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SE'GEDA AUGURI'NA, an imporUnt town of Hispania Baetica, between the Baetis and the coast. (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.) Commonly supposed to be S. logo dtlla Higuera near Jam. [T. H. D.]

SEGELOCUM {Itin. Ant. p. 475, called also Aoelocum, lb. p. 47S). a town in Britannia Romans, on the road from Lindum to Eboracum, according to Camden (p. 582) Littleborough in A:o<tinghamshire. [T. H. D.]

SEGE'SAMA (2e7«t^o, Strab. iii. p. 162), or Seoesamo and Skoisamo (/rin. Ant. pp. 394, 449, 454; Orell. /ma: no. 4719), and ScoisaMonenses of the inhabitants (l'lin. iii. 3. s. 4), a town of the Murbogi or Turmodigi in Hispania Tnrraconensis, on the road from Tarracn to Asturica, now called Sammo, to the W of Briviesca. (Florez, E$p. Sagr. vi. p. 419, xv. p. 59.) [T. H. D.]

SEGESSERA, in Gallia, is placed in the Table between Corobilium (CoroeiV) and Andomatunum (Langret), and the distance of Segessera from each place is marked xxi. The site of Segessera is not certain. Some fix it at a place named SuzannecourL [CoRonir.Hisi.] [G. L.]

SEGESTA (2f7«rra: Elh. ZeytoravSs, Segestanns: Rn. near Calatafimi), a city of Sicily in the NW. part of the island, about 6 miles distant from the sea, and 34 W. of Panormus. Its name is always written by the Attic and other contemporary Greek writers EoESTA (^Eytara: FAh. 'tyftrriuos, Thnc &c), and it has hence been frequently asserted that it was first changed to Segesta by the Romans, for the purpose of avoiding the ill oinen of the name of Egesta in Latin. (Fest. i.v. Segetta, p. 340.) This story is, however, disproved by its coins, which provo that considerably before the time of Thueydides it was called by the inhabitants themselves Segesta, though this form seems to have been softened by the Greeks into Egesta. The origin and foundation of Segesta is extremely obscure. The tradition current among the Greeks and adopted by Thncydides (Thnc. vi. 2; Dionys. i. 52; Strab. xiii. p. 608), ascribed its foundation to a band of Trojan settlers, fugitives from the destruction of their city; and this tradition was readily welcomed by the Romans, who in consequence claimed a kindred origin with the Segestans. Thucydides seems to have considered the Elymi, a barbarian tribe in the neighbourhood of Eryx and Segesta, as descended from the Trojans in question; but another account represents the Elymi as a distinct people, already existing in this part of Sicily when the Trojans arrived there and founded the two cities. [elymi.] A different story seems also to have been current, according to which Segesta owed its origin to a band of Phocians, who had been among the followers of Philoctetes; and, as usual, later writers sought to reconcile the two accounts. (Strab. vi. p. 272; Thuc. I c.) Another version of the Trojan story, which would seem to have been that adopted by the inhabitants themselves, ascribed the foundation of the city to Egestns or Aegestus (the Acestes of Virgil), who was said to be the offspring of a Trojan damsel named Segesta by the river god Crimisus. (Strv. ad Am. i. 550. v. 3(1.) We are told also that the names of Simois and Scamander were given by the Trojan colonists to two small streams which flowed beneath the town (Strab. xiii. p. 608); and the latter name is mentioned by Diodorus as one still in use at a much later period. (Diod. xx. 71.)

It is certain that we cannot receive the statement of the Trojan origin of Segesta as Historical; but whal

I efer be the origin of the tradition, there seems no I doubt on the one hand that the city was occupied by a i people distinct from the Sicanians. the native race of this part of Sicily, and on the other that it was not 'a Greek colony. Thucydides, in enumerating the allies of the Athenians at the time of the Peloponnesian War, distinctly calls the Segestans barbarians; and the history of the Greek colonies in Sicily was evidently recorded with sufficient care and accuracy for us to rely upon his authority when he pronounces any people to be non-Hellenic. (Thuc. vii. 57.) At the same time they appear to have been, from a very early period, in close connection with the Greek cities of Sicily, and entering into. relations both of hostility and alliance with the Hellenic states, wholly different from the other bar. barians in the island. The early influence of Greek civilisation is shown also by their coins, which are inscribed with Greek characters, and bear the unquestionable impress of Greek art.

The first historical notice of the Segestans transmitted to us represents them as already engaged (aa early as B. C. 580) in hostilities with the Selinnntines, which would appear to prove that both cities had already extended their territories so far as to come into contact with each other. By the timely assistance of a body of Cnidian and Rhodian emigrants under Pentathlus, the Segestans at this time obtained the advantage over their adversaries. (Diod.

v. 9.) A more obscure statement of Diodorus relates that again in B. c. 454. the Segestans were engaged in hostilities with the LUybaeans for the possession of the territory on the river Mazarus. (Id. xi. 86.) The name of the LUybaeans is here certainly erroneous, as no town of that name existed till long afterwards [lii.ybakum]; but we know not what people is really meant, though the presumption is that it is the Selinuntines, with whom the Segestans seem to have been engaged in almost perpetual disputes. It was doubtless with a view to strengthen themselves against these neighbours that the Segestans took advantage of the first Athenian expedition to Sicily under Laches (b. C. 426), and concluded a treaty of alliance with Athens. (Thuc.

vi. 6.) This, however, seems to have led to no result, and shortly after, hostilities having again broken out, the Selinuntines called in the aid of the Syracusans, with whose assistance they obtained great advantages, and were able to press Segesta closely both by land and sea. In this extremity the Segestans, having in vain applied for assistance to Agrigentum, and even to Carthage, again bad recourse to the Athenians, who were, without much difficulty, persuaded to espouse their cause, and send a fleet to Sicily, B.C. 416. (Thuc vi. 6; Diod. xii. 82.) It is said that this result was in part attained by fraud, the Segestans having deceived the Athenian envoys by a fallacious display of wealth, and led them to conceive a greatly exaggerated notion of their resources. They, however, actually furnished 60 talents in ready money, and 30 more after the arrival of the Athenian armament. (Thuc. vi. 8, 46; Diod. xii. 83, xiii. 6 )

But though the relief of Segesta was thus the original object of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily, that city bears little part in the subsequent operations of the war. Nicias, indeed, on arriving in the island, proposed to proceed at once to Selinus, and compel that people to submission by the display of their formidable armament. But this advice was overruled: the

arms against Syracuse, and the contest between Segesta and Selinus was almost forgotten in the more important straggle between those two great powers. In the summer of B. C. 415 an Athenian fleet, proceeding along the coast, took the small town of Hyccara, on the.coast, near Segesta, and made it over to the Segestans. (Thnc. vi. 62; Diod. xiii. 6.) The latter people are again mentioned on mure than one occasion as sending auxiliary troops to assist their Athenian allies (Thuc vii. 57; Diod. xiii. 7); but no other notice occurs of them. The final defeat of the Athenians left the Segestans again exposed to the attacks of their neighbours the Selinuntines; and feeling themselves unable to cope with them, they again had recourse to the Carthaginians, who determined to espouse their cause, and sent them, in the first instance, an auxiliary force of 5000 Africans and 800 Campanian mercenaries, which sufficed to ensure them the victory over their rivals, B.C. 410. (Diod. xiii. 43, 44.) But this was followed the next year by a vast armament under Hannibal, who landed at Lilybaeum, and, proceeding direct to Selinus, took and destroyed the city. (/J. 54—58.) This was followed by the destruction of Hi mora; and the Carthaginian power now became firmly established in the western portion of Sicily. Sejiesta, surrounded on all sides by this formidable neighbour, naturally fell gradually into the position of a dependent ally of Carthage It was one of the few cities that remained faithful to this alliance even in B. c. 397, when the great expedition of Dionysius to the W. of Sicily and the siege of Motya seemed altogether to shake the power of Carthage. Dionysius in consequence laid siege to Segesta, and pressed it with the utmost vigour, especially after the fall of Motya; but the city was able to defy his efforts, until the landing of Himilco with a formidable Carthaginian force changed the aspect of affairs, and compelled Dionysius to raise the siege. (Id. xiv 48, 53—55.) From this time we hear little more of Segesta till the time of Agathocles, under whom it suffered a great calamity. The despot having landed in the W. of Sicily on his return from Africa (n c. 307), and being received into the city as a friend and ally, suddenly turned upon the inhabitants on a pretence of disaffection, and put the whole of the citizens (said to amount to 10,000 in number) to the sword, plundered their wealth, and sold the women and children into slavery. He then changed the name of the city to Dicaeopolis, and assigned it as a residence to the fugitives and deserters that had gathered around him. (Diod. xx. 71.)

It is probable that Segesta neveraltogether recovered this blow; but it soon resumed its original name, and again appears in history as an independent city. Thus it is mentioned in B. c. 276, as one of the cities which joined Pyrrhus during his expedition into the W. of Sicily. (Diod. xxii. 10. Exc. H. p. 498.) It, however, soon after fell again under the power of the Carthaginians; and it was probably on this occasion that the city was taken and plundered by them, as alluded to by Cicero ( Verr. iv. 33); a circumstance of which we have no other account. It continued subject to, or at least dependent on that people, till the First Punic War. In the first year of that war (b. C. 264) it was attacked by the consul Appius Claudius, but without success (Diod. xxiii. 3. p. 501); but shortly after the inhabitants put the Carthaginian garrison lo the sword, and declared for the alliance of Rome. (/4. 5. p. 502; Zonar. viii. 9.) They were in con

sequence besieged by a Carthaginian force, and were at one time reduced to great straits, but were relieved by the arrival of Duilius, after his naval victory, B. c. 260. (Pol. i. 24.) Segesta seems to have been one of the first of the Sicilian cities to set the example of defection from Carthage; on which account, as well as of their pretended Trojan descent, the inhabitants were treated with great distinction by the Romans. They were exempted from all public burdens, and even as late as the time of Cicero continued to be " sine foedere immunes ac liberi.'* (Cic. Verr.

iii. 6, iv. 33.) After the destruction of Carthage, Scipio Africanus restored to the Segestans a statue of Diana which had been carried off by the Carthaginians, probably when they obtained possession of the city after the departure of Pyrrhus. (Cic Verr.

iv. 33.) During the Servile War also, in B.C. 102, the territory of Segesta is again mentioned as one of those where the insurrection broke out with the greatest fury. (Diod. xxxvi. 5, Exc. Phot.p. 534.) But with the exception of these incidental notices we hear little of it under the Roman government. It seems to have been still a considerable town in the time of Cicero, and had a port or emporium of its own on the bay about 6 miles distant (to T*v Aryeo-riw ifiiripioy, Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272; 2tye<navu>v ifiir6piov, Ptol. iii. 4. § 4). This emporium seems to have grown up in the days of Strabo to be a more important place than Segesta itself: but the continued existence of the ancient city is attested both by Pliny and Ptolemy; and we learn from the former that the inhabitants, though they no longer retained their position of nominal independence, enjoyed the privileges of the Latin citizenship. (Strab. I. c.; Plin. iii. 8. s. 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 15.) It seems, however, to have been a decaying place, and no trace of it is subsequently found in history. The site is said to have been finally abandoned, in consequence of the ravages of the Saracens, in A. D. 900 (Amico, ad FazelL Sic. vii. 4. not 9), and is now wholly desolate ; but the town of Ccuiett 'a Mare, about 6 miles distant, occupies nearly, if not precisely, the same site as the ancient emporium or port of Segesta.

The site of the ancient city is still marked by the ruins of a temple and theatre, the former of which is one of the most perfect and striking ruins in Sicily. It stands on a hill, about 3 miles N\V. of Calatqfimi, in a very barren and open situation. It is of the Doric order, with six columns in front and fourteen on each side (all, except one, quite perfect, and that only damaged), forming a parallelogram of 162 feet by 66. From the columns not being fluted, they have rather a heavy aspect; but if due allowance be made for this circumstance, the architecture is on the whole a light order of Doric; and it is probable, therefore, that the temple is not of very early date. From the absence of fluting, as well as other details of the architecture, there can be no doubt that it never was finished,—the work probably being interrupted by some political catastrophe. This temple appears to have stood, as was often the case, outside the walls of the city, at a short distance to the W. of it The latter occupied the summit of a hill of small extent, at the foot of which flows, in a deep valley or ravine, the torrent now called the Fiwae Gaggera, a confluent of the Fiume di S. Bartolomeo, which flows about 5 miles E. of Segesta. The latter is probably the ancient Crimisns [cbimisus], celebrated for the great victory of Timoleon over the Carthaginians, while tlie Gaggera must probably be the stream culled by Diodorus (xx 71) theScaniander


Two other streams are mentioned by Aelian (V.E. ii. 33) in connection with Segesta, the Telmessus and the Porpax; but we are wholly at a loss to determine them. Some vestiges of the ancient walls may still be traced; but almost the only ruins which remain within the circuit of the ancient city are those of the theatre. These have lieen lately cleared out, and exhibit the praecinetio and sixteen rows of seats, great part in good preservation. The general form and arrangement are purely Greek; and the building rests at the back on the steep rocky slope of the hill, out of which a considerable part of it has been excavated. It is turned towards the N. and commands a fine view of the broad bay of Castell 'a Mare. (For a more detailed account of the antiquities of Segesta, see Swinburne's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 231 — 235; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 67, 68; and especially Serra di Falco, Antichita delta Sicilia, vol. i. pt. ii.) Ancient writers mention the existence in the territory of Segesta of thermal springs or waters, which seem to have enjoyed considerable reputation (ta rjep.ua voara Alyea-Taia, Strab. vi. p. 275; &epfj.a \ovrpa. Ta 'Eyearola, Diod. iv. 23). These are apparently the sulphureous springs at a spot called Calametti, about a mile to the N. of the site of the ancient city. (Fazell. Sic. vii. 4.) They are mentioned in the Itinerary as "Aquae Segestanae sive Pincianae" (/fm. Ant. p. 91); but the origin of the latter name is wholly unknown.

The coins of Segesta have the figure of a dog on the reverse, which evidently alludes to the fable of the river-god Crimisus, the mythical parent of Aegestus, having assumed that form. (Sen-, ad A en. i. 550, v. 30; Eckhel, vol. i. 234.) The older coins (as already observed) uniformly write the name 2ErE2TA, as on the one annexed: those of later date, which are of .opper only, bear the legend ErE2TAinN (Eckhel, /. c. p. 236). [E. H. B.]



SEGESTA (Sestri), a town on the coast of Ligaria, mentioned by Pliny, in describing the coast of that country from Genua to the Macra. (Piin. iii. 5. s. 7.) He calls it Segesta Tigulliorum; so that it seems to have belonged to a tribe of the name of the Tigullii, and a town named Tigullia is mentioned by him just before. Segesta is commonly identified with Sestri (called Sestri di Levante to distinguish it from another place of the name), a considerable town about 30 miles from Genoa, while Tigullia is probably represented by Tregoso, a village about 2 miles further inland, where there are considerable Roman remains. Some of the MSS. of Pliny, indeed, have " Tigullia intus, et Segesta Tigulliorum," which would seem to point clearly to this position of the two places. (Sillig, ad foa) It is probable, also, that the Tegulata of the Itineraries (/tin. Ant. p. 293) is identical with the Tigullia of Pliny. [E. H. B.]

SEGESTA, or SEGESTICA. [siscia.] SEGIDA (JStyita, Strabo iii. p. 162). 1. A

town of the Arevaci in Hispania Tarraconensis. According to Appian, who calls it Sry^Jj) (vi. 44), it belonged to the tribe of the Belli, and was 40 stadia in circumference. Stephanus B. (s. p.) calls it ieyitn, and makes it a town of the Celtiberians, of whom indeed the Arevaci and Belli were only subordinate tribes. Segida was the occasion of the first Celtiberian War (Appian, I. a), and was probably the same place called Segestica by Livy (xxxiv. 17).

2. A town of Hispania Baetica, with the surname Restitute Julia. (Plin. iii. 1. s. 3.) [T. H. D.]

SEGISA (S<T«ro, Ptol. ii. 6. § 61), a town of the Bastitani in Hispania Tarraconensis, perhaps the modem Sehegin. [T. H. D.]

SEGl'SAMA and SEGISAMA JU'LIA (2fy'ura/ia 'lov\la, Ptol. ii. 6. § 50), a town of His pania Tarraconensis. We find the inhabitants men. tioned by Pliny as Segisamajulienses (iii. 3. s- 4). Ptolemy ascribes the town to the Vaccaei, but Pliny to the Turmodigi, whence we may probably conclude that it lay on the borders of both those tribes. The latter author expressly distinguishes it from Segisamo. [T. H. D.J

SEGISAMO. [seoksama.]

SEGISAMUKCLUM. [segasamuxcxum.]

SEGNI, a German tribe in Belgium, mentioned by Caesar (£. G. vi. 32) with the Condrusi, and placed between the Eburones and the Treviri. In B. G. ii. 4 Caesar speaks of the Condrusi, Eburones, Caeraesi, and Paemani, " qui uno nomine Gennani appellantur;" but he does not name the Segni in that passage. There is still a place named Sinei or Signei near Condros, on the borders of Namur; and this may indicate the position of the Segni. [G. L.}

SEGOBO'DIUM in Gallia, placed in the Table on a road from Andoinntunum (Langres) to Vesontio (Besancon). The Itin. gives the same road, but omits Scgobodium. D'Anville supposes Segobodium to be Seveux, which is on the Saone, and in the direction between Besancon and J^angres. [G. L-]

SEGOBRI'GA (2€7<>s>-ya, Ptol. ii. 6. § 58). 1. The capital of the Celtiberi in Hispania Tarraconensis. (Plin. iii. 3. s. 4.) It lay SW. of Caesaraugusta, and in the jurisdiction of Carthago Nora. (Plin. I. a) The surrounding district was celebrated for its talc or selenite. (Id. xxxvi. 22. s. 45.) It must have been in the neighbourhood of Priego, where, near Pennaescrite, considerable ruins are still to be found. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vii. p. 61.) For coins see Sestini, i. p. 193. (Cf. Strab. iii. p. 162; Front. Strat. iii. 10. 6.)

2. A town of the Edetani in Hispania Tarraconensis, known only from inscriptions and coins, the modern Segorbe. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. v. p. 21, viii. p. 97, and Med. pp. 573, 650; Mionnet, i. p. 50, and Supp. i. p. 102.) [T. H. D.]

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SEGODU'NUM (IryiUmr). Ptolemy (ii. 1. § 21) calls Segodunum the chief town of the Ruteni [rutehi], a Gallic people west of the Rhone, in the Aquitania of Ptolemy. In some editions of Ptolemy the reading is Segodunum or Etodunum. In the Table the name is Segodum, which is probably a corrupt form; and it has the mark of a chief town. It was afterwards called Givitas Rutenorum, whence the modern name Rodez, on the Aveyron, in the department of Aveyron, of which it is the chief town. [G. L.]

SEGODU'NUM (SfyoJWoi-), a town of southern Germany, probably in the country of the Hermunduri, is, according to some, the modern Wurzburg. (Ptol. ii. II. § 29; comp. Wilhelm, Germanien, p. 209.) [L. S.]

SEGO'NTIA. 1. A town of the Celtiberi in Hispania Tarraconensis, 16 miles from Caesaraugusta. (/fin. Ant. pp 437,439.) Most probably identical with the Seguntia of Livy (xxxiv. 19). The modem Jiueda, according to Lapie.

2. (Styomia Tlapifuxa, Ptol.ii. 6. § 66), a town of the Barduli in HispaniaTarraconensis. [T. H. D.]

SEGONTIACI, a people in the S. part of Britannia, in Hampshire. (Camden, pp. 84, 146; Caes. B. Q. T. 21; Orelli, Inter. 2013.) [T. H. D.]

SEGO'NTIUM, a city iu the NW. part of Britannia Secunda, whence thero was a road to Deva. (/(in. Ant. p. 482.) It is the modern Caernarvon, the little river by which is still called Sejont. (Camden, p. 798.) It is called Seguntio by the Geogr. Rav. (v. 31). [T. H. D.]

SEGORA, in Gallia, appears in the Table on a road from Portus Namnetum (Nantes') to Limunum, or Limonum (Poitiers). D'Anville supposes that Segora is Bressuire, which is on the road from Nantes to Poitiers. [G. L.]

SEGOSA, in Gallia, is placed by the Antonine Itin. on a road from Aquae Tarbellicae (pax) to Burdigala (Bordeaux). The first station from Aquae rarbellicae is Mosconnuin, or Mostomium, the site of which is unknown. The next is Segosa, which D'Anville fixes at a place named Escousse or Estourse. But he observes that the distance, 28 Gallic leagues, between Aquae and Segosa is less than the distance in the Itin. [G. I>.J

SEGOVELLAUNI. [seoallauki.]

SEGO'VIA (SfyovSia, Ptol. ii. 6. § 56). 1. A town of the Arevaci in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from Emerita to Caesaraugusta. (Itin. Ant. p. 435; Phn. iii. 3. s. 4; Flor. iii. 22.) It stiil exists under the ancient name. For coins see Florez (Med. ii. p. 577), Mionnet (i. p. 51, and Suppl. i. p. 104), and Scstini (p. 196).

2. A town of Hispania Baetica, on the river Silicense. (Hirt. /)'. A. 57.) In the neighbourhood of Sscili or the modern Perabad. [T. H. D.]

SEGUSIA'NI (Zcyoouwoi or ^yovatavoi), a Gallic people. When Caesar (b. C. 58) was leading against the Helvetii the troops which he had raised in Korth Italy, he crossed the Alps and reached the territory of the Allobroges. From the territory of the Allobroges he crossed the Rhone into the country of the Segusiani: 11 Hi sunt extra Provinciam trans Rhodanum primi." (B. G.\. 10.) He therefore places them in the angle between the Rhone and the Same, for he was following the Helvetii, who had not yet crossed the Same. In another place (vii. 64) ho speaks of the Acdui and Segusiani as bordering on the Provincia, and the Segusiani were dependents of the Aedui (vii. 75). Strabo (iv. p. 186) places the

Segusiani between the Rhodanus and the Dubis (Doubs), on which D'Anville remarks that ha ought to have placed them between the Rhone and the Loire. But part of the Segusiani at least were west of the Rhone in Caesar's time, as he plainly tells us, and therefore some of them were between the Rhone and the Doubs, though this is a very inaccurate way of fixing their position, for the Daubs ran through the territory of the Sequani. Lugdunum was in the country of the Segusiani. [luqdunum.] Pliny gives to the Segusiani the name of Liberi (iv. 18).

In Cicero's oration Pro P. Quintio (c. 25), a Gallic people named Sebaguinos, Sebaginnos, with several other variations, is mentioned. The reading 1 Sebu8ianos" is a correction of Lambinus. Baiter (Orelh's Cicero, 2nd ed.) has written " Segusiavos n in this passage of Cicero on his own authority; but there is no name Segusiavi in Gallia. It is probable that the true reading is " Segusianos." Ptolemy (ii. 8. § 14) names Rodumna (Roanne) and Forum Segusianorum as the towns of the Segusiani, which shows that the Segusiani in his time extended to the Loire [hodumna]; and the greater part of their territory was probably west of the Rhone and Saone. Mionnet, quoted by Ukert (Gallien, p. 320), has a medal which he supposes to belong to the Segusiani. [G. I..]

SEGU'SIO (ieyoiawv: Eth. Xtyovauwis, Segusinus : Susa), a city of Gallia Transpadana, situated at the fuoL of the Cottiun Alps, in the valley of the Duria (Dora Riparia), at the distance of 35 miles from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin). It was the capital of the Gaulish king or chieftain Cottius, from whom the Alpes Cottiae derived their name, and who became, in the reign of Augustus, a tributary or dependent ally of the Roman Empire. Hence, when the other Alpine tribes were reduced to subjection by Augustus, Cottius retained the government of his territories, with the title of Fraefectus, and was able to transmit them to his son, M. Julius Cottius, upon whom the emperor Claudius even conferred the title of king. It was not till after the death of the younger Cottius, in the reign of Nero, that this district was incorporated into the Roman Empire, and Segusio became a Roman municipal town. (Strab. iv. pp. 179, 204; Phn. iii. 20. s. 24; Amm. Marc. XT. 10.)

It was probably from an early period the chief town in this part of the Alps and the capital of the surrounding district. It is situated just at the junction of the route leading from the Mmt Genevre down the valley of the Dora with that which crosses the Mont Cenis; both these passages were among the natural passes of the Alps, and were doubtless in use from a very early period, though the latter seems to have been unaccountably neglected by the Romans. The road also that was in most frequent use in the latter ages of the Republic and the early days of the Empire to arrive at the pass of the Cottiau Alps or Mont Genevre, was not that by Segusio up the valley of the Duria, but one which ascended the valley of Fenestrellet to Ocelum (Uxeau), and from thence crossed the Col de Sestrieres to Scingomagus (at or near Cesanne), at the foot of the actual pass of the Genevre. This was the route taken by Caesar in B. c. 58, and appears to have still been the one most usual in the days of Strabo (Caes. B. G. i. 10; Strab. iv. p. 179); but at a later period the road by Segusio seems to have come into general use, and is that given in the Itineraries. (Itin. Ant pp. 311, S57.) Of Segusio as a mnnicipal town we hear little; but it is mentioned as such both by Pliny and Ptolemy, and its continued existence is proved by inscriptions as well as the Itineraries; and we learn that it continued to be a considerable town, and a military poBt of importance, as commanding the passes of the Alps, until long after the fall of the Western Empire. (Plin. iii. 17. s. 21; Ptol. iii. 1. § 40; Gruter, Inscr. p. 111. 1; Orell. Inter. 1690, 3803; Amm. Marc. xv. 10; Itm. Bier. p. 556; P. Diac. Bitt. Lang. iii. 8; Greg. Tur. iv. 39.)

AmmianuB tells us that the tomb of Cottius was Still risible at Segusio in his time, and was the object of much honour and veneration among the inhabitants (Amm. L &). A triumphal arch erected by him in honour of Augustus is still extant at Suta; it enumerates the names of the 11 Civitates " which were subject to his rule, and which were fourteen in number, though Pliny speaks of the " Cottianae civitates xiL" (Plin. iii. 20. s. 24; Orell. Inter. 626.) All these are, however, mere obscure mountain tribes, and the names of most of them entirely unknown. Sis dominions extended, according to Strabo, across the mountains as far as Ebrodunum in the land of the Caturiges (Strab. iv. p. 179); and this is confirmed by the inscription which enumerates the Caturiges and Medulli among the tribes subject to his authority. These are probably the two omitted by Pliny. Ocelum, in the valley of the Clutone, was comprised in the territory of Cottius, while its limit towards the Taurini was marked by the station Ad Fines, placed by the Itineraries on the road to Augusta Taurinorum. But the distances given in the Itineraries are incorrect, and at variance with one another. Ad Fines may probably be placed at or near AviylUma, 15 miles from Turin, and 20 from Susa. The mountain tribes called by Pliny the "Cottianae civitates," when united with the Roman government, at first received only the Latin franchise (Plin. L c); but as Segusio became a Roman municipium, it must have received the full franchise. [E. H. B.]

SEGUSTERO, a name which occurs in the Antonine Itin. and in the Table, is a town of Gallia Narbonensis, and the nume is preserved in Sisteron, the chief town of an arrondissement in the department of Battel Alpet, on the right bank of the Durance. Roman remains have been found at Sitteron. The name in the Notit. Prov. Galliae is Civitas Segesteriorum. It was afterwards called Segesterium, and Sistericum, whence the modern name comes. (D'Anville, Notice, #c.) [G. L.]

SKIR, M. (Snelp, LXX. Hetpa, Xfaipov, Joseph). u The land of Seir" is equivalent to " the country of Edom." (Gen. xxxii. 3.) Mount Seir was the dwelling of Esau and his posterity (xxxvi. 8, 9; Deutn. 4,5), in the possession of which they were not to be disturbed. (Joth. xxiv. 4.) Its general situation is defined in Deuteronomy (i. 2) between Horeb and Kadesh Barnea. The district must have been extensive, for in their retrograde movement from Kadesh, which was in Seir (i. 44), tho Israelites compassed Monnt Seir many days (ii. 1,3). The original inhabitants of Mount Seir were the Horims; "but the children of Esau succeeded them, when they had destroyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead" (ii. 12, 22; comp. Gen. xiv. 6). It obviously derived its name from " Seir the Horite" (xxxvi. 20, 21), and not, as Josephus erroneously supposes, from the Hebrew TyE£* = hirsute*. (Ant. i. 20. §3.) The range bordering Wady Araba u> markeJ if. Shear in some modern maps,

but without sufficient authority for the name. Dr. Wilson confines the name to the eastern side of the Araba, from a little north of Petra to the Gulf of Akabah, which range he names Jebel-eth-Sherah {Lands of ike Bible, vol. L pp. 289,290, 337, 340); but since Kadesh was in Seir, it is obvious that this name must have extended much more widely, and on both sides the Araba. Mr. Rowlands heard the name Et-Serr given to an elevated plain to the east of Kadesh, which must, he thinks, be the Seir alluded to in Dent. i. 44, where the Israelites were chased before the Amalekites. (Williams's Holy City, vol. i. appendix, p. 465.) [G. W.]

SEIRAE. [psophis.]

SELACHUSA, an island lying off the Argolic promontory of Speiraeum, mentioned only by Pliny (iv. 12. s. 57).

SELAH. [petra.]

SELAMBINA (2r)\d>Su>a, Ptol. ii. 4. § 7), a town on the coast of Hispania Baetica between Sex andAbdera. (Plin. iii. 1. a. 3.) Florez (Etp. Sagr. xii. pp. 3, 6) identifies it with Calabrena, but, according to Ukert (ii.p. i. p. 351), it is to be sought in the neighbourhood of Sorbitan. [T. H. D.]

SELAS. [messenia, p. 342, b.]

SELASIA. [sellasia.]

SELEMNUS. [aohaia, p. 13, b. No. 10.]

SELENTIS or SELENITIS(2fX.w(s orS«Ao-iTij) a district in the south-west part of Cilicia, extending along the coast, but also some distance in the interior; it derived its name from the town of Selinus. (Ptol. v. 8. §§ 2, 5.) [L. S.]

SELENU'SIAE (2t\nmuelcu)or SELENXU TES two lakes formed by the sea, north of the mouth of the Caystrus, and not far from the temple of the Ephesian Artemis. These two lakes, which communicated with each other, were extremely rich in fish, and formed part of the revenue of the temple of Artemis, though they were on several occasions wrested from it. (Strab. xiv. p. 642; Plin. v. 31.) The nameof the lakes, derived from Selene, the incpon-goddess,or Artemis, probably arose from their connection with the great goddess of Ephesns. (Comp. Chandler's Travel* in Asia Minor, vol. L p. 162.) [L. S.]

SELEUCEIA or SELEUCIA, two towns in Syria.

1. Ad Bblum (SeAeuKcta irpbs BTjXa-). sometimes called Seleucobelus, situated in the district of Cassiotis, placed by Ptolemy in long. 69° 30', lat. 34° 45'. The Belus was a tributary of the Orontes, running into it from the W., and since, as Pococke remarks, Seleucia was exactly in the same latitude as I'altos, it must have been due E. of it. Now Boldo. the ancient Paltos, lies two hours S. of Jebilce, ancient Gabala, on the coast. Seleucia ad Belum must be looked for 1° 10' to the E., according to Ptolemy's reckoning, who places Paltos in long. 63° 20', lat. 34° 45'. Modern conjecture has identified it with Shogh and Divertigi, which is placed 30 miles E. of Antioch. (Ptol. v. 15. §16; Pococke, Syria. vol. ii. p. 199.) Pliny mentions it with another not elsewhere recognised, in the interior of Syria: "Seleucias praeter jam die tan i (i. e. Pieria), duas, quae ad Euphratem, et quae ad Belum vocautur " (v. 23. §19).

2. Pieria (StKdxtia TSitpla : Eth. SeAewctui), a maritime city of Syria, placed by Ptolemy in long. 68° 36', lat. 35° 26', between Rhossus and the mouths of the Orontes. Its ancient name, according to Strabo, was "Rivers of Water" ("tsotos Woto. juof), a strong city, called Free by Poinpey (Strab. xvi.

2. § 8). Its position is fully described by Polybins.

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