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like coarse, from the mountains to the sea. Their identification is for the most part very obscure and uncertain. Thus we find three rivers mentioned in connection with Segesta, and all of them probably flowing through its territory, the Porpax, Telmessus, and Crimessus or Crimisus. The last of these is probably the Fiume di S. Bartolomeo, about 5 miles E. of Segesta: the other two, which are mentioned only by Aelian ( P". B. ii. 33), cannot be identified, though one of them is probably the Fiume Gaggera, which flows beneath Segesta itself, and fulls into the F. di S. Barlolomeo near its mouth. But, to complicate the question still more, we are told that the names of Scamander and Simois were given by the Trojan colonists to two rivers near Segesta; and the former name at least seems to have been really in use. (Strab. xiii. p. 608 j Diod. xx. 71.) Proceeding eastward we find: I, the Orethus (Vib. Sequest p. 15), still called the Oreto, a small stream flowing under the walls of Panormus ; 2, the Eleutberus ('EAeiStpot, PtoL iii. 4. § 3), placed by Ptolemy between Panormus and Soluntum, and which must therefore be the Fiume diBagaria; 3,the northera Himera, commonly identified with the Fiume di S. Leonardo, near Termini, but more probably the Fiume Grande, about 8 miles further E. [himera]; 4, the Monalus (MdVetAoi, Ptol.), between Cephaloedium and Alaesa, now the Pollina; 5, the Halesus or Alaesus, flowing beneath the city of Alaesa, now the Pettuwo; 6, the Chydas (XiJor, Ptol.), between Alaesa and Aluntium; 7, the Timethus (TipyBos, Id.), between Agathyrna and Tyndaris; 8, the Helicon ('EAiitiuv, Id.), between Tyndaris and Mylae;

9, the Phacelinus (Vib. Seqnest), which was near Mylae, or between that city and Messana (the nearer determination of these four last is wholly uncertain);

10, the Melas of Ovid (Fast. iv. 476) is generally placed in the same neighbourhood, though without any obvious reason.

Along the E. coast the names may be more clearly identified. 1. The Onobalas of Appian (B. C. v. 109) is probably identical with the Acesines already noticed; 2, the Acis, a very small stream, is the Fiume di Jaci; 3, the Amenanus, flowing through the city of Catana, is the Giudicello; 4, the Tebias is the Fiume di S. Leonardo, which flows from the Lake of Lentini; 5, the Pantaqias is the Porcari; 6, the Alabus is the Cantaro, a small stream flowing into the bay of Augusta. The Anapus and its confluent the Cyane have been already mentioned. S. of Syracuse occur three small rivers, memorable in the retreat of the Athenians: these are, 1, the Cacyparis (Cassibili); 2, the Erineus (Fiume di Avola); and 3, the AsinaKUS (Falconara). A few miles S. of this was the Helorus, now called the Abisso, flowing by the city of the same name. No other stream occurs between this and Cape rachynum.

Sicily contains no lakes that deserve the name; but there arc a few pools or marshy lagoons, of which the names have been preserved to us. Of the latter description were the Lysimelia Pai.us near Syracuse, and the Camarina Pai.us adjoining the city of the same name. The Lacus Palicorum, on the contrary, was a deep pool or basin of volcanic origin: while tho small lake called by the poets Pergus or Pergnsa is still extant in the neighbourhood of Enna. The Lago di Lentini, though much the most considerable accumulation of waters in Sicily, is not mentioned by any ancient author.

The towns and cities of Sicily were very numerous.

The Greek colonies and their offshoots or dependencies have been already mentioned in relating the history of their settlement; but the names of all the towns so far as they can be ascertained will be here enumerated in geographical order, without reference to their origin, omitting only the places mentioned in the Itineraries, which were probably mere villages or stations. 1. Beginning from Cape Pelorus and proceeding along the E. coast towards Cape Pachynns, were: Messana, Taurohrnium, Naxos, Actum, Catana and Syracuse. Thotilum,destroyed at an early period, as well as Meoara Hyblaka. were situated between Catana and Syracuse. The Chalcidic colonies of Cam.irons and Euboea, both of which disappeared at an early period, must have been situated on or near the E. coast of the island, and to the N. of Syracuse, but we have no further clue to their situation. S. of Syracuse, between it and Cape Pachynns, was Helorus, at the month of tho river of the same name. 2. W. of Cape Pachynns, proceeding along the S. coast, were Camarina, Gela, Phintias, Agrigentum, Heraclea Minoa, Thermae Seununtiae, Seunus, Mazara, and Lilybaeum. Besides these the more obsenre towns of Camicus, Cakna, and Inycum, the two former dependencies of Agrigentum, the latter of Seliuus, must be placed on or near the S. coast of the island. 3. N. of Lilybaeum was Motya, which ceased to exist at a comparatively early period, and Drepanum (Trapani) at the NW. angle of the island. Between this and Panormus, were Eryx at the foot of the mountain of the same name, and a .-hort distance from the coast, the Emporium of Segesta, HycCara, and Cktaria. Proceeding eastward from Panormus, along the N. coast of the island, were Soluntum, Thermae, Himera, Cephaloedium, Alaesa, Caijicta, Agathyrna, Aluntium, Tyndaris, and Mylae.

The towns in the interior are more difficult to enumerate: with regard to some of them indeed wo are at a loss to determine, even in what region of the island they were situated. For the purpose of enumeration it will be convenient to divide the island into three portions; the first comprising the western half of Sicily as far as the river Himera, and a line drawn from its sources to the N. coast: the other two, the NE. and SE. portions, being separated by the course of the river DUtaino and that of the Symaethus to the sea. 1. In the western district were Segesta and Halicyae, the most westerly of the inland cities; Km I T.I.A, on the riva Hypsas, about midway between the two seas; Iaeta and Macella, both of which may probably be placed in the mountainous district between Entella and Panormus; Triocala, near Calatabellotta, in the mountains inland from the Thermae Selinuntiae; Schera, of very uncertain site, but probably situated in the same part of Sicily; Herbessus, in the neighbourhood of Agrigentum; Petra, near the sources of the W. branch of the Himera in the Madtmia mountains; and Engyum (Gaagi), at the head of the Fiume Grande, the E. branch of the same river. Paropus must apparently be placed on the northern declivity of the same mountains, but further to the W.

A little to the E. of the Himera and as nearly as possible in the centre of the island, was situated the fortress of Enna (Castro Giovanni), so that the boundary line between the NE. and NW. regions may be conveniently drawn from thence. 2. In the NE. region were: Asboris and Agyrium. NE. of Enna, but W. of the valley of the Symnethos; Centcripa (Centorbi), nearly due E. of Enria; Adranum (Adtmd), on the E. bank of the Symaethus, at the foot of Mount Aetna; Hybla Major (which must not be confounded with tbe city of the same name near Syracuse), and Aetna, previously called Inessa, both situated on the southern slope of the same mountain. N. of Agyrinm, on the southern slopes of the Mons Nebrodes were situated Herbita, Capitium, and probably also Galaria: while on the northern declivities of the same mountains, fronting the sea, but at some distance inland, were placed Apollonia (probably PoUtna), Amestratus (Mistretta), Abacaknum, a few miles inland from Tyndaris, and Noae, probably Noara. Three other towns, Imacuara, Ichana, and Tissa, may probably be assigned to this same region of Sicily, though their exact position cannot be determined. 3. In the SE. portion of Sicily, S. of the Symaethus and its tributary the Chrysas or Dittaino, were situated Eroetium, Moroantia, Leontini, and Hybla: as well as Mehaenuh and Herbessus: but of all these names Leontini (Lentmi) and Menaenum (Mineo) are the only ones that can be identified with anything like certainty. In the hills W. of Syracuse were Acrae (PaUazoh), Biuis (c7. Gio. di Bidino), and Cacyrum (Cassaro); and W. of these again, in the direction towards Gela, must be placed the Heraean Hybla, as well as Echktla, in the neighbourhood of Gran Michele. SW. of Syracuse, in the interior, were Netum or Neetuji (jVoto Vecchio), and Motyca (Modica), both of which are well known. The Syracusan colony of Casmemae must probably have been situated in the same district but its site has never been identified.

After going through this long list of Sicilian towns, there remain tbe following, noticed either by Cicero or Pliny, as municipal towns, to the position of which we have no means of even approximating. The Achkrini (Cic.),TYRAcmi(Cic; Tyracienses, Plin.), Acestaei (Plin.), Etini (Id.), Herbulenses (Id.). SemelUtani (Id.), Talarenses (Id.). Many of the above names are probably corrupt and merely false readings, but we are at a loss what to substitute. On the other hand, the existence of a town called Mutistratum or Mytistratum is attested by both Cicero and Pliny, and there seems no sufficient reason for rejecting it as identical with Amestratus, as has been done by many modem geographers, though its site is wholly uncertain. Equally unknown are the following names given by Ptolemy among the inland towns of the island: Aleta CAAura), Hydra or Lydia CT5/w or AvMa), Patyorus (Tlarlttpos), Coturga or Cortuga (K&rvpya or Koprvya), Legum or Letum (Avyor or AijToi'), Ancrina (^AyKpiva), Ina or Ena ("Iya or "Hya), and Elcethium ('EAxe'flwi'). It would be a waste of time to discuss these names, most of which are probably in their present form corrupt, and are all of them otherwise wholly unknown. Ou the other hand tbe existence of Naco.na, mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium, but not noticed by any other writer, is confirmed by coins.

The topography of Sicily is still very imperfectly known. The ruins of its more celebrated cities are indeed well known and have been often described; especially in the valuable work of the Duke of Serra di Falco (Antichita della Sicilia, 5 vols. fol. Palermo, 1834—1839), as well as in the well-known travels of Swinburne, Sir B. Hoare, &c. (Swinburne's

Travels in the Tko Sicilies, 2 vols. 4to. Lond. 1783; Sir K. Hoare's Classical Tour through Italy and Sicily, 2 vols. 8vo. Lond. 1819; St. Non, Voyage Pittoresque de Naples et de la Sidle, 5 vols. fol. Paris, 1781; Biscari, Principe di, Viaggio per le Antichita della Sicilia, 8vo. Palermo, 1817, Ac): but the island has never been thoroughly explored by an antiquarian traveller, like those to whom we are indebted for our knowledge of Greece and Asia Minor. The valuable work of Cluverius (Sicilia Antiqua, fol. Lugd. Bat. 1619) must here, as well as for Italy, be made tbe foundation of all subsequent researches. But much valuable information is found in the more ancient work of Fazello, a Sicilian monk of the sixteenth century, as well as of his commentator Amico, and in the Topographical Dictionary of the latter author. (Thomae Fazelli de Rebus Siculis Decades Duo, first edit in fol. Panormi, 1558, republished with copious notes by Amico, 3 vols. fol. Catanae, 1749—1753 ; Amico, Lexicon Topographicum Siculum, 3 vols. 4to. Catanae, 1759). Much, however, still remains to be done. Many localities indicated by Fazello in the sixteenth century as presenting ancient remains have never (so far as we are aware) been visited by any modem traveller: no good map of the island exists, which can be trusted for topographical details, and there can be little doubt that a minute and careful examination of the whole country, such as has been made of the neighbouring island of Sardinia by the Chev. De la Marmora, wonld well reward the labours of the explorer. Even the rains described by Sir B. Hoare as existing in the neighbourhood of Sta Croce, or those situated near Vindicari, a few miles N. of Cape Pachynus and commonly ascribed to Imachara, have never been examined in detail, nor has any clue been obtained to their identification.

The Itineraries give several lines of route through the island, but many of the stations mentioned are wholly uncertain, and were probably never more than obscure villages or mere solitary posthouses. The first line of route (/tin. Ant. pp. 86—89) proceeds from Messana along the E. coast by Tauromenium and Acium to Catana, and from thence strikes inland across the centre of the island to Agrigentum; the course of this inland route is wholly uncertain and the names of the three stations upon it, Capitoniana, Gelasium Philosophiana and Petiliana, are entirely unknown. From Agrigentum it followed the line of coast to Lilybaeum; the stations given are Cena [caena], Allava, Ad Aquas (i. e. the Aquae Labodes or Thermae Selinuntiae), Ad fluvium Lanariuin, and Mazara; all except the 3rd and 5th of very uncertain site. A second route (Itin. Ant. pp. 89, 90) proceeds in the inverse direction from Lilybaeum to Agrigentum, and thence by a more southerly line, through Calvisiana, Hybla, and Acrae (Palaezolo') to Syracuse, and from thence as before along the E. coast to Messana. A third line follows the N. coast of the island from Lilybaeum by Panonnus to Mtssana. The stations on this line are better known and can for the most part be determined: they are, Drepana, Aquae Segestanao (near Segesta), Partbenium (Partinico), Hyccara (Muro di Cart7ii), l'anormus, Soluntum, Thermae, Cepl i aloedi urn, Halesus (Alaesa), Calacte, Agatinn urn, (Agatliyrnum), Tyndaris, and "Messana. A fourth route (Jtin. Ant. p. 93) crossed the interior of the island from Thermae, where it branched off from the preceding, passing through Enna, Agyrium, Centuripa and Aetna to Catana. A fifth gives us a line of strictly maritime route around the southern extremity of the inland from Agrigentum to Syracuse; but with the exception of Pintis, which is probably Phintias (Alicatd), none of the stations can be identified. Lastly, a line of road was in use which crossed the island from Agrigentum direct to Panormus (Ttin. Ant. p. 96), but none of its stations are known, and we are therefore unable to determine even its general course. The other routes given in the Itinerary of Antoninus are only unimportant variations of the preceding ones. The Tabula gives only the one general line around the island (crossing, however, from Calvisiana on the S. coast direct to Syracuse), and the cross line already mentioned from Thermae to Catana. All discussion of distances along the above routes must be rejected as useless, until the routes themselves can be more accurately determined, which is extremely difficult in so hilly and broken a country as the greater part of the interior of Sicily. The similarity of names, which in Italy is so often a sure guide where all other indications are wanting, is of far less assistance in Sicily, where the long period of Arabic dominion has thrown the nomenclature of the island into great confusion [E. H. B.]



SICILIBBA or SICILIBRA (in the Geogr. Rav. Siciliba, iii. 5), a place in Africa Propria (Itin. Ant. pp. 25, 45), variously identified with Bazilbah and Baouch Alouina. [T. H. D.]

SPCINOS (SiWos: Eth. Swiffn)!: Sikino), a small island in the Aegaean sea, one of the Sporades, lying between Pholegandros and Ios, and containing a town of the same name. (Scylax, p. 19; Strab. x. p. 484; Ptol. iii. 15. § 31.) It is said to have been originally called Oenoe from its cultivation of the vine, but to have been named Sicinos after a son of Thoas and Oenoe. (Steph. B. s. v.; Apoll. Rhod. i. 623; Schol. ad loc.; Plin. iv. 12. s. 23; Etym. M. p. 712. 49.) Wine is still the chief production of the island. It was probably colonised by Iouians. Like most of the other Grecian islands, it submitted to Xerxes (Herod, viii. 4), but it afterwards formed part of the Athenian maritime empire. There are some remains of the ancient city situated upon a lofty and rugged mountain, on whose summit stands the church of & Marina. There is also still extant an ancient temple of the Pythian Apollo, now converted into the church Episkopi (J) 'Emo-Kon^). It stands in a depression between the main range of mountains, and the summit lying more to the left, upon which the ruins of the ancient city stand. We learn from an inscription found there by Ross that it was the temple of the Pythian Apollo. (Ross, Reuen auf den Griech. Ittseln, vol. ii. p. 149, seq.; Fiedler, Jieite, vol. ii. p. 151, seq.)

SIC OR [secor.]

SI'CORIS (21<cop.r, Dion Cass. xli. 20), a tributary river of the Ihcrus in Hispania Tarraconensis. It rav in the Pyrenees in the territory of the Cer

rctani, and separated the countries of the Ileitetes and Lacetani. It flowed past Ilerda, and according to Vibius Sequester (p. 224, ed. Bipont) bore the name of that town. A little afterwards it received the Cinga, and then flowed into the Iberus near Octogesa. (Caes. B. C. i. 40, 48; Plin. iii. 3. a. 4; Lucan. iv. 13, seq.) Ausonius describes it as flowing impetuously (" torrentem," Eput. xxv. 59). Now the Segre. [T. H. D.]

Sl'CULI (2u«Aoi), is the name given by ancient writers to an ancient race or people that formed one of the elements in the primitive population of Italy, as well as Sicily. But the accounts given of them are very confused and uncertain. We find the Siculi mentioned: 1, as among the early inhabitants of Latium; 2, in the extreme S. of Italy; 3, in Sicily; 4, on the shores of the Adriatic. It will be convenient to examine these notices separately.

1. The Siculi are represented by Dionysius as the earliest inhabitants of the country subsequently called Latium (i. 9), as well as of the southern part of Etruria; they were an indigenous race, i. e. one of whose wanderings and origin he had no account. They held the whole country till they were expellnl from it by the people whom he calls Aborigine?*, descending from the mountains of Central Italy [aborigines], who made war upon them, in conjunction with the Pelasgians; and after a long protracted struggle, wrested from them one town after another (Id. i. 9, 16). Among the cities that are exprestly mentioned by him as having once been occupied by the Siculi, are Tibur, where a part of the city was still called in the days of Dionysius SuccAiwf. Ficulea, Antemnae, and Tellenae, as well as Falerii and Fescennium, in the country afterwards called Etruria (Id. i. 16, 20, 21). The Siculi being thus finally expelled from their possessions in this part of Italy, were reported to have migrated in a body to the southern extremity of the peninsula, from whence they crossed over the straits, and established themselves in the island of Sicily, to which they gave the name it has ever since borne. [sicilia.] (Id. i. 22.) Dionysius is the only author who has left us a detailed account of the conquest and expulsion of the Siculi, but they are mentioned by Pliny among the races that had successively occupied Latium (Plin. iii. 5. s. 9): and this seems to have been an established and received tradition.

2. We find the Siculi frequently mentioned in the southernmost portion of the Italian peninsula, where they appear in close connection with the Oenotrians, Morgetes, and Itali, all of them kindred tribes, which there are good reasons for assigning to the Pelasgic race. [oenotria.] It is probable, as suggested by Strabo, that the Siculi, more than once, mentioned by Homer ((%*». xx. 383, xxiv. 211, &c), were the inhabitants of the coast of Italy opposite to Ithaca: and the traditions of the Epizephyrian L«crians, reported by Polybius, spoke of the Siculi as tho people in whose territory they settled, and with whom they first found themselves engaged in war. (Polyb. xii. 5, 6 ) Numerous traditions also, reported by Dionysius (i. 22, 73) from Antiochus, Hellanicus, and others, concur in bringing the Siculi and their eponymous leader Siculus (2«f\<fi) into cl«se connection with Italus and the Itali: and this is confirmed by the linguistic relation which may fairly be admitted to exist between XiKt\6s and 'itoaos (Niebnhr, vol. i. p. 47) though this is not cl.<se enough to be in itself conclusive. So far as our scanty knowledge goes, therefore, we must conclude that the two shores of the Sicilian strait were at one period peopled by the same tribe, who were known to the Greeks by the name of Sicels or Siculi; and that this tribe was probably a branch of the Oenotrian or Pelasgic race. The legends which connected these Siculi with those who were expelled from Latium seem to have been a late invention, as we may infer from the circumstance that Sicelus, who is represented by Antiochus as taking refuge with Morges, king of Italia, was called a fugitive from Rome. (Dionys. i. 73.)

3. The Siculi or Siceli were the people who occupied the greater part of the island of Sicily when the Greek colonies were first'established there, and continued throughout the period of the Greek domination to occupy the greater part of the interior, especially the more rugged and mountainous tracts of the island. [sicilia.] The more westerly portions were, however, occupied by a people called Sicani.whom the Greek writers uniformly distinguish from the Siculi, notwithstanding the resemblance of the two names. These indeed would seem to have been iu their origin identical, and we find Roman writers using them as such; so that Virgil more than once employs the name of Sicani, where he can only mean the ancient Latin people called by Dionysius Siculi. (Virg. Aen. viii. 795, xi. 317.)

4. The traces of the Siculi on the western shores of the Adriatic are more uncertain. Pliny indeed tells us distinctly that Numana and Ancona were founded by the Siculi (Plin. iii. 13. s. 18); but it is by no means improbable that this is a mere confusion, as we know that the latter city at least was really founded by Sicilian Greeks, as late as the time of Dionysius of Syracuse [ancona]. When, however, he tells us that a considerable part of this coast of Italy was held by the Siculians and Liburnians, before it was conquered by the Umbrians (/*. 14. s. 19), it seems probable that he must have some other authority for this statement; Pliny is, however, the only author who mentions the Siculi in this part of Italy.

From these statements it is very difficult to arrive at any definite conclusion with regard to the ethnographic affinities of the Siculi. On the one hand, the notices of them in Southern Italy, as already observed, seem to bring them into close connection with the Itali and other Oenotrian tribes, and would lead us to assign them to a Pelasgic stock: but on the other it must be admitted that Dionysius distinctly separates them from the Pelasgi in Latium, and represents them as expelled from that country by the Pelasgi, in conjunction with the so-called Aborigines. Hence the opinions of modern scholars have been divided: Niebuhr distinctly receives the Siculi as a Pelasgic race, and as forming the Pelasgic or Greek element of the Latin people; the same view is adopted by 0. Muller {Etrxuker, pp. 10— 16, &c.) and by Abeken (Mittel Ilalien, p. 5); while Grotefend (Alt /fatten, vol. iv. pp. 4—6), followed by Forbiger and others, regards the Siculi as a Gaulish or Celtic race, who had gradually wandered southwards through the peninsula of Italy, till they finally crossed over and established themselves in the island of Sicily. This last hypothesis is, however, purely conjectural. We have at least some foundation for supposing the Siculi as well as the OenoIrians to be of Pelasgic origin: if this be rejected, we are wholly in the dark as to their origin or affinities. [K. U. B.]

SI'CULUM MARE (to 5i«aik!»< n4\ayos, Pol. Strab. &c.), was the name given in ancient times to that portion of the Mediterranean sea which bathed the eastern shores of Sicily. But like all similar appellations, the name was used in a somewhat vague and fluctuating manner, so that it is difficult to fix its precise geographical limits. Thus Strabo describes it as extending along the eastern shore of Sicily, from the Straits to Cape Pachynus, with the southern shore of Italy as far as Locri, and again to the eastward as far as Crete and the Peloponnese; and as filling the Corinthian Gulf, and extending northwards to the Iapygian promontory and the mouth of the Ionian gulf. (Strab. ii. p. 123.) It is clear, therefore, that he included under the name the whole of the sea bafween the Peloponnese and Sicily, which is more commonly known as the Ionian sea [ionium Mare], but was termed by later writers the Adriatic [adriaticum Mare]. Polybius, who in one passage employs the name of Ionian sea in this more extensive 6ense, elsewhere uses that of the Sicilian sea in the same general manner as Strabo, since he speaks of the island ol Cephalletiia as extending out towards the Sicilian sea (v. 3); and even describes the Ambracian gulf as an inlet or arm of the Sicilian sea (iv. 63, v. 5). Eratosthenes also, it would appear from Pliny, applied the name of Siculum Mare to the whole extent from Sicily to Crete. (Plin. iii. 5. s. 10.) The usage of Pliny himself is obscure; but Mela distinguishes the Sicilian sea from the Ionian, applying the former name to the western part of the broad sea, nearest to Sicily, and the latter to its more easterly portion, nearest to Greece. (Mel. ii. 4. § 1.) But this distinction does not seem to have been generally adopted or continued long in use. Indeed the name of the Sicilian sea seems to have fallen much into disuse. Ptolemy speaks of Sicily itself as bounded on the N. by the Tyrrhenian sea, on the S. by the African, and on the E. by the Adriatic; thus omitting the Sicilian sea altogether (Ptol. iii. 4. § 1); and this seems to have continued under the Roman Empire to be the received nomenclature.

Strabo tells us that the Sicilian sea was the same which had previously been called the Ausonian (Strab. ii. p. 133, v. p. 233); but it is probable that that name was never applied in the more extended sense in which he uses the Sicilian sea, but was confined to the portion more immediately adjoining the southern coasts of Italy, from Sicily to the Iapygian promontory. It is in this sense that it is employed by Pliny, as well as by Polybius, whom he cites as his authority. (Plin. I c.) [E. H. B.]

SICUM (Sucow, Ptol. ii. 16. § 4; Plin. iii. 22; Siclis, Peut. Tab.), a town of Dalmatia, to the E. of Tragurium, on the road to Salona, where Claudius is said to have quartered the veterans. (Plin. He.) From its position it cannot be Sebenico, with which it has been identified, but may be represented by the vestiges of a Roman station to the NW. of Castei Yetturi, on the Riviere dei Caitetti, where a column with a dedicatory inscription to M. Julius Philippus has been lately found, as well as much pottery and Roman tiles. (Wilkinson, Dalmatia, vol. i. p. 176.) [E. B. J.]

Sl'CYON (o and i) liKvSn, also SnruaW, Bekker, Anted, p. 555: Eth. 2i<vtivios: the territory 2iKvuvla: Yasilikd.)

I. Situation.—Sicyon was an important city of Peloponnesus, situated upon a table-height of no great I elevation, at the distance of about 2 miles from the Corinthian gulf. Strabo (viii. p. 882) correctly describes it as occupying a strong bill distant 20 stadia from the sea, though he adds that others made the distance 12 stadia, which may, however, have reference to the lower town built at the foot of the tableheight. Upon this height the modem village of Fatilikd now stands. It is defended on every side by ;i natural wall of precipices, which can be ascended only by one or two narrow passages from the plain. A river flows upon either side of the hill, the one on the eastern side being the Asopus, and that on the western side the Helisson. When Sicyon was at the height of its power, the city consisted of three parts, the Acropolis on the hill of Vasilifal, the lower town at its foot, and a port-town upon the coast. The port-town wa# well fortified. (2*kuwiw Ai^y, Xen. Hell vii. 3. § 2; Polyb. v. 27; Paus. ii. 12. § 2; Strab. {. c.)

II. History. — Sicyon was one of the most ancient cities of Greece, and is said to have existed under the name of Aegialeia (AryiaAeia, Pans. ii. 5. § 6) or Aegiali (AfyiaAoi, Strab. viii. p. 382) long before the arrival of Pelops in Greece. It was also called Meoone (Mn/niKn), which was apparently its sacerdotal name, and under which it is celebrated as the "dwelling-place of the blessed/' and as the spot where Prometheus instituted the Hellenic sacrifices and deceived Zeus. (Steph. B. t. v. "XiKviiv; Strab. viii. p. 382; Callim. Fragm. 195, p. 513,ed.Ernesti; Hesiod. Theog. 535.) Its name TelChinia (TcXx^'a) has reference to its being one of the earliest seats of the workers in metal. (Steph. B. s. v. Suciw). Its name Aegialeia was derived from a mythical autochthon Aegialeus, and points to the time when it was the chief city upon the southern coast of the Corinthian gulf, the whole of which was also called Aegialeia. Its later name of Sicyon was said to have been derived from an Athenian of this name, who became king of the city, and who is represented as a son of either Marathon or Metion. (Paus. ii. 6. § 5.) This legend points to the fact that the early inhabitants of Sicyon were Ionians. Aegialeus is said, in some traditions, to have been the son of Inachus, the first king of Argos, and the brother of Phoroneus. A long series of the successors of Aegialeus is given, among whom one of the most celebrated was the Argive Adrastus, who, being expelled from his own dominions, fled to Polybus, then king of Sicyon, and afterwards succeeded him on the throne. (Euseb. Chron. p. 11, seq.; August Civ. Dei, xviii. 2; Paus. ii. 6. §§ 6, 7.) Homer indeed calls Adrastus first king of Sicyon (Horn. //. ii. 572); and we know that in historical times this hero was worshipped in the city. (Herod, v. 67.) Sicyon was subsequently conquered by Agamemnon, who, however, left Hippolytus ou the throne; but Sicyon became a tributary city to Mycenae. (Paus. ii. 6. §§ 6, 7; Horn. II ii. 572, xxiii. 299.) Hippolytus was the grandson of Phaestus, who was a Bon of Hercules; and in consequence of this connection, the inhabitants were not expelled or reduced to subjection upon the conquest of the city by the Dorians under Phalces, the son of Temenus; for while the Dorian conquerors, as in all other Doric states, were divided into three tribes under the names of Hylleis, Pamphyli, and Dymanatae, the original Sicyonians were formed into a fourth tribe, under the name of A/'gialeis, which possessed the same political rights a* the other three. (Paus. ii. 6. § 7; Strab. viii. p. 3S9; Herod, v. 68.) Sicyon was now a Dorian

state; and from this time its real history begins. It was at first dependent upon Argos (Pans. I c), which was for some time the most powerful state in the Peloponnesus, Sparta being second to it. In the First Messenian War the Sicyonians fought on tha side of the Messenians along with the Argives and Arcadians. (Paus. iv. 11. § I.) In the Second Messenian War, about B. C. 676, Sicyon became subject to the tyranny of the Orthagoridae, who governed the city for more than 100 years, and whose rule is praised by Aristotle (_Pol v. 9. § 21) for its mildness. The family of the Orthagoridae belonged to the non-Dorian tribe, and the continuance of their power is to be accounted for by the fact of their being supported by the original population against the Dorian conquerors. Orthagoras, the founder of the dynasty, is said to have been originally a cook. (Aristot I c.; Hellad. ap. Phot. cod. 279, p. 530; Liban. vol. iii. p. 251, ed. Heiske.) In other accounts Andreas is mentioned as the first of the Sicyonian tyrants (Herod, vi. 126; Diod. Fragm. Vat 14); and it is probable that he is the same person as Orthagoras, as the two names do not occur in the same author. He was succeeded by his son Myron, who gained a chariot victory at Olympia in B. C 648; Myron by Aristonymus; and Aristonymus by Cleisthenes. (Herod, vi. 126; Paus. ii. 8. § 1, vi. 19. § 1.) The latter was celebrated for his wealth and magnificence, and was also distinguished by bis bitter hatred against Argos, and his systematic endeavour to depress and dishonour the Dorian tribes. He changed the ancient and venerable names of the three Dorian tribes into the insulting names of Hy. atae, Oneatae, and Choereatae, from the three Greek words signifying the sow, the ass, and the pig; while he declared the superiority of his own tribe by giving it the designation of Archelai, or lords of the people. Cleisthenes appears to have continued despot till his death, which may be placed about B. c. 560. The dynasty perished with him. He left no son; but his daughter Agariste, whom so many suitors wooed, was married to the Athenian Megacles, of the great family of the Alcmaeonidae, and became the mother of Cleisthenes, the founder of the Athenian democracy after the expulsion of the PeixUtratidas. The names given to the tribes by Cleisthenes continued in use for sixty years after the death of the tyrant, when by mutual agreement the ancient names were restored. (Herod, vi. 126 —131; Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. iii. p. 43, eeq.j Diet, of Biogr. art. Cleisthenes.)

A Dorian reaction appears now to have taken place, for during a long time afterwards the Sicyonians were the steady allies of the Spartans. In the invasion of Greece by Xerxes (b. C. 480), the Sicyonians sent a squadron of 15 .ships to Salamis (Herod, viii. 43), and a body of 3000 hoplites to Plataea. (Herod, ix. 28.) In the interval between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars the territory was twice invaded and laid waste by the Athenians, first under Tolmides in B.C. 456 (Time. i. 108; Paus. i. 27. § 5), and a second time under Pericles, B. C. 454 (Thuc. i. Ill; Diod. xi. 88). A few years later (b. C. 445) the Sicyonians supported the Megarians in their revolt from Athens. (Thuc. i. 114.) In the Peloponnesian War they sided with Sparta, and sent a contingent of ships to the Peloponnesian fleet. (Thuc. ii. 9, 80, 83.) In B. c. 424 the Sicyonians assisted Brasidas in his operations against the Athenians in the Megarid

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