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It was situated on the sea between Cilicia and Phoenice, over against a large mountain called Corypliaeum, the base of which was washed on its W. Bide by the sea, towards the E. it dominated the districts of Antioch and Selencis. Seleucia lay on the S. of this mountain, separated from it by a deep and rugged valley. The city extended to the sea through broken ground, but was surrounded for the most part by precipitous and abrupt rocks. On the side towards the sea lay the factory (rd ifaropeia) and suburb, on the level ground, strongly fortified. The whole hollow (icrrot) of the city was likewise strongly fortified with fine walls, and temples,and buildings. It had one approach on the sea side, by an artificial road in steps (itAi/uworrfc'), distributed into frequent and continuous slopes(cuttings?—4fK\liwai) and curves (tunnels?—<riraiifyia<ri). TheemAoacAurdof theOrontes was not far distant—40 stadia, according to St rabo (xvi. p. 750). It was built by Seleucus Nicator (died B. c. 280), and was of great importance, in a military view, during the wars between the Seleucidae and the Ptolemies. It was taken by Ptolemy Euergetes on his expedition into Syria, and held by an Egyptian garrison until the time of Antiochos tlie Great, who, at the instigation of Apollophanes, a Seleucian, resolved to recover it from Ptolemy Philopator (cir. B. c. 220), in order to remove the disgrace of an Egyptian garrison in the heart of Syria, and to obviate the danger which it threatened to his operations in Coele-Syria, being, as it was, a principal city, and well nigh, so to speak, the proper home of the Syrian power. Having sent the fleet against it, under the admiral Diognetus, he himself marched with his army from Apameia, and encamped near the Hippodrome, 5 stadia from the city. Having in vain attempted to win it by bribery, he divided his forces into three parts, of which une under Zeuxis made the assault near the gate of Antioch, a second under Hermogenes near the temple of the Dioscuri, the third under Ardys and Diognetus by the arsenal and suburb, which was first carried, whereupon the garrison capitulated (Polyb. v. 58—60). It was afterwards a place of arms in the further prosecution of the war against Ptolemy (66). The Mount Coryphaeum of Polybius is the Pieria of Ptolemy and Strabo, from which the town derived its distinguishing appellation. Strabo mentions, from Posidonius, that a kind of asphaltic soil was quarried in this place, which, when spread over the roots of the vine, acted as a preservative against blight (vii. p. 316.) He calls.it thefirst city of the Syrians, from Cilicia, and states its distance from Soli, in a straight course, a little less than 1000 stadia (xiv. p. 676). It was one of the four cities of the Tetrapolis, which was a synonym for the district of Selencis, the others being Antioch, Apameia, and Laodiceia, which were called sister cities, being all founded by Seleucus Nicator, and called by the names respectively of himself, hU father, his wife, and his mother-in-law; that bearing his father's name being the largest, that bearing his own, the strongest (Strab. xvi. p. 749.) The auguries attending its foundation are mentioned by John Malalas (Chronoffraphia, lib. viii. p. 254). It became the port of Antioch, and there it was that St. Paul and Barnabas embarked for Cyprus, on their first mission to Asia Minor (Actt, xiii. 4), the Orontes never having been navigable even as far as Antioch for any bnt vessels of light draught. Pliny calls it " Seleucia libera Pieria," and describes it as situated on a promontory (v. 21) clxxv. M. P. distant from Zeugma on the Euphrates '12). He de

signates the Coryphaeum of Polybius, the Pieria of Strabo, Mount Casius, a name also extended by Strabo to the mountains about Seleucia, where he speaks of the Antiocheans celebrating a feast to Triptolemus as a demigod, in Mount Cassius around Seleucia (xvi. p. 750). The ruins of the site have been fully explored and described in modern times, first by Pococke (Obiervations on Syria, chap. xxii. p. 162, &c), who identified many points noticed by Polybius, and subsequently by Col. Chesney {Journal of the R. Geoff. Society, vol. viii. p. 228, &c). The mountain range noticed by Polybius is now called Jebel Muta; and the hill on which the city stood appears to be the " low mountain, called £in-Kil(teh,n or the 1000 churches. Part of the site of the town was occupied, according to Pococke, by the village of Kepse, situated about a mile from the sea. The masonry of the once magnificent port of Seleucia is still in so good a state that it merely requires trifling repairs in some places, and to be cleaned out; a project contemplated, but not executed, by one AH Pasha, when governor of Aleppo. The plan of the port, with its walls and basins, its piers, floodgates, and defences, can be distinctly traced. The walls of the suburb, with its agora, the double line of defence of the inner city, comprehending in their circumference about 4 miles, which is filled with ruins of houses; its castellated citadel on the summit of the hill, the gate of Antioch on the SE. of the site, with its pilasters and towers, near which is a double row of marble columns; large remains of two temples, one of which was of the Corinthian order; the amphitheatre, near which Antiocbus encamped, before his assault npon the city, with twenty-fuur tiers of benches still to be traced; the numerous rocky excavations of the necropolis, with the sarcophagi, always of good workmanship, now broken and scattered about in all directions, all attest the ancient importance of the city, and the fidelity of the historian who has described it. Most remarkable of all in this view is the important engineering work, to which Polybius alludes as the only communication between the city and sea, fully described by Col. Chesney, as the most striking of the interesting remains of Seleucia. It is a very extensive excavation, cut through the solid rock from the KE. extremity of the town almost to the sea, part of which is a deep hollow way, and the remainder regular tunnels, between 20 and 30 feet wide, and as many high, executed with great skill and considerable labour. From its eastern to its western extremity is a total length of 1088 yards, the greater part of which is traversed by an aqueduct carried along the face of the rock, considerably above the level of the road. Its termination is rough and very imperfect, about 30 feet above the level of the sea; and while the bottom of the rest of the excavation is tolerably regular, in this portion it is impeded by large masses of rock lying across it at intervals: which would imply either that it was never completed, or that it was finished in this part with masonry, which may have been carried off for building purposes. It is, perhaps, in this part that the stairs mentioned by Polybius may have been situated, in order to form a communication with the sea. There can be no doubt whatever that this excavation is the passage mentioned by him as the sole communication between the city and the sea ; and it is strange that any question should have arisen concerning its design. A rough plan of the site is given bi Pococke (p. 183); but a much more

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SELEUCEIA or SELEUCIA (2f*fiW). I. A town near the northern frontier of Pisidia, surnamed Sidera (yi 2i*i)p«, Ptol. v. 5. § 4; Hierocl. p. 673), probably on account of iron-works in its vicinity. There are some coins of this place with the image of the Asiatic divinity Men, who was worshipped at Antioch, and bearing the inscriptionKAavStaaetevntwv, which might lead to the idea that the place was restored by the emperor Claudius. (Scstini, Man. Vet. p. 96.) Its site is now occupied by the town of Ejerdir.

2. A town in Patnphylia between Side and the mouth of the river Eurymcdon, at a distance of 80 stadia from Side, and at some distance from the sea. {Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. § 216.)

3. An important town of Cilicia, in a fertile plain on the western bank of the Calycadnus, a few miles above its mouth, was founded by Seleucus I., surnamed Nicator. A town or towns, however, had previously existed on the spot under the names of Olbia and Hyria, and Seleucus seems to have only extended and united them in one town under the name Seleucia. The inhabitants of the neighbouring Holmi were at the same time transferred to the new town, which was well built, and in a style very different from that of other Cilician and Pamphylian cities. (Steph. B. s. v.; Strab. xiv. p. 670.) In situation, climate, and the richness of its productions, it rivalled the neighbouring Tarsus, and it was much frequented on account of the annual celebration of the Olympia. and on account of the oracle of Apollo. (Zosim. i. 57; Basil. Vila S. Theclae, i. p. 275, Orat. xxvii. p. 148.) Pliny (v. 27) states that it was surnamed Tracheotis; and some ecclesiastical historians, speaking of a council held there, call the town simply Trachea (Sozom. iv. 16; Socrat. ii. 39; comp. Ptol. v. 8. § 5; Amm. Marc. xiv. 25; Oros. vii. 12.) The town still exists under the name of Sekfhieh, and its ancient remains arc scattered over a large extent of ground on the west side of the Calycadnus. The chief remains are those of a theatre, in the front of which there are considerable ruins, with porticoes and other large buildings: farther on are the ruins of a temple, which had been converted into a Christian church, and several large Corinthian columns. Ancient Seleuceia, which appears to have remained a free city ever since the time of Augustus, remained in the same condition even after a great portion of Cilicia was given to Arehelaus of Cappadocia, whence both imperial and autonomous coins of the place are found. Seleuceia was the birthplace of several men of eminence, such as the peripatetics Atbcnaeus and Xeuarchus, who flourished in the

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4. Seleucia in Caria [tralles.] [L. S.J SELEUCEIA or SELEUCIA (2t\t<i«ia, Polyb. 48; Strab. xi. p. 521; Ptol. v. 18. § 8), a large city near the right bank of the Tigris, which, to distinguish it from several other towns of the same name, is generally known in history by the title of 2(Aeiire<a M Tip Tiyprrri. (Strab. xvi. p. 738; Appian, Syr. 57.) It was built by Seleucus Nicator (Strab. I.e.; Plin. vi. 26. s. 30; Tacit. Aim. vi. 42; Joseph. Ant. Jud. xviii. 9. § 8; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 20), and appears to have been placed near the junction with the Tigris, of the great dyke which was carried across Mesopotamia from the Euphrates to the Tigris, and which bore the name of Nahar Malcha (the royal river). (Plin. L c, and Isid. Char. p. 5.) Ptolemy states that the artificial river divided it into two parts (v. 18. § 8). On the other hand, Theophylact states that both rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, surrounded it like a rampart —by the latter, in all probability, meaning the Nahar Malcha (v. 6). It was situated about 40 miles NE. of Babylon (according to Strabo, 300 stadia, and to the Tab. Peutinger., 44 M.P.). In form, its original structure is said to have resembled an eagle with its wings outspread. (Plin. I c.) It was mainly constructed of materials brought from Babylon, and was one principal cause of the ruin of the elder city, as Ctesiphon was (some centuries later) of Seleuceia itself. (Strab. xvi. p. 738.) It was placed in a district of great fertility, and is said, in its best days, to have had a population of 600,000 persons. (Plin. I. c.) Strabo adds, that it was even larger than Antiocheia Syriae,—at his time probably the greatest commercial entrepot in the East, with the exception of Alexandreia (xvi. p. 750). Even so late as the period of its destruction its population is still stated to have amounted to half a million. (Eutrop. v. 8; comp. Oros. viii. 5.) To its commercial importance it doubtless owed the free character of its local government, which appears to have been administered by means of a senate of 300 citizens. Polybins states that, on the overthrow of Molon, the Median rebels Antiochus and Hermeias descended on Seleuceia, which had been previously taken by Molon, and, after punishing the people by torture and the infliction of a heavy fine, exiled the local magistracy, who were called Adciganae. ('ASe^dvat, Polyb. v. 54.) Their love of freedom and of independent government was, however, of longer duration. (Plin. 1. c; Tacit. Ann. vi. 42.)

Seleuceia owed its ruin to the wars of the Romans with the P.irthians and other eastern nations. It is first noticed in that between Crass us and Orodes (Dion Cass. xl. 20); but it would seem

that Crassus did nut himself reach Seleuceia. On the advance of Trajan from Asia Minor, Seleuceia was taken by Eracins Claras and Julius Alexander, and partially burnt to the ground (Dion Cass, lxviii. 30); and a few years later it was still more completely destroyed by Cassius, the general of Lucius Verus, during the war with Vologeses. (Dion Cass, lxxi. 2; Eutrop. v. 8; Capitol. Verus, c. 8.) When Severus, during the Parthian War, descended the Euphrates, he appears to have found Seleuceia and Babylon equally abandoned and desolate. (Dion Cass. 1mv. 9.) Still later, in his expedition to the East, Julian found the whole country round Seleuceia one vast marsh full of wild game, which his soldiers hunted. (Amm. Marc. xxiv. 5.) It would seem from the indistinct notices of some authors, that Seleuceia once bore the name of Cocbe.

[COCHE.] [V.]

SELEUCIS (2€A€UKfs), a district of Syria, mentioned by Ptolemy,as containing the cities of Gephura, Gindarus, and Imma (v. 15. § 15). Strabo calls it the best, of all the districts: it was also called Tetrapolis, on account of its four most important cities, for it had many. These four were, Antioch, Seleuceia in Pieria, Apameia, and Laodiceia (xvi. p. 749). It also comprehended, according to Strabo, four satrapies ; and it is clear that he uses the name in a much wider sense than Ptolemy, who places the four cities of the tetrapolis of Strabos Seleucis in so many separate districts; Antioch in Cassiotis, Apameia in Apamene, Laodiceia in Laodicene, while lie only implies, but does not state, that Seleuceia lies in Seleucis. [G. W.]

SELGE Eth. SeA-yetSs), an important

city in Pisidia, on the southern slope of Mount Taurus, at the part where the river Eurymedon forces its way through the mountains towards the south. The town was believed to be a Greek colony, for Strabo (xii. p. 520) states that it was founded by Lacedaemonians, but adds the somewhat unintelligible remark that previously it had been founded by Calchas (Comp. Pulyb. v. 76; Steph. B. *. p.; Dion. Per. 858). The acropolis of Selge bore the name of Cesbedium (KecrtfeStoF; Polyb. I. c.) The district in which the town was situated was extremely fertile, producing abundance of oil and wine, but the town itself was difficult of access, being surrounded by precipices and beds of torrents flowing towards the Eurymedon and Cestrus, and requiring bridges to make them passable. In consequence of its excellent laws and political constitution, Selge rose to the rank of the most powerful and populous city of Pisidia, and at one time was able to send an army of 20,000 men into the field. Owing to these circumstances, and the valour of its inhabitants, for which they were regarded as worthy kinsmen of the Lacedaemonians, the Selgians were never subject to any foreign power, but remained in the enjoyment of their own freedom and independence. When Alexander the Great passed through Pisidia, the Selgians sent an embassy to him and gained bis favour and friendship. (Arrian, A nab. i. 28.) At that time they were at war with the Telmissians. At the period when Achaeus had made himself master of Western Asia, the Selgians were at war with Pednelissus, which was besieged by them; and Achaeus, on the invitation of Pednelissus, sent a large force against Selge. After a long and vigorous siege, the Selgians, being betrayed and despairing of resisting Achaeus any longer, sent deputies to sue for peace, which was granted to them on the fol

lowing terms: they agreed to pay immediately 400 talents, to restore the prisoners of Pednelissus, and after a time to pay 300 talents in addition. (Polyb. v. 72—77.) We now have for a long time no particulars about the history of Selge; in the fifth century of our era Zosimus (v. 15) calls it indeed a little town, but it was still strong enough to repel a body of Goths. It is strange that Pliny does not notice Selge, for we know from its coins that it was still a flourishing town in the time of Hadrian; and it is also mentioned in Ptolemy (v. 5. § 8) and Hierocles (p. 681). Independently of wine and oil, the country about Selge was rich in timber, and a variety of trees, among which the storax was much valued from its yielding a strong perfume. Selge was also celebrated for an ointment prepared from the iris root. (Strab. /. Plin. xii. 55, xxi. 19; comp. Liv. xxxv. 13.) Sir C. Fellows {Asia Minor, p. 171, foil.) thinks that he has discovered the ruins of Selge about 10 miles to the north-east of the village of Boojdk. They are seen on a lofty promontory 0 now presenting magnificent wrecks of grandeur." "I rode," says Sir Charles, "at least 3 miles through a part of the city, which was one pile of temples, theatres, and buildings, vying with each other in splendour..... The material of these ruins had suffered much from the exposure to the elements, being grey with a lichen which has eaten into the marble, and entirely destroyed the surface and inscriptions; but the scale, the simple grandeur, and the uniform beauty of style bespoke its date to be the early Greek. The sculptured cornices frequently contain groups of figures fighting, wearing helmets and body-armour, with shields and Jong spears; from the ill-proportioned figures and general appearance, they must rank in date with the Aegina marbles. The ruins are so thickly strewn, that little cultivation is practicable; but in the areas of theatres, cellas of temples, and any space where a plough can be used, the wheat is springing up. The general style of the temples is Corinthian, but not so florid as in less ancient towns. The tombs are scat tered for a mile from the town, and are of many kinds, some cut in chambers in face of the rock, others sarcophagi of the heaviest form: they have had inscriptions, and the ornaments are almost all martial; several seats remain among the tombs. I can scarcely guess the number of temples or columned buildings in the town, but I certainly traced fifty or sixty.... Although apparently unnecessary for defence, the town has had strong walls, partly built with large stones in the Cyclopean mode.... I never conceived so high an idea of the works of the ancients as from my visit to this place, Btanding as it does in a situation, as it were, above the world." It is to be regretted that it was impossible by means of inscriptions or coins to identify this place with the ancient Selge more satisfactorily. (Comp. Von Hammer, in the Wiener Jahrbifcher, vol. cvi. p. 92.) [L. S.]

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SELGOVAE (2«A7ooCoi, Ptol. ii. 3. § 8), a people on the S\V. coast uf Britannia Barbara, in the E. part of Galloway and in Dumfries-shire. Camden (p. 1194) derives the name of Solway from them. [T. H. D.]

SELl'NUS (2eAifo5i) 1. A village in the north of Laconia, described by Pausanias as 20 stadia from Geronthrae; but as Pansanias seems not to have visited this part of Laconia, the distances may not be correct. Leake, therefore, places Selinus at the village of Kosmasy which lies further north of Geronthrae than 20 stadia, but where there are remains of ancient tombs. (Pans. iii. 22. § 8; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 363; Boblaye, Recherche*, <fc. p. 97; Curtius, Pelopormesos, vol. ii. p. 304.)

2. A river in the Triphylian Elis, near Scillus. [scillus.]

3. A river in Achaia. [achaia, p. 13, b. No. 6.] SELl'NUS (SiXivovs: Eth. SeAii'oiWior, Seli

nuntius: Ru. at Torre dei Puici), one of the most important of the Greek colonies in Sicily, situated on the SW. coast of that island, at the mouth of the small river of the same name, and 4 miles W. of that of the Hypsas (BeCei). It was founded, as we learn from Thucydides, by a colony from the Sicilian city of Megara, or Megara Hyblaea, under the conduct of a leader named Pammilus, about 100 years after the settlement of that city, with the addition of a fresh body of colonists from the parent city of Megara in Greece. (Thuc. vi. 4, vii. 57 ; Scymn. Ch. 292; Strab. vi. p. 272.) The date of its foundation cannot be precisely fixed, as Thucydides indicates it only by reference to that of the Sicilian Megara, which is itself not accurately known, but it may be placed about B. c. 628. Diodoras indeed would place it 22 years earlier, or B. c. 650, and Hieronymus still further back, B. c. 654; but the date given by Thucydides, which is probably entitled to the most confidence, is incompatible with this earlier epoch. (Thuc. vi. 4; Diod. xiii. 59; Hieron. Chron. ad ann. 1362 ; Clinton, Fast. BelL vol. i. p. 208.) The name is supposed to have been derived from the quantities of wild parsley (o-fAivoi) which grew on the spot; and for the same reason a leaf of this parsley was adopted as the symbol of their coins.

Selinus was the most westerly of the Greek colonies in Sicily, and for this r-ason was early brought into contact and collision with the Carthaginians and the barbarians in the W. and NW. of the island. The fonner people, however, do not at first seem to have offered any obstacle to their progress; but as early as B. C. 580 we find the Selinuntines engaged in hostilities with the people of Segesta (a non-Hellenic city), whose territory bordered on their own. (Diod. v. 9). The arrival of a body of emigrants from Rhodes and Ciiidiis who subsequently founded Li para, and who lent their assistance to the Segestans, for a time secured the victory to that people; but disputes and hostilities seem to have been of frequent occurrence between the two cities, aud it is probable that in B. c. 454, when Diodorus speaks of the Segestans as being at war with the LUyhaeans (xi. 86), that the Sclinuntines are the people really meant. [lii.ybaeum.] The river Mazarus, which at that time appears to have formed the boundary between the two states, was only about 15 miles VV. of Selinus; and it is certain that at a somewhat later period the territory of Selinus ex'-ided to its banks, and that that city had a fort

and emporium at its mouth. (Diod. xiii. 54.) On the other side its territory certainly extended as far as the Halycus or Salso, at the mouth of which it had founded the colony of Minoa, or Heracleia, as it was afterwards termed. (Herod, v. 46.) It is evident, therefore, that Selinus had early attained to great power and prosperity; but we have very little information as to its history, We learn, however, that, like most of the Sicilian cities, it had passed from an oligarchy to a despotism, and about B. c 510 was subject to a despot named Peithagoras, from whom the citizens were freed by tbe assistance of the Spartan Euryleon, one of the companions of Dorieus: and thereupon Euryleon himself, for a short time, seized on the vacant sovereignty, but was speedily overthrown and put to death by the Selinuntines. (Herod, v. 46.) We are ignorant of the causes which led the Selinuntines to abandon the cause of the other Greeks, and take part with tbe Carthaginians during the great expedition of Hamilcar, B. C. 480; but we learn that they had even promised to send a contingent to the Carthaginian army, which, however did not arrive till after its defeat (Diod. xi. 21, xiii. 55.) The Selinuntines are next mentioned in B. a 466, as co-operating with the other free cities of Sicily in assisting the Syracusans to expel Thrasybnlus (Id. xi. 68); and there is every reason to suppose that they fully shared in the prosperity of the half century that followed, a period of tranquillity and opulence for most of the Greek cities in Sicily. Thucydides speaks of Selinus just before the Athenian expedition as a powerful and wealthy city, possessing great resources for war both by land and sea, and having large stores of wealth accumulated in its temples. (Thuc vi. 20.) Diodorus also represents it at the time of the Carthaginian invasion, as having enjoyed a long period of tranquillity, and possessing a numerous population. (Diod. xiii. 55.)

In B. c. 416, a renewal of the old disputes between Selinus and Segesta became the occasion of the great Athenian expedition to Sicily. The Selinuntines were the first to call in the powerful aid of Syracuse, and thus for a time obtained the complete advantage over their enemies, whom they were able to blockade both by sea and land; but in this extremity the Segestans had recourse to the assistance of Athens. (Thuc. vi. 6; Diod. xii. 82.) Though the Athenians do not appear to have taken any measures for tile immediate relief of Segesta, it is probable that the Selinuntines and Syracusans withdrew their forces at once, as we hear no more of their operations against Segesta. Nor does Selinus bear any important part in the war of which it was the immediate occasion. Nicias indeed proposed, when the expedition first arrived in Sicily (b. C. 415), that they should proceed at once to Selinus and compel that city to submit on moderate terms (Thuc. vi. 47); but this advice being overruled, the efforts of the armament were directed against Syracuse, and the Selinuntines in consequence bore but a secondary part in the subsequent operations. They are, however, mentioned on several occasions as furnishing auxiliaries to the Syracusans; and it was at Selinus that the large Peloponnesian force sent te the support of Gylippus landed in the spring of 413, having been driven over to the coast of Africa by a tempest. (Thuc vii. 50, 58; Diod. xiii. 12.)

The defeat of the Athenian armament left the Segestans apparently at the mercy of their rivals; they in vain attempted to disarm the hostility of the Selinui.tines by ceding without farther contest the frontier district which had been the original subject of dispute. But ihe Selinuntines were not satisfied with this concession, and continued to press them with fresh aggressions, for protection against which they sought assistance from Carthage. This •was, after some hesitation, accorded them, and a small force sent over at once, with the assistance of which the Segestans were able to defeat the Selinuntines in a battle. (Diod. xiii. 43, 44.) But not content with this, the Carthaginians in the following spring (b. C. 409) sent over a vast army amounting, according to the lowest estimate, to 100,000 men, with which Hanniba! (the grandson of Hamilcar that was killed at Himera) landed at Lilybaeum, ami from thence marched direct to Selinus. The Selinuntines were wholly unprepared to resist such a force; so little indeed had they expected it that the fortifications of their city were in many places uut of repair, and the auxiliary force which had been promised by Syracuse as well as by Agrigentum and < It-la. was not yet ready, and did not arrive iu time. The Selinuntines. indeed, defended themselves with the courage of despair, and even after the walls were carried, continued the contest from bouse to house; but the overwhelming numbers of the enemy rendered all resistance hopeless; and after a siege of only ten days the city was taken, and the greater part of the defenders put to the sword. Of the citizens of Selinus we are told that 16,000 were slain, 5000 made prisoners, and 2600 under the command of Empedion escaped to Agrigentum. (Diod. xiii. 54—59.) Shortly after Hannibal destroyed the walls of the city, but gave permission to the surviving inhabitants to return and occupy it, as tributaries of Carthage, an arrangement which was confirmed by the treaty subsequently concluded between Dionysius and the Carthaginians, in B.C. 405. (Id. xiii. 59, 114.) In the interval a considerable number of the survivors and fugitives had been brought together by Hermocrates, and established within its walls, (lb. 63.)

There can be no doubt that a considerable part of the citizens of Selinus availed themselves of this permission, and that the city continued to subsist under the Carthaginian dominion; but a fatal blow had been given to its prosperity, which it undoubtedly never recovered. The Selinuntines are again mentioned in B. c. 397 as declaring in favour of Dionysius during his war with Carthage (Diod. xiv. 47); but both the city and territory were again given up to the Carthaginians by the peace of 383 (Id. xv. 17); and though Dionysius recovered possession of it by arms shortly before his death (Id. xv. 73), it is probable that it soon again lapsed under the dominion of Carthage. The Halycua, which was established as the eastern boundary of the Carthaginian dominion in Sicily by the treaty of 383, seems to have generally continued to be so recognised, notwithstanding temporary interruptions; and was again fixed as their limit by the treaty with Agathocles in B. C. 314. (Id. xix. 71.) This last treaty expressly stimulated that Selinus, as well as Hcrat-leiu and Himera, should continue subject to Carthage, as before. In n. c. 276, however, during the expedition of Pyrrhus to Sicily, the Selinuntines voluntarily submitted to that monarch, after the capture of Heracleia. (Id. xxii. ii). Exc. II. p. 498.) During the First Punic War we again find Selinus subject to Carthage, and

its territory was repeatedly the theatre of military operations between the contending powers. (Id.

xxiii. 1, 21; Pol. i. 39.) But before the close of the war (about B. c. 250), when the Carthaginians were beginning to contract their operations, and confine themselves to the defence of as few points as possible, they removed all the inhabitants of Selinus to Lilybaeum and destroyed the city. (Diod.

xxiv. 1. Exc. H. p. 506.)

It seems certain that it was never rebuilt. Pliny indeed, mentions its name ("Selinus oppidum," iii. 8. s. 14), as if it was still existing as a town iu his time, but Strabo distinctly classes it with the cities which were wholly extinct; and Ptolemy, though he mentions the river Selinus, has no notice of a town of the name. (Strab. vi. p. 272; Ptol. iii. 4. § 5.) The Thermae Selinuntiae, which derived their name from the ancient city, and seem to have been much frequented in the time of the Romans, were situated at a considerable distance from Selinus, being undoubtedly the same as those now existing at Sciacca: they are sulphureous springs, still much valued for their medical properties, and dedicated, like most thennal waters in Sicily, to St. Calogero. At a later period they were called the Aquae Labodes or Larodes, under which name they appear in the Itineraries. (Hin. Ant. p. 89; Tab. Peut.) They are there placed 40 miles W. of Agrigentum, and 46 from Lilybaeum; distances which agree well with the position of Sciacca. This is distant about 20 miles to the £. of the ruins of Selinus.

The site of the ancient city is now wholly desolate, with the exception of a solitary guardhouse, and the ground is for the most part thickly overgrown with shrubs and low brushwood; but the remains of the walls can be distinctly traced throughout a great part of their circuit. They occupied the summit of a low hill, directly abutting on the sea, and bounded on the W. by the marshy valley through which flows the river Madiuni, the ancient Selinus; on the E. by a smaller valley or depression, also traversed by a small marshy stream, which separates it from a hill of similar character, where the remains of the principal temples are still visible. The space enclosed by the existing walls is of small extent, so that it is probable the city in the days of its greatness must have covered a considerable area without them: and it has been supposed by some writers that the present line of walls is that erected by Hermocrates when he restored the city after its destruction by the Carthaginians. (Diod. xiii. 63.) No trace is, however, found of a more extensive circuit, though the remains of two lines of wall, evidently connected with the port, are found in the small valley E. of the city. Within the area surrounded by the walls are the remains of three temples, all of the Doric order, and of an ancient style; none of them are standing, but the foundations of them all remain, together with numerous portions of columns and other architectural fragments, sufficient to enable us to restore the plan and design of all three without difficulty. The largest of them (marked C. on the plan) is 230 feet long by 85 feet broad, and has 6 columns in front and 18 in length, a very unusual proportion. All the.*e are hexastyle and peripteral. Besides these three temples there is a small temple or Aedicula (marked B-), of a different plan, but also of the Doric order. No other remains of buildings, beyond mere fragments and foundations, can be traced within the

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