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The riverSena, alluded to bySilius Ilalicnsand Lilian, most be the email stream now called the Nevoid or Nigola, which falU into the sea at StnigagUa. (Sil. ItaL viii. 458; Lacan, ii. 407.) [E. H. B.]

SENA (So/vo, Ptol.: Eth. Senensis: Siena), a city of Etniria, sometimes culled Skua Julia, to distinguish it from the city of the same name on the Adriatic. It was situated nearly hi the heart of Etniria, about 28 miles E. of Volaterrae and 40 S. of Florentia. There is no reason whatever to suppose that there was an Etruscan city on the Bite, and no allusion to its existence occurs before the establishment of the Roman colony. Eren the date of this is not accurately known; but it is probable from the epithet of Julia that it was founded either by Caesar himself or by the Triumvirate in his honour. It is singular that its name is not found in the Liber Coloniarum; but its colonial rank is attested by Fliny, who calls it "colonia Senensis," as well as by Tacitus. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Tac. Hist, iv. 45.) It is subsequently mentioned by Ptolemy, as well as in the Tabula, which places it on a line of road from Florentia to Clusium. (PtoL iii. 1. § 49; Tab. Petit.) But it seems never to have been a place of much importance in ancient times, and it was not till the middle ages that it rose to be one of the first cities of Tuscany. It lias no remains of antiquity. (Dennis's Etniria, vol. ii. p. 135.) [E. H. B.]

SENA INSULA, in Gallia. On this island, which was opposite to the coast of the Osismii, was an oracle of a Gallic goddess. Nine virgins named Gal license (Barrigenae, ed. I. Vossius) had the care of the oracle. They could raise storms by their verses, change themselves into beasts, heal diseases, and foretell the future, but they were only propitious to seamen who came to consult them. (Mela, iii. 6.) This is the island of Seta, incorrectly called on the inaps Isle des Saints, which is at the entrance of the bay of Iiovarnenez, and separated from a point of land on the coast of Britany (Pointe Ran) by a narrow channel. D'Anville supposes that this may be the island which Straho places opposite the mouth of the Loire. This island was inhabited only by women who were possessed by Dionysus. They allowed no man to enter their island; but so far from keeping their virginity, they used to visit the men on the mainland. These two stories are very different. Strabo names bis island that of the Namnites, as Groskurd (Strab. Trantl. i. p. 198) has it; but the name is Samnites in the common texts of Strabo. This seems to be the same island that Dionysiua speaks of (I'erieg. 571) as being visited by the women of the Amnitae for the purpose of performing the rites of Bacchus. D'Anville further thinks that Pliny (iv. 16) may be speaking of Sena when he mentions after the islands which are near to Britain, Sianibis, or Amnis, as some MSS. have it, and Axantos, which is evidently Uxantis or Oucssant. Sina, as the Maritime Itin. names it, is mentioned there with Uxantis. [G. L.]

SENIA (2«v(a, Ptol. ii. 16. (17.) § 2), a Roman colony on the coast of Liburnia (" Colonia Senensis," Tac II. iv. 45), and on the road from Aquileia to Siscia. {Ilia. Ant. p. 273.) It had a harbour. (Comp. Plin. iii. 21. s. 25; Gcogr. Rnv. iv. 31; Tab. Pent.) Variously identified with Zeng or Senga. [T. H. D.]

SENOMAGUS, Pi Gallia Narbonensis, is mentinned in the Table, and placed north of Avenio (Arignon), on a road along the cast side of the

Rhone. Some geographers guess that it may be near the Pont St. Esprit. [G. L.]

SE'NONES (2«Wer, Hmm, Steph. B. s. v.). Polybius(ii. 17) names the Italian Senones, S^pupcv. The Roman .poets make the penultima short:—

"Ut Braccatorum pueri Senonumque minores."

(Juv. viii. 234.)

An absurd explanation of the name is q wled by Festns (s.v. Senones) and by Servius (ad A en. viii. 656).

The Senones were one of the great Celtic nations who bordered on the Belgae. (Caee. B. G. ii. 2.) They were north-west of the Aedtii and bordered on them. Their capital was Agedincum (Sens), on the right bank of the Tonne, which is a branch of the Seine. (Ptol. ii. 8. § 12.) The Senones are in the Lugdunensis of Ptolemy and Pliny. Besides Agedincum there were in the country of the Senones, Autissiodurum (Auxerre) and Melodunum (Meltm) on the Seine not far from Paris, which shows that their territory extended from the neighbourhood of Paris along the Seine and along the l'onne to the borders of the small nation of the Mandubii [manDubii], whose town was Alesia, and to the borders of the Lingeries. The railroad from Paris to Dijon, which passes near Helm, Funtainebleau, Sens, Joigny, St. Florentin, Tonnerre on the Armancon a branch of the Yonne, runs through the country of the Senones. Between St. Florentin and Flogny, which is about half-way between St, Florentin and Tonnerre, extends a vast plain, level as the sea, fertile, and in summer covered with wheat. A large part of the territory of the Senones is a fertile country. In seems to have comprehended the dioceses of &n» and Auxtrre. Besides Melodunum and Agedincum, Caesar mentions Vellaunodunum as a town of the Senones (vii. 11), on the side towards the Carnntes.

The Senones were at first well disposed to Caesar (B. G. ii. 2), probably through fear of their neighbours, the Belgae and the German people north of the Mame. Caesar bad given them Cavarinus for a king, but the Senones expelled him (v. 54); and when the Roman proconsul ordered the senate of the Senones to come to him, they refused. In the spring of B. c. 53 Caesar summoned the states of Gallia to a meeting, but the Senones, Carnutes, and Treviri would not come (vi. 3), upon which he transferred the meeting of the states to Lutetia Parisiorum. Me says that the I'arisii bordered on the Senones, and "within the memory of their fathers they had united their state with that of the Senones;" but he does not explain the nature of this union. He marched from Lutetia (Paris) into the country of the Senones, which presents no difficulties for an army. The Senones yielded in spite of Acco, who was the leader in the revolt; and Caesar took with him Cavarinus and the cavalry of the Senones, in which force it is probable that they were strong, as their country is well adapted for grazing and com. At the close of the year Caesar whipped Acco to death, and quartered six of his legions at Sens for the winter (vi. 44). In B. c. 52 the Senones sent 12,000 men with the rest of the Gallic forces to at tack Caesar before Alesia (vii. 75). The Senones seem to have given Caesar no more trouble; but in B. c. 51 Drappes, a Senon, at the head of a number of desperate men, was threatening the Provincia. Drappes was caught and starved himself to death. (B. G. viii. 30,44.) [G.L.]

SENONES (J^raw), a nation of Gaulish origin, which was settled in Italy, on the coast of the Adriatic, extending from the river Aesis (Etino*, Sape (SoinA), on the left bank, 17 days' jnnrncy above Meroo, and Duron again on the Arabian Bide.

Without being able to define the position of this tribe, or to state their relations to the Aethiopians of Meroe, we shall perhaps not err in placing them on the Bine Nile [astapus], and in the neighbourhood of Axume. The geographers (Hecren, &c.) who describe the Sembritae as dwelling near the White Nile, have forgotten both their vicinity to Arabia—i.e. the eastern portion of Meroe—and ihc character of the regions which the Astapus and Astaboras respectively water. Tho White Nile flows through lagoons and morasses unsuited for towns and permanent settlements; while the Blue Nile has always had on its banks a numerous population, dwelling in large villages and towns. Along the Blue Nile ran the principal highways of the trade of Aegypt with Southern Aethiopia, while the White Nile led off to the uncivilised and scattered tribes of the Libyans. The Sembritae, if seated on the latter river, wotdd probably have eluded observation altogether; whereas on the former they would be as well known to the caravans and their guides as any other of the Aethiopian races. Moreover, the mesopotamian districts suited to towns lie to the east of Aethiopia Proper, and would afford a secure retreat to the refugees from Aegypt in search of a new habitation. (Sec Cooley's Claudius Ptolemy and the Nile, pp. 7—27.) The present Sennar corresponds nearly with the territory of the Sembritae. [W.B.D.]

SEMIRA'MIMS MONS CSeuapa^lSot tpos), a remurkable circular mountain on the N. side of the Persian gulf, and the eastern limit of Carainania. It is noticed both by Arriati (Peripl. M. E. p. 20, ed. Huds.) and by Martian (Pttripl M. Ext. c. 27, ed. Miiller, 1855), who states that it was opposite to Mt. Pasabo, in Arabia, and that those two mountains, with their promontories, form the straits at the entrance of the gulf of Persia. Ptolemy speaks of it, and states that it was also Called Strongylus, probably from its fcrm (vi. 8. § 11). Its modern name appeal's to be Elbourz. (Vincent, Voyage of Nearchm, i. p. 319—321.) [V.]

SEMNONES (s^uwvm or 34/xrovti), or perhaps more correctly Sennones, are described us the most ancient and illustrions among the Suevi in the north of Germany. They dwelt between the Albis and Viadus, being surrounded on the west by the Cherusci, on the south by the Silingi, on the east by the Manimi and Burgundiones, and on the north-west by the Longobardi. (Tac. Germ. 39; PtoL ii. 11. §§ 15, 17; Veil. Pat. ii. 106.) Their country accordingly extended from the hills of Ltuatia in the south, as far as Pottdam in the north, and in it they formed 100 communities (pagi), which gave them such strength that they regarded themselves as the head of the Suevi. Their country contained an ancient forest (Seiunonum Silva), hallowed by awful superstition and sacrificial rites; at stated seasons deputies from all the kindred tribes met in it, and commenced their proceedings with a human sacrifice. No one, moreover, was allowed to enter this forest except ho was bound in chains, a mark of humiliation in the presence of the god; and if any one stumbled he was not permitted to rise, but bad to crawl along. As to the history of the Senmones, we learn from Tacitus {Ann. ii. 45) and Strabo (vii. p. 290) that in the time of Augustus they were united with the Marcomanni under Maroboduus. In the Monunicntum Apcyranum the Setnnones, arc mentioned

among the German tribes which sought the friendship of the emperor and the Romans. They appear to have been governed by kings, one of whom bore the name of Masyus, and reigned in the time of Domitian. (Dion Cass, lxvii. 5, comp. lxxi. 20.) After tho reign of M. Anrelius they are no longer mentioned in history, from which circumstance some have unnecessarily inferred that the Senmones were not a distinct tribe, but only a general name for several kindred tribes. As to the Silva Semnonum, it is generally supposed to have existed near /nsterwalde or Sonnenwalde, between the rivers EUttr and Spree, where three large places have been discovered, which were evidently intended as a sort of altars. (Kruse, DeuUche AUerih. vol. ii. part 2, p. 132; Zeuss, Die DeuUchen, p. 130.) [L. &]

SENA (2>>>i. Pol.: 2 rim, Strab.: Eth. Senensis). called also for distinction's sake Skna Gauica (ZcpcryaAAura, Ptol.: Smigaglui), a city of UmbrU. but situated in the district known as the Gallicus Ager, on the coast of the Adriatic, at the month «f a small river of the some name. The district in which it was situated had previously belonged to the Galli Seuones, and there can be no doubt that both the river and town derived their name from that of this people. (Sil. Ital. viii. 453; PoL ii. 190 >: is therefore probable that there was a Gaulish town of the name before the Koman conquest, bat we have no account of it until the establishment of a Koinan colony there, which seems to have taken place immediately after the final subjection of the Senones in B.e. 239. (PoL ii. 19; Liv. EpiL xi.) The colony must have been a "colunia avium," as its name is not mentioned by Livy among the Latin colonies in the Second Punic War. It was at Sen* that the two consuls Livius and Nero united thvir forces before the battle of the Metaurus,B. c. 207 ( Liv. xxvii. 46; Appian, Annib. 52; Vict. Kir. Ill 48), on which account that battle is described by some authors as being fought "ad Senam," and even Ciceru alludes to it as the " Senense praelium." (Cic Brut 18; Eutrop. iii. 18; Ores. iv. 18.) Its name h> Oct again mentioned in history till the Civil Wars between Marius and Sulla, when it was taken and plundered by Poinpeius, the lieutenant of Sulla, B. c 82. (Appian, B. C. L 88.) It seems to haTe always continued to be a flourishing and considerable town, and under the Triumvirate received a fresh accession of colonists. (/,;*. Col pp. 226, 25S.) Its name i3 mentioned by all the geographers, as well as in the Itineraries. It was situated on the line of roal which led along the coast from Ancona to Fanuri Fortunae, where it joined the Flaminian Way, properly so called. (Strab. v. p. 227; PI in. iii. 14 a 19; Ptol. iii. 1. § 22; I tin. Ant. pp. 100, 316; Tab. Pent.) The name was early corrupted from Sena Gallica into the contracted form SenogaU'ia. which is already found in Pliny, and appears al-o in the Itinerari'S. The Geographer of Kavenna has Senegallia, thus approaching still more closely to the modern form of Smigaglia. The city is mentioned as still in existence during the Gothic Wars, after the fall of the Western Empire, and again under the Lombards (Procop. B. G. iv. 23; P. Diac Hut. Lang. ii. 22), it w«s for some time also one of the cities of the I'entapolis under the exarchs of Kavenna, but fell into decay in the middle ages, and is alluded to by Dante in the 14th century as verging rapidly to extinction. (Dante, Par. xvi. 75.) It, bowover, revived again, and is now a flourishing town, with a considerable trade, but has no ancient nriuaius.

The river Sena, alluded to by Silius Italicnsand Lncan, must be the small stream now called the Nevoid or Nigola, which falls into the sea at Smigaglia. (Sil. Ital. viii. 458 i Lncan, ii. 407.) [E. H. B.]

SENA (Salva, Ptol.: Eta. Senensis: Siena), a city of Etruria, sometimes called Suna Julia, to distinguish it from the city of the same name on the Adriatic It was situated nearly in the heart of Etruria, about 28 miles E. of Volaterrae and 40 S. of Florentia. There is no reason whatever to suppose that there was an Etruscan city on the site, and no allusion to its existence occurs before the establishment of the Roman colony. Even the date of this is not accurately known; but it is probable from the epithet of Julia that it was founded either by Caesar himself or by the Triumvirate in his honour. It is singular that its name is not found in the Liber Coloniarum; but its colonial rank is attested by Pliny, who calls it "colonia Senensis," as well as by Tacitns. (Plin. iii. 5. 8. 8; Tac Bist. iv. 45.) It is subsequently mentioned by Ptolemy, as well as in the Tabula, which places it on a line of road from Florentia to Clusium. (PtoL iii. 1. § 49; Tab. Peut) But it seems never to have been a place of much importance in ancient times, and it was not till the middle ages that it rose to be one of the first cities of Tuscany. It lias no remains of antiquity. (Dennis's Etruria, vol. ii. p. 135.) [E. H. B.]

SENA INSULA, in Gallia. On this island, which was opposite to the coast of the Osismii, was an oracle of a Gallic goddess. Nine virgins named Gallicenae (Barrigenae, ed. I. Vossius) had the care of the oracle. They could raise storms by their verses, change themselves into beasts, heal diseases, and foretell the future, but they were only propitious to seamen who came to consult them. (Mela, iii. 6.) This is the island of Sean, incorrectly called on the maps Isle des Saints, which is at the entrance of the bay of Douarnenez, and separated from a point of land on the coast of Britany (Poiite Rom) by a narrow channel. D'Anville supposes that this may be the island which Straho places opposite the mouth of the Loire. This island was inhabited only by women who were possessed by Dionysus. They allowed no man to enter their island; but so far from keeping their virginity, they used to visit the men on [he mainland. These two stories are very different. Strabo names his island that of the Namnites, as Groskurd (Strab. Transl. i. p. 198) has it; but the name is Sammies in the common texts of Strabo. This seems to be the same island that Dionysins speaks of (Perieg. 571) as being visited by the women of the Amnitae for the purpose of performing the rites of Bacchus. D'Anville further thinks that Pliny (iv. 16) may be speaking of Sena when he mentions after the islands which are near to Britain, Siambis, or Amnis, as some MSS.have it, and Axantos, which is evidently Uxantis or Oucstani. Sina, as the Maritime Itin. names it, is mentioned there with Uxantis. [G. L.]

SENIA (2tWo, Ptol. ii. 16. (17.) § 2), a Roman colony on the coast of Libnrnia (" Colonia Senensis," Tac H. iv. 45), and on the road from Aquileia to Siscia. {Itin. Ant. p. 273.) It had a harbour. (Comp. Plin. iii. 21. s. 25; Geogr. Rav. iv. 31; Tab. Pent.) Variously identified with Zenq or Senga. [T. H. D.]

i>ENOMAGUS, i:i Gallia Narbonensis, is mentioned in the Table, and placed north of Avenio {Arignon), on a road along the east side of the

Rhone. Some geographers guess that it may be near the Pont St. Esprit. [G. L.]

SE'NONES (SeW«, SAvorcj, Steph. B. s. v.). Polybius (ii. 17) names the Italian Senones, S^iwer. The Roman poets make thepenultima short:—

"Ut Braccatorum pueri Senonumque minorcs."

(Juv. viii. 234.)

An absnrd explanation of the name is q loted by Festns (s. v. Senones) and by Servius (ad Aen. viii. 656).

The Senones were one of the great Celtic nations who bordered on the Belgae. (Cacs. B. G. ii. 2.) They were north-west of the Aedui and bordered on them. Their capital was Agedincuin (Sens), on the right bank of the Tonne, which is a branch of the Seine. (Ptol. ii. 8. § 12.) The Senones are in tin Lugdunensis of Ptolemy and Pliny. Besides Agedincum there were in the country of the Senones, Autissiodurum (Auxerre) and Melodunum (Mehin) on the Seine not far from Paris, which shows that their territory extended from the neighbourhood of Paris along the Seine and along the l'unne to the borders of the small nation of the Mandubii [mahDubii], whose town was Alesia, and to the borders of the Lingones. The railroad from Paris to Dijon, which passes near Melun, Fontainebleau, Sens, Joigny, St. Flcrentm, Tonnerre on the Armanqon a branch of the Yonne, runs through the country ol the Senones. Between St. Fhrentin and Flognyi which is about half-way between St. Fiorentin and Tonnerre, extends a vast plain, level as the sea, fertile, and in summer covered with wheat. A large part of the territory of the Senones is a fertile country. In seems to have comprehended the dioceses of Sins and Auxerre. Besides Melodunum and Agedincuin, Caesar mentions Vellannodunum as a town of the Senones (vii. 11), on the side towards the Carnutes.

The Senones were at first well disposed to Caesar (B. G. ii. 2), probably through fear of their neighbours, the Belgae and the German people north of the Home. Caesar had given them Cavarinus for a king, but the Senones expelled him (v. 54); and when the Roman proconsul ordered the senate of the Senones to come to him, they refused. In the spring of D. c. 53 Caesar summoned the states of Gallia to a meeting, but the Senones, Carnutes, and Troviri would not come (vi. 3), upon which he transferred the meeting of the states to Lutetia Parisiorum. He says that the Tarisii bordered on the Senones, and "within the memory of their fathers they had united their state with that of the Senones;" but he does not explain the nature of this union. He marched from Lutetia (Parts) into the country of the Senones, which presents no difficulties for an army. The Senones yielded in spite of Acco, who was the leader in the revolt; and Caesar took with him Cavarinus and the cavalry of the Senones, in which force it is probable that they were strong, as their country is well adapted for grazing and corn. At the close of the year Caesar whipped Acco to death, and quartered six of his legions at Sen* for the winter (vi. 44). In B. c. 52 the Senones sent 12,000 men with the rest of the Gallic forces to at tack Caesar before Alesia (vii. 75). The Senones seein to have given Caesar no more trouble; but in B. c 51 Drappes, a Senon, at the head of a number of desperate men, was threatening the Provincia. Drappes was caught and starved himself to death. (B. G. viii. 30,44.) [G.L.]

SENONES (2i]vuyfs), a nation of Gaulish origin, which was settled in Italy, on the coast of the Adriatic, extending from the river Aesis (£mk\

a few miles N. of Ancona, to tbe Utis (Montane). (lit. V. 35.) The history of their migration from Transalpine Gaul, their settlement in Italy, and their wars with the Romans, which ended in the extermination of the whole nation, are fully related under the article Gallia Cisalpina (pp. 936— 938). After the conquest of the Senones, and their expulsion from their lands on the Adriatic, two colonies were founded in their territory, the one at Sena, the other at Ariminuin; and at a later period flie remainder of their lands was portioned out among the Roman citizens by an agrarian law of the tribune C. Flaminius. This district, which still retained the name of the " Gallicus ager," was afterwards considered as a part of Umbria, and included for all administrative purposes under that appellation. Its topography will therefore be most conveniently given in the article Umbria. [E. H. B.]

SE'NTICE (2emu<4, Ptol. ii. 6. § 50), a town of the Vacoaei in Hispania Tarraconensis, variously identified with Lot Santot, Zamora, CabadUla de Mandiget, and Zarzosa. [T. H. D.]

SE'NTIDES(2«WiS«r, Ptol. iv. 5. § 21),apeople in the S. of Marmarica. [T. H. D.]

SE'NTII (2fVrioi), a people of Gallia Narbonensis (Ptol. ii. 10. § 19), whose town Ptolemy names Dinia, which is Digne. [dicta.] [G. L.j

SENTI'NUM (SenW: Eth. SanivaTfis, Sentinas -atis; Senlmo), a city of Umbria, on the E. slope of the Apennines, but near the central ridge of those mountains, and not far from the Bources of the Aesis (Esino). It is celebrated in history as the scene of a great battle fought in the Third Samnite War, B. c. 295, when the allied forces of the Samnites and Gauls were defeated by the Roman consul Q. Fabius. Gellius Egnatius, the Samnite general, was slain in the battle ; while the Roman consul P. Decius followed the example of his father, and devoted himself for the safety of the Roman army. (Liv. x. 27 —30; Pol. ii. 19.) The scene of this decisive victory, one of the most memorable in the Roman annals, is placed by Livy " in Sentinati agro;" but we have no more precise clue to its position, nor do the details of the battle give us any assistance. Sentinum itself seems to have been a strong town, as in the Perusian War it was besieged by Octavian himself without success; though it was afterwards taken by surprise by his lieutenant, Salvidienus Rnfus, by whom it was plundered and burnt to the ground. (Dion Cass, xlviii. 13.) It was subsequently revived, by receiving a body of colonists, under the Triumvirate (Lib. Col. p. 258), but did not obtain the title of a Colonia, and continued under the Roman Empire to be a town of municipal rank. (Plin. iii. 14. s. 19; Strab. v. p. 227; Ptol. iii. 1. § 53; Orell. Inter. 3861, 4949.) Its site is marked by the village still called Sentino, on the river of the same name (a small stream falling into the Esino), a few miles below the modern town of Satto Ferrato. [E. H. B ]

SENUS (iivos or Sou-or, Ptol. vii. 3. § 2), a river in the land of the Siuae(CAifla) which ran into the Sinus Magnus between the South-horn Cape (NoVioe Krpcu), S. of Ambastus, and Rabana. Probably the modern Saigon or Satmg. (Comp. Forbiger, Geogr ii. p. 478.) [T. H. D.]

SENUS (Sijeos, Ptol. ii. 2. § 4), a river on the W. coast of Hibcmia, in the territory of the Auteri. Camden identifies it with the Shannon. [T. H. D.]

SEPELACI, a town of the Edctani in Hispania Tarraconensis (Itin.Ant. p. 400), identified with Burriawt, Onda, or Castcllon de la Plana, f T. H D.] I

SETIA. [pheneus, p. 595, a.] SETIAS (stjitiijj), a promontory of Magnesia, opposite the island of Sciathos, and forming the SK. extremity of Thessaly. It is now called C. SL George. It is celebrated in mythology as the spot where Peleus laid in wait for Thetis, and from whence he carried off the goddess (Eurip. Androm. 1266). and in history as the scene of the great shipwreck of the fleet of Xerxes. (Herod, vii. 113, 188; Strab. ix. p. 443; Apoll. Rhod. i. 580; Ptol. iii. 13. § 16; Plin. iv. 9. s. 16; Mela, ii. 3; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 382.)

SEPONTIA PARAMICA (Senovrla napalm, Ptol. ii. 6. § 50), a town of the Vaccaei in Hispania Tarraconensis lying to the W. of Lacobriga (or the modern Lobera). [T. H. D.]

SEPPHORIS (Seir^pir, al. 2«><popi$: Elk. 2eiNf>a>piT7|s), a town of Upper Galilee, not mentioned under this name in Scripture, but frequently by Josephus. It was garrisoned by Antigonns, in his war with Herod the Great, until the latter leek it, early in his Galileean campaign (Ant. xiv. 15. § 4.) It seems to have been a place of arms, and to have been occasionally the royal residence, for in the troubles which arose in the country during the presidency of Varus, the robber-chief Judas, son of Ezekias, seized the palace of Seppboris, and carried off the arms and treasure which it contained (xvii. 12. § 5). It was subsequently taken and burned by Varus (§ 9). Herod the tetrarch (Antipas) afterwards rebuilt and fortified it, and made it the glory of all Galilee, and gave it independence (xviii. 2. § 1); although, according to tbe statement of Justus the son of Pistus, he still maintained the superiority of his newly founded city Tiberias; and it was not until Nero hod assigned Tiberias to Agrippa the Younger that Seppboris established its supremacy, and became the royal residence and depository of the archives. It is termed the strongest city of Galilee, and was early taken by Gallus, the general of Cestius. (B. J. ii. 18. § 11.) It maintained its allegiance to the Romans after tbe general revolt of Galilee (76. iii. 2. § 4, 4. § 1), tut did not break with the Jewish leaders. (Vita, 8, 9.) Its early importance as a Jewish town, attested by the fact that it was one of the five cities in which district sanhedrims were instituted by Gabinius (B. J. i. 8. § 5), was further confirmed by the destruction of Jerusalem, after which catastrophe it became for some years the seat of the Great Sanhedrim, until it was transferred to Tiberias. (Robinson, Btbl. Ret. vol. iii. p. 202.) It was subsequently called Diocaesareia, which is its more common appellation in the ecclesiastical annals; while Epiphanius and S. Jerome recognise both names. A revolt of the Jewish inhabitants, in the reign of Constantius (a. D. 339), led to the destruction of the city by Coustantius Gallus Caesar. (Socrates, H. E. ii. 33; Sozomen, H. E. iv. 7.) This town, once the most considerable city of Galilee, was situated according to S. Jerome 10 miles west of Mount Tabor. (OnomasL t. v. @aS<ip; Procopius Gazaeus, Comment, in Lib. Judicwn.) It was much celebrated in the history of the Crusaders, for its fountain — a favourite camping place of the Christians. It is still represented by a poor village bearing the name Sephurieh, distant about 5 miles to the north of Nazareth, retaining no vestiges of its former greatness, but conspicuous with a ruined tower and church, both of the middle ages; the I latter professing to mark the site of the birthplace

ot the Virgin Mary, assigned by a late tradition to this locality. It became the see of a suffragan bishop, under the metropolitan of Scythopolis (Le Quien, Orient Christianus, vol. iii. pp. 713, 714), and there are coins still extant of the reigns of Domitian, Trajan, &c. (Reland, Palaestina, pp. 199 — 1003; Etkhel, Doct. Vet. Num. vol. iii. pp 425, 426.) [G. W.J

SEPTEM AQUAE. [reatk.]

SEPTEM ARAB, a place in Lnsitania (/tin. Ant. pp. 419, 420). Variously identified with Codesera and Arronches. [T. H. D.]

SEPTEM FRATKES {'Eirrdot\(pot Spot, Ptol. iv. 1. § 5), a group of mountains in the northernmost part of Mauritania Tingitana, connected by a tongue of land with the promontory of Abyla (now Ximiera near Ceuta), and thus on the narrowest part of the Fretum Gaditanum (Plin. v. 1. s. 1; Solin. c. 28; Strab. xvii. p. 827.) One of these mountains, now called the Ape Mountains (Graberg Von Hemso, Empire of Morocco, Germ. Tr. p. 24), bore, according to Strabo (i.c.) the name of the Elephant ('EAe^as), probably from the number of elephants which were to be found there. (Plin. £c; Mart. Cap. vi. p. 216.) The Geogr. Rav. (iii. 11) also mentions in this neighbourhood a town called Septem Fratres, which is perhaps the same place mentioned in the Itin. Ant. (p. 9) as a station between Tingis and Abyle. Procopius also (fl. Vand. L 1; coimp. ii. 5, and de Aed. vi. 7) mentions here a castle or fortress called 2«ttov; and Isidore (Orig. XV. 1) a castle and town called Septa, perhaps the modern Ceuta. (Gomp. Mela, i. 5. § 5, et ibi Tzschucke.) [T. H. D.]

SEPTEM MARIA ('Eur* ireAc^), was the name commonly given to the extensive lagunes at the mouth of the Pad lis, and the adjoining rivers, and which extend along a considerable part of the shores of the Adriatic from the mouths of the Padus to Altinum. Pliny indeed seems to use the term in a more restricted sense, as he speaks of "Atrianorum paludes, quae Septem Maria appellantur" (iii. 16. s. 20); but the Itinerary distinctly applies the name to the whole extent of the lagunes from Ravenna to Altinum (7/m. Ant. p. 126); and Herodian, who notices them particularly (viii. 7), clearly uses the term in the same sense. [E. H. B.]

SEPTEM PAGI ('EirrA ITa-yoi), was the name given to a district close to Rome, but on the right bank of the Tiber, which according to tradition had originally formed part of the territory of the Veientes, but was ceded by them to the Romans as early as the reign of Romulus. (Dionys. ii. 55; Pint. Rom. 25.) According to the authorities followed by Dionysins it was again surrendered to the Etruscans by the treaty concluded with Porsena, but was shortly after restored by that monarch to the Romans. (Dionys. v. 31, 36.) Livy mentions the same circumstances, but without giving the name of the district. (lav. ii. 13, 15.) It is evident, however, that this was a well-known appellation, but we are unable to fix its boundaries more definitely. [E, II. B.]

SEPTE'MPEDA (2«rrtM"&», Strab., Ptol: Etli. Septeinpedanus: San Severino'), a town of Picenum, in the upper valley of the Potentia, 9 miles above Treia. It is mentioned by all the geographers, and the " ager Septempedanns" is noticed in the Liber Coloniaram. (Plin. iii. 13. 8. 18; Strab. v. p. 241; Ptol. iii. 1. § 52; Lib. Col p. 258.) Pliny assigns it the rank of a municipal town, and this is confirmed by inscriptions, one of which is of the age of Aurclian.

(Oroll. Inter. 1026; Gruter, Inter, p. 308.3.) It ia placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on that branch of the Flaminian Way which, quitting the main high road at Nuccria, crossed the Apennines to Prolaqueum and thence descended the valley of the Potentia by Septempeda and Treia to Auximum and Ancona. (/tin. Ant p. 312.) It early became an episcopal see, and derives its modem name of San Severino from one of its bishops who flourished in the middle ages. It still retains its rank as an episcopal city, and is the capital of the surrounding city, though it has not more than 3000 inhabitants. (Rampokli, Dizion. Corogr. vol. iii. p. 837.) [E. H. B.]

SEPTIMANCA, a town of the Vaccaei in Hispania Tarraconensis {Itin. Ant. p. 435). Now St. mancas. [T. H. D.]

SEPULCHRUM EURIPIDIS (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4. § 8; comp. Gell. xv. 20; Plut. Lgcurg. 36; Vitruv. viii. 3; Plin. xxxi. 19; Itin. Hierotol), the remarkable monument erected to Euripides in Macedonia, at the narrow gorge of Aulon or Arethusa (Besikia or Rumili Boghazi), where the mountains close upon the road. The ancients (Vitruvins, I. c; Plin. I c.) placed it at the confluence of two streams, of which the water of one was poisonous, the other so sweet and health-giving thai travellers were wont to halt and take their meals by its currents. In the Jerusalem Itinerary, a document as late as the 13th century, it occurs as a station between Pennana and Apollonia. (Comp. Clarke's Traveb, vol. viii. pp. 9—13.) [E. B. J.]

SE'QUANA (Z-ntcovivai, Swo&vas, Ptol. ii. 8. § 2), the Seine, one of the large rivers of Gallia. The Seine rises in the highlands south of Langret, but in the department of Cote <tOr, and flows in a northwest direction past Chatillon-sur-Seine, Troyet, Melun, Paris, Mantet, Elboeuf, Rouen, and Le Havre. It enters the Atlantic below Le Havre. The course of the Seine is about 470 miles, and the area of its basin is about 26,000 English square miles, which is only one half of the area of the basin of the Loire. The chief branches of the Seine which join it on the right bank are the Aube, the Marne, and the Oise; on the left bank, the Tonne, the Ij>mg, and the Eure. None of the hills which bound the basin of the Seine, or are contained within it, have a great elevation, and a large part of the country included within this basin is level.

Caesar (S. G. i. 1) makes the Sequana and the Matrona (Aforne) the boundary between the Celtae and the Belgae. Strabo (iv. p. 192) says that the Sequana rises in the Alps, a statement which we must not altogether impute to an erroneous notion of the position of the river's source, though his knowledge of Gallia was in many respects inaccurate, but to the fact that he extended the name of Alps far beyond the proper limits of those mountains. But his inaccuracy is proved by his saying that the Sequana flows parallel to the Rhine, and through the country of the Sequani. He is more correct in fixing its outlet in the country of the Caleti and the Lexovii. The Seine was navigated in the time of Strabo and mnch earlier. [gallia Trahsalpisa, Vol. I.]

The Mdtrona, as Ausonius names it (Motella, v. 462),—

"Matrona non Gallos Belgasque intersita fines," —

joins the Seine a few miles above Parit; it is the largest of the affluents of the Seine.

Ammianus Marcellinus (xv. 11) says that the

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