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A C D. Temple* within the city.

B. Small temple or aedicula in the city.

E F G. Great temples without the city.

Selinus are those of three temples on the hill to the E., which do not appear to have been included in the city, but, as was often the case, were built on this neighbouring eminence, so as to front the city itself. All these temples are considerably larger than any of the three above described; and the most northerly of them is one of the largest of which we have any remains. It had 8 columns in front and 17 in the sides, and was of the kind called pseudo-dipteral. Its length was 359 feet, and its breadth 162, so that it was actually longer than the great temple of Jupiter Olympics at Agrigentum, though not equal to it in breadth. From the columns being only partially fluted, as well as from other signs, it is clear that it never was completed; but all the more important parts of the structure were finished, and it must have certainly been one of the most imposing fabrics in antiquity. Only three of the columns are now standing, and these imperfect; but the whole area is filled up with a heap of fallen masses, portions of columns, capitals, &c, and other huge architectural fragments, all of the most massive character, and forming, as observed by Swinburne, "one of the most gigantic and sublime ruins imaginable." The two other temples are also prostrate, but the ruins have fallen with such regularity that the portions of almost every column lie on the ground as they have fallen; and it is not only easy to restore the plan and design of the two edifices, but it appears as if they could be rebuilt with little difficulty. These temples, though greatly inferior to their gigantic neighbour, were still larger than that at Segesta, and even exceed the great temple of Neptune at Paestum; so that the three, when standing, must have presented a spectacle unrivalled in antiquity. All these buildings may be safely referred to a period anterior to

H M. Remains of edifices outside the walls.
N. River Selinus, now the Madiuni.

the Carthaginian conquest (b. C. 409), though the three temples last described appear to have been all of them of later date than those within the walls of the city. Tin's is proved, among other circumstances, by the sculptured metopes, several of which have been discovered and extricated from among the fallen fragments. Of these sculptures, those which belonged to the temples within the walls, present a verypeculiar and archaic style of art, and are universally recognised as among the earliest extant specimens of Greek sculpture. (They are figured by Muller, Denkmiiler, pi. 4, 5, as well as in many other works, and casts of them are in the British Museum.) Those, on the contrary, which have been found among the ruins of the temple marked E. on the opposite hill, are of a later and more advanced style, though still retaining considerable remains of the stiffness of the earliest art. Besides the interest attached to these Selinuntine metopes from their important bearing on the history of Greek sculpture, the remains of these temples are of value as affording the most unequivocal testimony to the use of painting, both for the architectural decoration of the temples, and as applied to the sculptures with which they were adorned. A very full and detailed account of the ruins at Selinus is given in the Duke of Serra di Falco's Antichita Siciliane, vol. ii., from which the preceding plan is derived. A more general description of them will be found in Swinburne's Travels, vol. ii. pp. 242—245; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 219— 221; and other works on Sicily in general.

The coins of Selinus are numerous and various. The earliest, as already mentioned, bear merely the figure of a parsley-leaf on the obverse. Those of somewhat later date (including the one figured below) represent a figure sacrificing on an altar

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BELTCTUS (2fAifoCy: Etk. ^Ktvovvrios or 2eXtPovaios: Selentt), a port-town on the west coast of Cilicia, at the moutli of a small river of the same name, which is now called SelentL (Scylai, p. 40; Liv. xxxiii. 20; Strab. xiv. p. 682; Ptol. v. 8. § 2, viii. 17. § 42; Plin. v. 22.) This town is memorable in history as the place where, in A. D. 117, the emperor Trajan is said by some authors to have died (Dion Cass.lxviii. 33). After this event the place for a time bore the name of Trajanopolis; but its bishops afterwards are called bishops of Selinus. (Hierocl. p. 709.) Basil of Seleucia (Vita S. Thedae, ii. 17) describes the place as reduced to a state of insignificance in his time, though it had once been a great commercial town. (Comp. Stadiasm. Mar. Mag. §§ 203,204; Lucan, viii.260; CWi.P<wcAak,p.253.) Selinus was situated on a precipitous rock, surrounded on almost every side by the sea, by which position it was rendered almost impregnable. The whole of the rock, however, was not included in the ancient line of fortifications; inside the walls there still are many traces of houses, but on the outside, and between the foot of the hill and the river, the remains of some large buildings'are yet standing, which appear to be a mausoleum, an agora, a theatre, an aqueduct, and some tombs (Beaufort, Karamania, p. 186, full.)

Respecting the small river Selinus, flowing by Pergamum, see Pkroamuh, p. 575. [L. S.]

SELLA'SIA (ScAAcurfa, Xen. Polyb. Diod.; 2«Xotri'a, Steph. B., Hesych. s. v.; the latter is perhaps the correct form, and may come from acKas; the name is connected by Hesychius with Artemis Selasia: Eth. 2eAAa<rt«iJs, ZfKcurtevs), a town of Laconia, Bituatcd in the valley of the Oenus, on the road leading from Tegea and Aigos, and one of the bulwarks of Sparta against an invading army. Its distance from Sparta is nowhere mentioned; but from the description which Polybir.s gives of the celebrated battle fought in its neighbourhood between Antigonus and Cleomenes, it is probable that the plain of Krevatd was the site of the buttle. We learn from Polybius that this battle took place in a narrow opening of the vale of the Oenus, between two hills named Evas and Olympus, and that the river Gorgylus flowed across the plain into the Evenus. South of the Khun of

Krevatd is a small plain, the only one in the valley of the Oenus, about ten minutes in width and u quarter of an hour in length, at the end of which the rocks again approach so close as barely to leave room for the passage of the river. The mountain, which bounds this plain on the east, is Olympus, a continuation of the mountain of Vresthena: it rises very steep on the left bank of the Oenus. The mountain on the western side is Evas, now Turlaes, which, though not so steep, is still inaccessible to cavalry. Towards the north the plain is shut in by a mountain, over which the road leads to Tegea, and towards the south by a still higher mountain. The Oenus, which flows near the eastern edge of the plain, can be crossed at any point without difficulty. It receives on its right side a small brook, the Gorgylus, which descends from a ravine on the northern side of Mt. Evas. On the summit of the hill, more than 2800 feet above the sea, which shuts in the plain on the south, and over which the road leads to Sparta, are the ruins of Sellasia, described below.

The battle of Sellasia, of which Polybius gives a detailed account, requires a few words of explanation. In B.C. 221, Cleomenes, the Spartan king, expecting that Antigonus, the Macedonian king, aud the Achaeans, would invade Laconia, fortified the other passes which led into the country, and took up his own position with the main body of his forces in the plain of Sellasia, since the roads to Sparta from Argos and Tegea united at this point. His army amounted to 20,000 men, and consisted of Lacedaemonians, Perioeci, allies, and mercenaries. His left wing, containing the Perioeci and allies, wa3 stationed on Mt. Evas under the command of his brother Eucleidas; his right wing, consisting of the Lacedaemonians and mercenaries, encamped upon Mt. Olympus under his own command; while his cavalry and a part of the mercenaries occupied the small plain between the hills. The whole line was protected by a ditch and a palisade. Antigonus marched into Laconia from Argos with an army of 30,000 men, but found Cleomenes so strongly intrenched in this position, that lie did not venture to attack him, but encamped behind the small stream Gorgylus. At length, after several days' hesitation, both sides determined to join battle. Antigonus placed 5000 Macedonian peltasts, with the greater part of his auxiliary troops, on his right wing to oppose Eucleidas; his cavalry with 1000 Achaeans and the same number of Megalopolitans in the small plain; while ho himself with the Macedonian phalanx and 3000 mercenaries occupied the left wing, in order to attack Cleomenes and the Lacedaemonians on Mt. Olympus. The battle began on the side of Mt. Evas. Eucleidas committed the error of awaiting the attack of the enemy upon the brow of the hill, instead of availing himself of his superior position to charge down upon them; but while they were climbing the hill they were attacked upon the rear by some light troops of Cleomenes, who were stationed in the centre with the Lacedaemonian cavalry. At this critical moment, Philopoemen, who was in the centre with the Megalopolitan horse, diverted the attack of the light infantry by charging without orders the Lacedaemonian centre. The right wing of the Macedonians then renewed their attack, defeated the left wing of the Lacedaemonians, and drove tliein over the steep precipices on ilie opposite side of Mt. Evas. Cleomenes, perceiving that the only hope of retrieving the day was by the defeat

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a a a. Troops of Cleomenel.
6 6 b. Troop* of Antigonus.
A A. Road to Tegea.

In the preceding account of the battle we hare followed the excellent description of Ross. (Reiscn fm Pcloporniei, p. 181.) The French Commission had previously supposed the plain of Krevatd to be the site of the battle of Sellasia (Boblaye, Recherchet, <fe. p. 73); and the same opinion has been adopted by Curtius. (Peloponnctos, vol. ii. p, 260.) Leake, however, places Sellasia to the SE., near the monastery "of the Forty Saints ("Aywi 2npai<Tn), and supposes the battle to have been fought in the pass to the eastward of the monastery. The ruins near the Khan of Krevatd he maintains to be those of'Caryae. (Leake, Moreat vol. ii. p. 529, Pelopimnesinca, p. 341, seq.) Bnt Ross informs us that in the narrow pass NE. of the monastery of the Forty Saints there is barely room for a loaded mule to pass; and we know moreover that Sellasia was

B B. Road to Argot.

C C. Road to Megalopolis.

D D. Road to Sparta.

situated on the high road from Sparta to Tegea and Argos, which must have led through the plain of Krevatd. (nara Tv \ew<p6pov, Paus. iii. 10. § 7; Plut. Cleom. 23; Xen. Hell vi. 5. § 27; Diod. xv. 64; Liv. xxxiv. 28.)

On leaving the plain of Krevata, the road southwards ascends the mountain, and at the distance of a quarter of an hour leaves ft small ruin on the left, called by the peasants Palaeogiila (77 IlaAaiayoDAa). The remains of the walls are Hellenic, but they are of very small extent, and the place was probably either a dependency of Sellasia or one to which the inhabitants of the latter fled for refuge at one of the periods when their city was destroyed.

The ruins of Sellasia lie 1 \ miles beyond Palaeogvla upon the summit of the mountain. The city was about 1J miles in circumference, as appears from the foundations of the walls. The latter were from 10 to 11 feet thick, and consist of irregular but very small stones. The northern and smaller half of the city was separated by a wall from the southern half, which was on lower ground.

From its position Sellasia was always exposed to the attacks of an invading army. On the first invasion of Laconia by the Thebans in B. c. 369, Sellasia was plundered and burnt (Xen. IfeU. vi. 5. § 27); and because the inhabitants at that time, together with several others of the Perioeci, went over to the enemy, the town was again taken and destroyed four years later by the Lacedaemonians themselves, assisted by some auxiliaries sent by the younger Dionysius. (Xen. Hell vii. 4. § 12.) It suffered the same fate a third time after the defeat of Cleomenes, as has been already related. It appears to have been never rebuilt, and was in ruins in the time of Pausanias (Hi. 10. § 7).

SELLETS (StAAfcu). 1. A river in Elis, mentioned by Homer, upon which Ephyra stood. [ephvea, No. 2.]

2. A river in Sicyonia, upon which Strabo also places a town Ephyra. [ephyra, No. 3.]

SELLE'TAE (Plin. iv. 11. s. 18, init), a people of Thrace, whose country was called Sklletica (scaatttik^, PtoL hi. 11. § 8). It was north of the Haemus, between that range of mountains and the Panysus. [J. R.]

SELLE'TICA. [skllbtak.]

SELLI or HELL1, an ancient tribe in Epeirus, in whose country, called Hellopia, the oracle of Dodona was situated. [dodona. p. 782, a.]

SEXLIUM Ptol. iL 5. § 7), a place

in Lusitania, lying N. of Scalabis (/tin. Ant. p. 421). Identified with Cetce or &ijo. [T. H.D.]

SELLUS, according to Avienus (Ora MariL 507) a high mountain in Hispania Tarraconensis, on which the city of Lebedontia once stood. Ukert (ii. pt i. p. 484) identifies it with C.Salon. [T. H. D.]

SELYMBRIA (S^Ai^ecn, Herod, vi. 33; 2i;Ai/Spla, Xtm. Anab. vii. 2. § 15, &c.; Strab. viL p.319; Ptol. iii. 11. § 6; Zi|Av/is>i'a, Dem. de lihod. lib. p. 198, Beiske), a Thracian town on the Propontis, 22 miles east from Perinthus, and 44 miles west from Constantinople {Itin. Ilier. p. 570, where it is called Salamembria), near the southern end of the wall, built by Anastasius Dicorus for the protection of his capital. (Procop. de Aed. iv. 9; see SOTLLAE).

According to Strabo (I c), its name signifies u the town of Selys;" from which it has been inferred that Selys was the name of its founder, or of the leader of the colony from Megara, which founded it at an earlier period than the establishment of Byzantium, another colony of the same Grecian slate. (Scymn. 714.) In honour of Eudoxia, the wife of the emperor Arcadius, its name was changed to Eudoxiupolis (Hierocl. p. 632), which it bore for a considerable time; but its modern name, Silivri, shows that it subsequently resumed its original designation.

Inspecting the history of Selymbria, only detached and fragmentary notices occur in the Greek writers, in Latin authors, it is merely named (Mela,, ii. 2. § 6; Plin. iv. 11. s. 18, xxix. 1. s. 1; in the latter passage it is said to have been the birthplace of Prodicus, a disciple of Hippocrates). It was here that Xennphon met Medosades, the envoy of Seuthes (Anab. vii. 2. §28), whose forces afterwards encamped in its neighbourhood (lb. 5. § 15). When

rot- n.

Alcibiades vas commanding for the Athenians in the Proponjis (n. c. 410), the people of Selymbria refused to admit his army into the town, but gave him money, probably in order to induce him to abstain from forcing an entrance. (Xen. Hell i. I. § 21.) Some time after this, however, he gained possession of the place through the treachery of some of the townspeople, and, having levied a contribution upon its inhabitants, left a garrison in it. (76. 3. § 10; Plut. Alcib. 30.) Selymbria is mentioned by Demosthenes (/. c ) in B. c. 351, as in alliance with the Athenians; and it was no doubt at that time a member of the Byzantine confederacy. According to a letter of Philip, quoted in the oration de Corona (p. 251, R.), it was blockaded by him about B.C. 343; but Professor Newman considers that this mention of Selymbria is one of the numerous proofs that the documents inserted in that speech are not authentic. (Clou. Mu>. voL i. pp. 153, 154.) [J. B.]

SEMACHIDAE. [attica, p. 330, b.]

SEMA'NA SILVA (Xriiuwa or in/uwovs uAn), one of the mountain forests of ancient Germany, nn the south of Hons Melibocus (Ptol. ii. 1. § 7). is perhaps only a part of the Ilarz mountain or of the Thuringcr Wold. (Zeuss, Die Deutschen, p. 8; Wilhelm, Germanien, p. 38, &c.) [L. S.]

SEMANTHINI (2ww6W, Ptol. vii. 3. § 4), a people dwelling in the land of the Sinae E. of the Semanthiue mountains, which derived their name from them. [T. H. D.]

SEMANTHINI MONTES (to l*tuir6irU Spot, Ptol. vii. 2. § 8), a mountain chain in the country of the Sinae (China), which, according to Ptolemy, extended from the sources of the Aspithra in a N\V. direction as far as those of the Serus. It is probably the chain which separates the Chinese province of Yunnan from the districts of Mien and LaoU tchtta. [T. H. D.J

SEMBRITAE (s^jtoi, Strab. xvi. pp. 770 —786; Skmbkrritak, Plin. vi. 30. s. 35), a people inhabiting the district of Teuesis in Aethiopia. although they seem to have lieen of Aegyptian origin. The first mention of the Sembritae occurs in Erato sthenes {up. Strab. xvii. p. 786), who says that they occupied an island above Meroe; that their name implies "immigrants;" that they descended from the Aegyptian war-caste, who, in the reign of Fsammitichus (b. c. 658), abandoned their native land; and that they were governed by a queen, although they were also dependent on the sovereigns of Meroe. Artemidorus, also quoted by Strabo (xvi. p. 770), says on the contrary, that they were the ruling order in Meroe: these accounts, however, may be reconciled by the supposition that Eratosthenes and Artemidorus described them at different periods. If the Sembritae were the Aegyptian refugees, they weie also the Automoloi CAtjfitdx) noticed by Herodotus (ii. 30). riiny (/. c.) speaks of four islands of the Sembritae, each containing one or more towns. These were therefore not islands in the Nile, or in any of its principal tributaries, the Astapus, or Astaboras, but tracts between rivers, mesopotamian districts like Meroe itself, which in the language of Nubia are still denominated " islands." The capital of the Sembritae was, according to Pliny, Sembobis. It stood on the left hank of the river, 20 days' journey above Meroe. Pliny names also, among other of their principal towns, Sai in Arabia, — i. e. on the right bank of the Nile, for he assumes that river as the boundary between Lybia and Arabia, — Esar or


Sapc (Sobah), on the left hank, 17 days' jonrnej above Meroij, and Damn again on the Arabian Bide.

Without being able to define the position of this tribe, or to state their relations to the Aethiopians of Meroc, we shall perhaps not err in placing tbem on the Blue Nile [astavus], and in the neighbourhood of Axume. The geographers (Heeren, &c.) who describe the Sembritae as dwelling near the White Nile, hare forgotten both their vicinity to Arabia—i.e. the eastern portion of Meroe—and the character of the regions which the Astapus and Astaboros respectively water. The White Nile flows through lagoons and morasses unsuiled for towns and permanent settlements; while the Blue Nile has always had on its banks a numerous papulation, dwelling in large villages and towns. Along the Blue Nile ran the principal highways of the trade of Aegypt with Southern Aethiopia, while the White Nile led off to the uncivilised and scattered tribes of the Libyans. The Sembritae, if seated on the latter river, would probably have eluded observation altogether; whereas on the former they would be as well known to the caravans and their guides as any other of the Aethiopian races. Moreover, the mesopotamian districts suited to towns lie to the east of Aethiopia Proper, and would afford a secure retreat to the refugees from Aegypt in search of a new habitation. (Sec Cooley's Claudius Ptolemy and the Nile, pp. 7—27.) The present Senaar corresponds nearly with the territory of the Sembritae. [W.B.D.]

SEMIKA'MIDIS HONS (2(/«wf5os 6>s), » remarkable circular mountain on the N. side of the Persian gulf, and the eastern limit of Caramania. It is noticed both by Arrian (Peripl. M. E. p. 20, ed. Huds.) and by Marcian (JPeripl. M. Ext. c. 27, ed. MUller, 1855), who states that it was opposite to ML Pasabo, in Arabia, and that these two mountains, with their promontories, form the straits at the entrance of the gulf of Persia. Ptolemy speaks of it, and states that it was also called Strongylus, probably from its fcrm (vi. 8. § 11). Its modern name appears to be Elbourz. (Vincent, Voyage of Nearchus, i. p. 319—321.) [V.]

SEMNONES (24pvavts or 34/xyoKs), or perha|»s more correctly Sennones, are described as the most ancient and illustrious among the Suevi in the north of Germany. They dwelt between the Albis and Viadus, being surrounded on the west by the Cherusci, on the south by the Silingi, on the east by the Manimi and Burgundiones, and on the north-west by the Longobardi. (Tac Germ. 39; Ptol. ii. 11. §§ 15, 17; Veil. Pat. ii. 106.) Their country accordingly extended from the hills of Lusatia in the south, as far as Potsdam in the north, and in it they formed 100 communities (pagi), which gave them such strength that they regarded themselves as the head of the Suevi. Their country contained an ancient forest (Seinnonum Silva), hallowed by awful superstition and sacrificial rites; at stated seasons deputies from all the kindred tribes met in it, and commenced their proceedings with a human sacrifice. No one, moreover, was allowed to enter this forest except ho was bound in chains, a mark of humiliation in the presence of the god; and if any one stumbled he was not pennitted to rise, but had to crawl along. As to the history of the Semnones, we learn from Tacitus (Ann. ii. 45) and Strabo (vii. p. 290) that in the time of Augustus they were united with the Marcomsnni under Maroboduus. In the MonuDK'iitutn Ajicyranum the Semnones, are mentioned

among the German tribes which sought the friendship of the emperor and the Romans. They appear to have been governed by kings, one of whom bore the name of Masyus, and reigned in the time of Domitian. (Dion Cass, lxvii. 5, comp. lxxL 20.) After the reign of M. Anrelius they are no longer mentioned in history, from which circumstance soma have unnecessarily inferred that the Semnones were not a distinct tribe, but only a general name for several kindred tribes. As to the Silva Semnonum, it is generally supposed to have existed near Einsterwalde or SunnenicahJe, between the rivers Elsttr and Spree, where three large places have been discovered, which were evidently intended as a sort of altars. (Kruse, Deutsche Alttrth. vol. ii. p.irt 2, p. 132; Zens*, Die Deutsche*, p. 130.) [L.S.]

SENA(Siiri), Pol.: 2i)ya,Strab.: Eth, Senensis), called also for distinction's sake Skna Gali.h A (2twydAAiKo, Ptol.; Smigagtia), a city of Umbriii, but situated in the district known as the Gallicus Ager, on the coast of the Adriatic, at the mouth of a small river of the same name. The district ii> which it was situated had previously belonged to the Galli Senones, and there can be no doubt that both the river and town derived their name from that of this people. (Sil. Ital. viii. 453; PoL ii. 19.) It is therefore probable that there was a Gaulish town of the name before the Roman conquest, but wo have no account of it until the establishment of a Roman colony there, which seems to have taken place immediately after the final subjection of the Senones iu B. c. 289. (PoL ii. 19; Liv. EpiL xi.) The colony must have been a "colunia avium," as its name is not mentioned by Livy among the Latin colonies iu the Second Punic War. It was at Sena that the two consuls Linus and Nero united their forces before the battle of the Metaurua/B. c. 207 (Liv. xxvii. 46; Appian, Annib. 52; Viet Vir. IU. 48), on which account that battle is described by some authors as being fought "ad Senam," and even Cicero alludes to it as the " Senense praelium.'' (Cic. Brut. 18; Eutrop. iii. 18; Oros. iv. 18.) Its name is net again mentioned in history till the Civil Wars between Marius and Sulla, when it was taken and plundered by Poinpeius, the lieutenant of Sulla, B. C 82. (Appian, B. C. i. 88.) It seems to have always continued to be a flourishing and considerable town, and under the Triumvirate received a fresh accession of colonists. (Lib. Col pp. 226, 258.) Its name is mentioned by all the geographers, as well as in the Itineraries. It was situated on the line of road which led along the coast from Ancona to Fanui I Fortunae, where it joined the Flaminian Way, properly so called. (Strab. v. p. 227; Plin. iii. 14. s. 19; Ptol. iii. 1. § 22; I tin. Ant pp. 100, 316; Tab. Pent.) The name was early corrupted from Sena Gallica into the contracted form Senogallia, winch is already found in Pliny, and appears also in the Itineraries. The Geographer of Ravenna has Senegallia, thus approaching still more closely to the modern form of Sinigaglia. The city is mentioned as still in existence during the Gothic Wars, after the fall of the Western Empire, and again nnder the Lombards (Procop. B. G. iv. 23; P. Diac Hist. Lang. ii. 22), it was for some time also one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchs of Ravenna, but fell into decay in the middle ages, and is alluded to by Dante in the 14th century as verging rapidly to extinction. (Dante, Par. xvi. 75.) It, however, revived again, and is now a flourishing town, with a considerable trade, but has no ancient remains.

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