found, but the form of the word leaves no doubt that it is, like the majority of the names which have been preserved by Arrian, of genuine Sanscrit or Indian origin. Strabo and Pliny both call the city itself Peucolaitis. Arrian in one place gives the name to a district (iv. 22), without mentioning that of the capital or chief town; in another he calls the capital Peucelaotis, or, according to the Florentine MS., Peucela. (Indie, c. I.) There can be little doubt that this is the same place or district mentioned in Ptolemy under the form of Proclais (vii. 1. § 44), and in the Periplus Mar. Erythr. (c. 47). Both are connected with the Gandarae, — the Sanscrit Ganddras,—and both are alike placed in NW India. Prof. Wilson has shown that the Greek name is derived from the Sanscrit Pmhkara or Pusltkala, the Pushkalavati of the Hindus, which was placed by them in the country of the Gandhdras, the Gandaritis of Strabo, and which is still represented by the modern Pehhely or Pakholi, in the neighbourhood of PesMxcur. (Wilson, Ariana, pp. 183, 184.) [V.]

PEUCETII (newce'rioi), a people of Southern Italy, inhabiting the southern part of Apulia. This name was that by which they were known to the Greeks, but the Romans called them Pokdiculi, which, according to Strabo, was the national appellation employed also by themselves. (Strab. vi. pp. 277,282.) Their national affinities and origin, as well as the geographical details of the country occupied by them, will be found in the article Apulia. [E.H. B.] PEUCl'NI (ITeuKu-oi, Ptol. iii. 5. § 19, 10. § 9; Strab. vii. p. 305, seq.; Plin. iv. 14. s. 28), a branch of the Bastarnae, inhabiting the island of Peuce. Tacitus (Germ. 46) and Jomandes (Goth. 16) write the name Peuceni, which also appears in several MSS. of Strabo; whilst Ammianus Marcellinus (xxii. 8. § 43) calls them Peuci, and Zosimus (i. 42) nfC(toi. [T.H.D.]

PHAB1RANUM (tailparov), a place in the country of the Chauci Minores, that is, the district between the Albis and Visurgis (Ptol. ii. 11. § 27), is generally identified with the modern city of Bremen; though some, with more probability, look for its site at Bremervorde. (Wilhelm, Germanien, p. 162.) [L.S.]

PHA'CIUM (*ckiov: Eth. toKitis), a town of Thessaly, in the district Pelasgiotis, placed by * Leake a little below the right bank of the Peneius at Alifaka, but by Kiepert upon the left bank. Brasidas marched through Phacium in B. c. 424. (Thuc. iv. 78.) The town was laid waste by Philip, B. c. 198 (Liv. xxxii. 13), and was occupied by the Roman praetor Baebius in the war with Antiochus, B.C. 191. (Liv. xxxvi. 13.) Phacium is probably the same place as Phacus, which Polybius (xxxi. 25) calls a town of Macedonia. (Comp. Steph. B. s. v.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 493.)

PHACUSSA (Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; *oico5<ro-ai, pi., Steph. B. s. v.), an island in the Aegaean sea, one of the Sporades, now Fecussa. PHAEA'CES. [corcyra.] PHAEDRIADES. [delphi, p. 764.] PHAEDRIAS. [meoaloi'olis, p. 309, b.] FHAENIA'NA (touWwa), a town in Rhaetia or Vindelicia, on the southern bank of the Danube is mentioned only by Ptolemy (ii. 12. § 4). [L. S.]

PHAENO (♦az«S, Euseb. Onomatt. s. v. ^ivuv; $atvd, Hierocl. p. 723), formerly a city of Idumaea, and afterwards a village of Arabia Petraea, between Petra and Zoar, containing copper mines, where condemned criminals worked. It was identified with Punon, one of the stations of the Israelites in their wundeiiitgs. (Numb, xxxiii. 42; see Roland, Palaettina, p. 951; Wesseling, ad Hierocl. L c.)

PHAESTUS. 1. (*cuo-Tdj: Eth. +ai<TTios),a town in the S. of Crele, distant 60 stadia from Gortyna, and 20 from the sea. (Strab. x. p. 479; Plin. pr. IS. a. 20.) It was said to have derived its name from an eponymous hero Phaestus, a son of Hercules, who migrated from Sicyon to Crete. (Paus. ii. 6. § 7; Steph. B. s. v.; Eustath. ad Horn. I. c.) According to others it was founded by Minos. (Dind. v. 78; Strab. I. c.) It is mentioned by Homer (//. ii. 648), and was evidently one of the most ancient places in the island. It was destroyed by the Gortynians, who took possession of its territory. (Strab. I c.) Its port was Matalum, from which it was distant 40 stadia, though it was only 20 from the coast. (Strab. L c.) We also learn from Strabo that Epimenides was a native of Phaestus. The inhabitants were celebrated for their sharp and witty sayings. (Athen. vi. p. 261, e.) Phaestus is mentioned also by Scylax, p. 18; Polyb. iv. 55.

Stephanus B. (#. v. 4>o«ttos) mentions in the territory of Phaestus a place called Lisses, which he identifies with a rock in the Odyssey (iii. 293), where in our editions it is not used as a proper name, but as an adjective,—\iao~i), "smooth." Strabo (/. c.) mentions a place Olysses or Olysse in the territory of Phaestus ('OAuo-o-ni' rrjs *atarias); but this name is evidently corrupt; and instead of it we ought probably to read Lisses. This place must not be confounded with Lissus, which was situated much more to the W. (Kramer, ad Strab. I c.)

[graphic]

COIN OF PHAESTUS.

2. A town of Thessaly in the district Pelasgiotis, * a little to the right of the Peneius. It was taken

by the Roman praetor Baebius in B. c. 191. (Liv. xxxvi. 13.)

3. A town of the Locri Ozolae in the interior, with a port called the port of Apollo Pbaestius. (Plin. iv. 3. s. 4.) Leake places Phaestus at Vithari, where aie the ruins of a fortress of no great extent, and the port of Apollo near C. Andhromdkhi. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 621.)

4. The later name of Phrixa in Triphylia in Elis. [phrixa.]

PHAGRES (*iypns, HecaL ap. Steph. B. ». v.; Herod, vii. 112; Thuc. ii. 99; Scyl. p. 27; Strab. vii.<>. 331, Fr. 33), a fortress in the Pieric hollow, and the first place after the passage of the Strymon. It is identified with the post station of Orfana, on the great road from Greece to Constantinople, where Greek coins havo been often found, and, among

other small productions of Hellenic art, oval sling bullets of lead, or the "glandes" of which Lucan (vii. 512) speaks in his description of the battle of Pharsalia. These are generally inscribed with Greek names in characters of the best times, or with some emblem, such as a thunderbolt. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 176; Clarke, Travel*, vol. viii. p. 58.) [E. B. J.]

PHAIA (*a(o, Stadiatm. § 43; *0ia, Ptol. iv. 5. § 2), a harbour of Marmariea, the name of which Olshausen (Phoenizuche Ortsnamen, in Rhein. At us. 1852, p. 324) connects with a Phoenician original. Barth (Reise, p. 505) has identified it with a small bay upon the coast, a little to the N. of Wady Temmineh. [E. B. J.]

PHALA'CHTHIA (*oAaxflIo), a town of Thessaly in the district Thessaliolis. (Ptol. iii. 13. §45.)

PHALACRA (+oAd>po), a promontory of Mount Ida, in Mysia, of which the exact position is unknown. (Eustath. ad Horn, 11. viii. 47; Schol. ad Nicand. Alexiph. 40; Tzctz. ad Lycoph. 40, 1170.) Stephanus Byz., who mentions it under the name Phalacrae, Mates that all barren and sterile mountains were called Phalacra. [L. S.] PHALACR1NE. [falacrinum.] PHALACRUM. [ConcYRA, p. 669, b.] PHALAE'SEAE (+aAa«ri'oj: Eth. 4>aAa«m4s),a town of Arcadia, in the district Maleatis on the roud from Megalopolis to Sparta, 20 stadia from the Hermaeum towards Belbiua. Leake originally placed it near GardhiH, but subsequently a little to tile eastward of Bui a, where Gell remarked some Hellenic remains among the ruins of the Bureika Kali/via. (Paus. viii. 35. § 3; Steph. B.a. v.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 298; Peloponnetiaca, p. 237.)

PHALANNA (4-dAowa: Eth, taAaywutt), a town of the Perrhaebi in Thessaly, situated on the left bank of the Peneius, SW. of Gonnus. Strabo says (ix. p. 440) that the Homeric Orthe became the acropolis of PhaTanna; but in the lists of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16) Orthe and Phalanna occur as two distinct towns. Phalanna was said to have derived its name from a daughter of Tyro. (Steph. B. t. v.) It was written Phalaunus in Ephorus, and was called Hippia by Hecatacus. (Steph. B.) Phalanna is mentioned in the war between the Romans and Perseus, B.C. 171. (Liv. xlii. 54, 65.) Phalanna probably stood at Karadjoli, where are the remains of an ancient city upon a hill above the village. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 379, vol. iv. p. 298.)

PHALAXTHUM (4>aAorflo»: Eth. taAcWioi), a town and mountain of Arcadia, in the district Orchc— menia, near Methydrium. (Paus. viii. 35. § 9; Steph. B. *. v.; Leake, Peloponnetiaca, p. 240.) PHALARA. [lamia.] PHALARUS. [boeotia, p. 412, b.] PHALASARNA (to QaX&aapva: Eth. *oAoadpvtos'), a town of Crete, situated on the N\V. side of the island, a little S. of the promontory Cimarus or Corycus, described by Dicaearchus as having a closed-up port and a temple of Artemis called Dictynna. Strabo says that Phnlasarna was 60 stadia from Polyrrhenia, of which it was the port-town; and Scylax observes that it is a day's sail acrosa from Lacedaemon to the promontory of Crete, on which is Phalasarna, being the first city to the west of the island. (Strab. x. pp. 474, 479; Scylax, pp. 17, 18; Dicaearch. Descrip. Graec. 119; Steph. B. a. v.; Plin. iv 12. s. 20.) The Cydonians had at one time taken possession of Phalasarna, but were compelled by the Romans to give it up. (Polyb. xxiii. IS.)

There are considerable remains of the walls of Phalasarna. They exist in a greater or less degree of preservation, from its northern side, where it seems to have reached the sea, to its south-western point, cutting off the acropolis and the city along with it as a small promontory. There are other remains, the most curious of which is an enormous chair on the S\V. side of the city, cut out of the solid rock; the height of the arms above the seat is 2 feet 11 inches, and its other dimensions are in proportion. It was no doubt dedicated to some deity, probably to Artemis. Near this chair there are a number of tombs, hewn in the solid rock, nearly 30 in number. (Pashley, Travels in Crete, vol. ii. p. 62, seq.)

PHALERUM. [attica, pp. 304, 305.]

PHALO'RIA (Liv.; *a\<ipn, *ctA.<Spna, Steph. B. s. v.: Eth. ♦aAwpeiif, *aAG>p*iT7fs), a town of Histiaeotis in Thessaly, apparently between Tricca and the Macedonian frontier. Leake places it in one of the valleys which intersect the mountains to the northward of Trikkala, either at Skldtbia or at Ardhdm. (Liv. xxxii. 15, xxxvi. 13, xxxix. 25; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. pp. 528, 529.)

PHALY'CUM (4>aAuKw), a town of Megaris mentioned by Theophrastus (Hist. PL ii. 8), is clearly the same place as the Alycum (^axvkop) of Plutarch, who relates that it derived its name from a son of Sciron, who was buried there. (Thes. 32.) It perhaps stood at the entrance of the Scironian pass, where Dodwell (vol. ii. p. 179) noticed some ancient vestiges, which he erroneously supposed to be those of Tripodiscus. [tripodiscus.]

PHANA, a town in Aetolia, [paeania.]

PHANAE. [chios, p. 609.]

PHANAGO'RIA (tararvopla, Strab. xi. p. 494; Ptol. v. 9. § 6; ii $avay6peta, -ra *avny6pua, Hecat. op. Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. xi. p. 495; Scymn. Ch. 891; Arrian, ap. Eustath. ad Dionys. Per. 306, 549; taivay6p7i, Dionys. Per. 552; comp. Priscian, 565; Avien. 753; *way6pa, Steph. B. ». v. Tavporfj; Qavary6pov *6\is, Scylax, p. 31; Anonym. Peripl. P. Eux. p. 2; Phanagorus, Amm. Marc. xxiL 8; *arayovpts, Procop. B. Goth. iv. 5: Eth. Qavayopfvi, less correctly Qavayopelrns, Steph. B. s. v.), a Greek city on the Asiatic side of the Cimmerian Bosporus, founded by the Teians under Phanagorus or Phanagoras, who fled thither from the Persians. (Eustath. ad Dionys. Per.; Scymn. Ch., Steph. B., Peripl. P. Eux. II. cc.) It was situated upon an island, now called Taman, formed by the main branch of the Anticites {Kuban), which flows into the Black Sea, and a smaller branch, which falls into the sea of Azof. The main branch of the Kuban forms a lake before it enters the sea, called in ancient times Corocondamitis (Strab. xi. p. 494), now the Kubanskoi Liman, on the left of which, entering from the sea, stood Phanagoria. (Strab. xi. p. 495; respecting Phanagoria being upon an island, see Steph. B., Eustath., Amm. Marc, I. e.) The city became the great emporium for all the traffic between the coast of the Palus Maeotis and the countries on the southern side of the Caucasus, and was chosen by the kings of Bosporus as their capital in Asia, Panticapaeum being their capital in Europe. (Strab., Steph. B., t c) It was at Phanagoria that the insurrection broke out against Mithridates the Great, shortly before his death; and his sous, who held the citadel, were obliged to surrender to the

insurgents. (Appian, Mithr. 108; Diet, of Biogr, Vol. II. p. 1102, b.) In the sixth century of our era, Phanagoria was taken by the neighbouring barbarians and destroyed. (Procop. B. Goth. iv. 5.) The most remarkable building in Phanagoria seems to have been a temple of Aphrodite, surnamed Apatnrus ('AuaToupos), because the goddess, when attacked by the giants in this place, is said to have summoned Hercules to her aid, and then to have concealed him and to have handed over the giants separately to him to be slain (SoXotpovtiv iiraTT/j, Strab. xi. p. 495; Steph. B. s. v. 'ATrdrovpov; Bockh, Inscr. No. 2120.) We lenm from an inscription that this temple was repaired by Sauroinates, one of the kings of Bosporus. The site of Phanagoria is now only a mass of bricks and pottery; and there is no building above ground. One cause of the disappearance of all the ancient monuments at Phanagoria was the foundation in its neighbourhood at an early period of the Russian colony of Tmutarakan. Dutour noticed traces of towers towards the eastern extremity of the town, where the citadel probably stood. The town of Taman contains several ancient remains, inscriptions, fragments of columns, &c, which have been brought from Phanagoria. There are numerous tombs above the site of Phanagoria, but they have not been explored like those at Panticapaeum. In one of them, however, which was opened towards the end of last century there was found a bracelet of the purest massive gold, representing the body of a serpent, having two heads, which were studded with rubies so as to imitate eyes and also ornamented with rows of gems. It weighed three-quarters of a pound. (Clarke, Travels, vol. i. p. 394, seq.; Pallas, Beisen, vol. ii. p. 286, &c.; Dubois, Voyage autour du Caucase, vol. v. p. 64, seq.; Ukert, vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 491.)

PHANAROEA (iavipota), a broad and extensive valley in Pontus, watered by the rivers Iris, Lycus, and Scylax, and enclosed between the chain of Paryadres to the east, and Mounts Lithrus and Ophlimus to the west. The soil there was the best in Pontus, and yielded excellent wine and oil and other produce in abundance. (Strab. ii. p. 73, xii. pp. 547, 556, 559; Plin. vi. 4; Ptol. v. 6. § 3, where it is erroneously called Phanagoria.) Phanaroea contained the towns of Eupatoria, Cabira, Polemonium, and others. [pontus.] [L. S.]

PHA'NOTE {Eth. *avoTtis, Pol ), a strongly fortified town of Chaonia in Epirus, and a place of military importance. It Btood on the site of the modern Gardhiki, which is situated in the midst of a valley surrounded by an amphitheatre of mountains, through which there are only two narrow passes. It lies about halfway between the sea and the Antigonean passes, and was therefore of importance to the Romans when they were advancing from Illyria in B. c. 169. (Liv. xliii. 23; Pol. xxvii. 14; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 72, seq.)

PHANOTEUS. [pakopkx-s.]

PHARAE (+opoi). 1. Sometimes Phara (4>«pa, Strab. viii. p. 388; Pherae, Plin. iv. 6; +ap«f, Herod, i. 145, properly the name of the people: Eth. ^apieur, Strab. I. c; 4>apaifi/r, Polyb. iv. 6; Steph. B. s. v.: the territory fj Qapcuicf), Strab. I. c.; Polyb. iv. 59), a town of Achaia, and one of the twelve Achaean cities, was situated on the river Pierus or Peirus, 70 stadia from the sea, and 150 stadia from Patrae. It was one of the four cities which took the lead in restoring the Achaean League in B. C 280. In the Social War (b. O. 220, seq.) it

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