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(Thnc iv. 70), and in the same year they repulsed a descent of the Athenians nndcr Demosthenes upon their territory. (Thnc. iv. 101.) In B.C. 419 they united with the Corinthians in preventing Alcibiades from erecting a fortress upon the Achaean promontory of Rhium. (Thnc. v. 52.) About this time a democratical revolution appears to have taken place, since we find the Lacedaemonians establishing an oligarchical government in Sicyon in B.C. 417. (Thuc. v. 82.) In the wars of Laeedaemon against Corinth, B.c. 394, and against Thebes,B.C. 871, the Sicyonians espoused the side of the Lacedaemonians. (Xen. Hell. iv. 2.§ 14, iv. 4. § 7, seq. vi. 4. § 18.) But in B. c. 368 Sicyon was compelled by Epaminondas to join the Spartan alliance, and to admit a Theban harmost and garrison into the citadel. Enphron, a leading citizen of Sicyon, taking advantage of these circumstances, and supported by the Arcadians and Argives, succeeded in establishing a democracy, and shortly afterwards made himself tyrant of the city. But being expelled by the Arcadians and Thebans, he retired to the harbour, which he surrendered to Sparta. By the assistance of the Athenians he returned to Sicyon ; but finding himself unable to dislodge the Theban garrison from the Acropolis, he repaired to Thebes, in hopes of obtaining, by corruption and intrigue, the banishment of his opponents and the restoration of his own power. Here, however, he was murdered by some of his enemies. (Xen. Bett. vii. 1—3 ; Diod. xv. 69, 70 ; Diet, of Biogr. art. Euphros.) Sicyon seems, however, to have been favorable to tyrants; for, after a short time, we again find the city in their power. The facility with which ambitious citizens obtained the supreme power was probably owing to the antagonism between the Dorian and old Ionian inhabitants. Demosthenes mentions two Sicyonian tyrants, Aristratus and Epichares, in the pay of Philip (de Cur. pp. 242, 324). In the Lamian war, after the death of Alexander the Great, B.C. 323, the Sicyonians joined the other Greeks against the Macedonians. (Diod. xviii. 11.) The city subsequently fell into the hands of Alexander, the son of Polysperchon ; and after his murder in B. c. 314, his wife Cratesipolis continued to hold the town for Cassander till B.C. 308, when she was induced to betray it to Ptolemy. (Diod. xix. 67, xx. 37.) In B. c. 303, Sicyon passed out of the hands of Ptolemy, being surprised by Demetrius Poliorcetes in the night. It appears that at this time Sicyon consisted of three distinct parts, as already mentioned, the Acropolis, on the hill of VariUki, the lower city at its foot, and the port-town. It is probable that formerly the Acropolis and the lower city were united with the port-town, by walls extending to the sea; but the three quarters were now separated from one another, and there was even a vacant space between the lower town and the citadel. Seeing the difficulty of defending so extensive a space with the diminished resources and population of the city, and anxious to secure a strongly fortified place, Demetrius compelled the inhabitants to remove to the site of the ancient Acropolis, which Diodorus describes as " a site very preferable to that of the former city, the inclosed space being an extensive plain, surrounded on every side by precipices, and so difficult of access that it would not be possible to attack the walls with machines." This new city was called Demetrias. (Diod. xx. 102; Pint Dtmetr. 25; Paus. ii. 7. § 1; Strab. viii. p. 382.) The name Demetrias

soon disappeared; but the city continued to remain upon its lofty site, which was better adapted than most mountain heights in Greece for a permanent population, since it contained a good supply of water and cultivable land. Pausanias (ic.) represents the lower town as the original city of Aegialeus ; but Col. Leake justly remarks, it is more natural to conclude that the first establishment was made upon the hill Varilikd, which, by its strength and its secure distance from the sea, possesses attributes similar to those of the other chief cities of Greece. Indeed, Pausanias himself confirms the antiquity of the occupation of the hill of Varilikd, by describing all the most ancient monuments of the Sicyonians as standing upon it. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 367.)

After Demetrius quitted Sicyon, it again became subject to a succession of tyrants, who quickly displaced one another. Cleon was succeeded in the tyranny by Enthydemus and Timocleides; but they were expelled by the people, who placed Cleinias, the father of Aratus, at the head of the government. Cleinias was soon afterwards murdered by Abantidas who seized the tyranny, B. c. 264. Abantidas was murdered in his turn, and was succeeded by his father Paseas; but he again was murdered by Nicocles, who had held the sovereign power only four months, when the young Aratus surprised the citadel of Sicyon, and delivered his native city from the tyrant, B. c. 251. (Pans. ii. 8. §§ 1—3; Plut, Aral. 2.) Through the influence of Aratus, Sicyon now joined the Achaean League, and was one of the most important cities of the confederacy. (Paus. ii. 8. § 3; Plut Arat. 9; Polyb. ii. 43.) In consequence of its being a member of the league, its territory was devastated, both by Cleomenes, B. c. 233 (Plut Arat. 41, Cleom. 19; Polyb. ii. 52), and by the Aetolians, B. c. 221. (Polyb. iv. 13.) In the Roman wars in Greece, Sicyon was favoured by Attains, who bestowed handsome presents upon it. (Polyb. xviL 16; Liv. xxxii. 40.) The conquest of Corinth by the Romans, u. c. 146, was to the advantage of Sicyon, for it obtained the greater part of the neighbouring territory and the administration of the Isthmian games. (Paus. ii. 2. § 2.) But even before Corinth was rebuilt, Sicyon again declined, and appears in an impoverished state towards the end of the Republic (Cic. ad Att i. 19, 20, ii. 1.) After the restoration of Corinth, it still further declined, and its ruin was completed by an earthquake, which destroyed a great part of the city, so that Pausanias found it almost depopulated (ii. 7. § 1). The city, however, still continued to exist in the sixth century of the Christian era; for Hierocles (p. 646, Wess.) mentions New Sicyon (Ne'a SiKvtfr) among the chief cities of Acliaia. The maritime town was probably Old Sicyon. Under the Byzantine empire Sicyon was called Hellas, and the inhabitants Helladici, probably in contradistinction to the surrounding Slavonic inhabitants. (Survofr, v vvv 'EAAefo, Suidas; rtov %KvttfUn Tuv ml hcfoiiivmv 'ewosikuv, Malala, iv. p. 68, Bonn.) The name Vasilikd (ja BaaiMicd) has reference to the ruins of the temples and other public buildings.

IU. Art, cfc.—Sicyon is more renowned In the artistic than in the political history of Greece. For a long time it was one of the chief seats of Grecian art, and was celebrated alike for its painters and sculptors. According to one tradition painting was invented at Sicyon, where Telephones wag the first to practise the monogram, or drawing in outline (Plin. xxxv. 3. s. 15); and the city long remained the home of painting (" diu ilia fait patria picturae,*1 Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40). Sicyon gave its name to one of the great schools of painting, which was founded by Eu pom pus, and which produced PamphUoB and Apelles. (Plin. xxxv. 10. s. 36.) Sicyon was likewise the earliest school of statuary in Greece, which was introduced into the city by Dipoenus and Scyllis from Crete about B. c. 560 (Plin. xxxvi. 4); but its earliest native statuary of celebrity was Canachus. Lysippus was also a native of Sicyon. {Diet, of Bioyr. s. tw.) The city was thus rich in works of art; but its most valuable paintings, whicli the Sicyonians had been obliged to give in pledge on account of their debts, were removed to Rome in the aedileship of M. Scaurus, to adorn his theatre. (Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40.)

Sicyon was likewise celebrated for the taste and skill displayed in the various articles of dress made by its inhabitants, among which we find mention of a particular kind of shoe, which was much prized in all parts of Greece. (Athen. iv. p. 155; Pollux, vii. 93; Hesych. *. v. ^acwavla ; Auctor, ad Herenn. iv. 3, tie OraL i. 54; Lucret iv. 1121; Fest. s. v. SicyonicL)

IV. Topography of ike City.—Fewcitiesin Greece were more finely situated than Sicyon. The hill on which it stood commands a most splendid view. Towards the west is seen the plain so celebrated for its fertility; towards the east the prospect is bounded by the lofty hill of the Acrocorintbus; while in front lies the sea, with the noble mountains of Parnassus, Helicon, and Cithaeron rising from the opposite coast, the whole forming a charming prospect, which cannot have been without influence in cultivating the love for the fine arts, for which the city was distinguished. The hill of Sicyon is a tabular summit of a triangular shape, and is divided into an upper and a lower level by a low ridge of rocks stretching right across it, and forming an abrupt separation between the two levels. The upper level, which occupies the southern point of the triangle, and is about a thin! of the whole, was the Acropolis in the time of Pausauias (ij vvv AKp6no\ts, ii. 7. § 5).

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f trie tomb of Eupolis of Athens, the comic poet. After passing some other sepulchral monuments, ha entered the city by the Corinthian gate, where waa a fountain dropping down from the overhanging rocks, which was therefore called Stazusa (2t<££ovaa)t or the dropping fountain. This fountain has now disappeared in consequence of the falling in of the rocks. Upon entering the city Pausanias first crossed the ledge of rocks dividing the upper from the lower level, and passed into the Acropt lis. Here he noticed temples of Tyche and the Dioscuri, of which there are still some traces. Below the Acropolis was the theatre, the remains of which are found, in conformity with the description of Pausanias, in the ledge of rocks separating the two levels On the stage of the theatre stood the statue of a man with a shield, said to have been that of A rat us. Near the theatre was the temple of Dionysus, from which a road led past the ruined temple of Artemis Limnaea to the Agora. At the entrance of the Agora was the temple of Peitho or Persuasion: and in the Agora the temple of Apollo, which appears to have been the chief sanctuary in Sicyon. The festival of Apollo at Sicyon is celebrated in the ninth Nemean ode of Pindar; and Aratus, when lie delivered his native city from its tyrant, gave as the watchword *Av6Wwv uirtp5«£io5. (Plut. Arat. 7.) In the time of Polybius (xvii. 16) a brazen colossal statue of king Attalus I., 10 cubits high, stood in the Agora near tLe temple of Apollo; but this statue is not mentioned by Pausanias, and had therefore probably disappeared. (Paus. ii. 7. §§ 2—9.) Near the temple of Peitho was a sanctuary consecrated to the Roman emperors, and formerly the house of the tyrant Cleon. Before it stood the heroum of Aratus (Paus. ii. 8. § 8), and near it an altar of the Isthmian Poseidon, and statues of Zeus Meilichius and of Artemis Patroa, the former resembling a pyramid, the latter a column. In the Agora were also the council-house ($ov\cvTi)tH<>r). and a stoa built by Cleisthenes out of the spoils of Cirrha; likewise a brazen statue of Zeus, the work of Lysippus, a gilded statue of Artemis, a ruined temple of Apollo Lyceius, and statues of the daughters of Proetus, of Hercules, and of Hermes Agoraeus. (Paus. ii- 9. §§ 6, 7.) The Poecile Stua or painted stoa, was probably in the Agora, but is not mentioned by Pausanias. Jt was adorned with numerous paintings, which formed the subject of a work of Polemon. ( Athen. xiii. p. 57 7).

Pausanias then proceeded to the Gymnasium, which he describes as not far from the Agora. The Gymnasium contained a marble statue of Hercules by Scopaa; and in another part a temple of Hercules in a sacred inclosure, named Paedize. From thence ; a road led to two large inclosures, sacred to Asclepius and Aphrodite, both of which were adorned with several statues and buildings. From the Aphrodisium Pausauias went past the temple of Artemis I Pheraea to the gymnasium of Cleinias, whit h was I used tor the training of the Ephebi, and which con'tained statues of Artemis and Hercules. (Paus. ii. , 10.) It is evident that this gymnasium was different from the one already described, as Pausanias continues his course towards the sea-side. From thence he turns towards the gate of the city called the Sacred, near which there formerly stood a celebrated temple of Athena, built by Epopeus, one of the mythical kings of Sicyon, but which had been burnt by lightning, and of which nothing then remained but the altar: this temple may perhaps have been the one sacred to Athena Colocasia, mentioned by Athenaeus (iii. p. 72). There were two adjoining temples, one sacred to Artemis and Apollo, built by Epopeus, and the other sacred to Hera, erected by Adrastus, who was himself worshipped by the people of Sicyon (Herod, v. 68; Find. Ntm. ix. 20). there can be little doubt that these ancient temples stood in the original Acropolis of Sicyon; and indeed Paosanias elsewhere (ii. 5. § 6) expressly states that the ancient Acropolis occupied the site of the temple of Athena. We may place these temples near the northern edge of the hill upon the site of the modern village of VasiUki; and accordingly the

remarkable opening in the rocks near the village may be regarded as the position of the Sacred Gate, leading into the ancient Acropolis. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 372.)

In descending from the Heraenm, on the road to the plain, was a temple of Demeter; and close to the Heraeum were the ruins of the temple of Apollo Carneius and Hera Prodromia, of which the latter was founded by Phalces, the sou of Temcnus. (Pans. ii. 11. §§ 1,1.)

The walls of Sicyon followed the edge of the whole hill, and may still be traced in many parts. The direction of the ancient streets may also still be followed by the existing foundations of the houses: they run with mathematical precision from NE. to SW.. and from N\V. to SE., thus following the rule of Vitruvius. Few of the ruins rise above the ground; but there is a Roman building better preserved, and containing several chambers, which lies near the ridge separating the two levels of the hill. Leuke supposes that this building was probably the practoriuin of the Roman governor during the period between the destruction of Corinth by Mummius and its restoration by Julius Caesar, when Sicyon was the capital of the surrounding country; but more recent observers are inclined to think that the ruins are those of baths. West of this building are the theatre and the stadium; and the modern road which leads from Vasilikd to Stymphalus runs between this Roman building and the theatre and then through a portion of the stadium. The theatre was cut out of the rock, separating the two levels of the hill, as already described; its total diameter was about 400 feet, and that of the orchestra 100. Each wing was supported by a mass of masonry, penetrated by an arched passage. To the NW. of the theatre are the remains of the stadium, of which the total length, including the seats at the circular end, is about 680 feet. Col. Leake remarks that " the 6tadiuin resembles that of Messene, in having had seats which were not continued through the whole length of the sides. About 80 feet of the rectilinear extremity had no seats; and this part, instead of being excavated out of the hill like the rest, is formed of factitious ground, supported at the end by a wall of polygonal masonry, which still exists." There are also, in various parte of the hill, remains of several subterraneous aqueducts, which supplied the town with water. The opening of one of them is seen on the SE. side of the theatre; and there is another opening now walled up W. of the modern village. The tyrant Nicocles escaped through these subterraneous passages when Sicyon was taken by Aratus. (Plut. Arat. 9.)


Plan Of The Buiss Of sicvoN (from the French Commission).

A. Acropolis from the time of Demetrius. I 5. Probable site of the Agora*

1. Temple of Tyche and the Dioscuri. 6. Roman Building.

2. Theatre. a a Road from the lake of Slyraphalui to l asilikn %. Stadium. I and Corintb.

4. Probable site of the Gymnasium.
Vol. u. 3 I

V. Topography of the Sicyonia. — The territory of Sicyon was very Bmall, and, in fact, was little more than the valley of the Asopus. In the upper part of its course the valley of the Asopus is confined between mountains, but near the sea it opens out into a wide plain, which was called Asopla. ('AoWa, Strab. viii. p. 382, ix. p. 408; Paus. ii. 1. § 1.) This plain was celebrated for its fertility {fiiya. <ppovt1v 4ir\ T$ To "xikv&viov srcSfrw ytapytiv, Locian, /carom, c. 18), and was especially adapted for the cultivation of the olive. ("Sicyonia Dacca," Virg. Georg. ii. 519; Ov. Kp. ex Pont. iv. 15. 10; Stat. Theb. iv. 50.) The neighbouring Bea supplied an abundance of excellent fish. (Athen. i. p. 27.) It was separated from the Corinthia on the E. by the river Nemea, and from the territory of Pellene on the W. by the Sythas; and on the S. it was bounded by the territories of Phlius and Cleonae. At one time the territory of Sicyon must have extended even beyond the Sythas, since Gonussa or DoNt'SSA, which lay W. of this river, is described by Puusanias as belonging to the Sicyonians. [phlT.F.NK, p. 571, a.] Between the Helisson and the Sythas w-as probably the river Selleeis, with the neighbouring village of Ephyra, mentioned by Strabo (viii p. 338). [ephyra, No. 3.1 Sixty stadia S. of Sicyon, and near the frontiers of rhliasia, was Titane or Titana, the most important of the dependencies of Sicyon. [titane.] Forty stadia beyond Titane was Phlius; but this road, which

was too narrow for carriages, was not the direct road from Sicyon to Phlius. The direct road was to the right of the Asopus; and the circuitous road through Titane to the left of that river. Between these two roads, at the distance of 20 stadia from Sicyon, was a sacred grove, containing a temple of t he Eumenides. (Paus. ii. 11. § 3, seq.) East of Sicyon was Epieicia, on the river Nemea. [epieicia.] Ia the same direction was the fortress Derae. (At;-a;, Xen. Hell vii. 1. § 22.) There was also a fortress Phoebia, taken by Epaminondas in his march through the valley of the Asopus: it is probably the same place as Buphia. [bitphia.j Strabo (ix. p. 412) mentions a demus Plataeae in the Sicyonia. (Hagen, Sicyonia, Regimont. 1831; Gompf, Sicyojtiacorum Spec. Berol. 1832, Torg. 1834; Bobrik, De Sicyotiiae Topograpkia, Regimont. 1839; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 351, seq.; Boblaye, Recherckes, tfc. p, 30, seq.; Ross, Reisen im PeloponneSy p. 39, 6eq.; Curtius, Pehponnesos, vol. ii. p. 482, seq.; BcuM, Etudes sur le Peloponcse, p. 343, seq.)

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SIDAE (2i'5c.i), a place in Boeotia, celebrated for its pomegranates. Hence the Boeotians called this fruit <norf, though the more usual name was poti. As the Athenians are said to haTe contended with the Boeotians for the possession of the place, it must have been upon the borders of Attica, but its exact site is unknown. (Athen. xiv. pp. 650, 651.)

SIDE (2f57j: Kth. liMfrns), a town with a good harbour on the coast of Pamphylia, 50 stadia to the west of the river Melas, and 350 east of Attaleia. (Stad. Afar. Mag. § 214, foil.) The town was founded by Cuinae in Aeolis. (Scylax, PeripL p. 40; Strab. xiv. p. 667, comp. p. 664; Steph. B. s. v.\ Pomp. Mela, i. 15.) Arrian (Anab. i. 26\ who admits the Cumaean origin of the place, relates a tradition current at Side itself, according to which the Sidetae were the most ancient colonists sent out from Cumae, but soon after their establishment in their new home forgot the Greek language, and formed a peculiar idiom for themselves, which was not understood even by the neighbouring barbarians. Wben Alexander appeared before Side, it surrendered and received a Macedonian garrison. In the time of Antiocbus the Great, a naval engagement took place off Side between the fleet of Antiocbus, commanded by Hannibal, and that of the Rhodians, in which the former was defeated. (Liv. xxxv. 13, 18, xxxvii. 23, 24.) Polybius (v. 73) states that there existed great enmity between the people of Side and Aspendus. At the time when the pirates had reached their highest power in the Mediterranean, they made Side their principal port, and used it as a market to dispose of their prisoners and booty by auction. (Slrab. xiv. p. 664.) Side continued to be a town of considerable importance under the Roman emperors, and in the ultimate division of the province it became the metropolis of Pamphylia Prima. (HierocL p. 682; Condi. Const, ii. p. 840.) The chief divinity of this city was Athena, who is therefore seen represented on its coins, holding a pomegranate (o-i'sjj) in her hand. (Sestini, Num. Vet. p. 392, foil.; comp. Xenoph. A nab. i. 2. § 12; Cicero, ad Fam. iii. 6; Athen. viii. p. 350; Paus. viii. 28. §2; PtoL T. S. } 2, viii 17. I 31.) The exact site of ancient Side, which in now called Esky Adalia, as well as its remains, have been described by modern travellers. Beaufort (Karamania, p. 146, foil), who gives an excellent plan of the present condition of the place, states that the city stood on a low peninsula, and was surrounded by walls; the part facing the land was of excellent workmanship, and much of it is still perfect. There were four gates, one from the country and three from the sea. The agora, 180 feet in diameter, was surrounded by a double row of columns. One side of the square is at present occupied by the ruins of a temple and portico. The theatre appears like a lofty acropolis rising from the centre of the town, and is by far the largest and best preserved of any seen in Asia Minor. The harbour consisted of two small moles, connected with the quay and principal sea gate. At the extremity of the peninsula were two artificial harbours for larger vessels. Both are now almost filled with sand and stones, which have been borne in by the swell. The earliest coins of Side are extremely ancient; the inscriptions are in very barbarous characters, resembling the Phoenician, and the imperial coins exhibit the proud titles ol \auwpordTij and iv&otos. (Eckhel, vol. iii. pp 44, 161; Spanheim, De Usu et Praett. Num. p. 879; Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 201; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 195, foil.)

Respecting Side, the ancient name of Polemonium, see Polemonium. [L. S.]

SIDE (Si'Sq), a town on the eastern coast of Laconia, a little N. of the promontory Malea. It was said to have existed before the Dorian conquest, and to have derived its name from a duughter of Danaus. The inhabitants were removed by the Dorian conquerors to the neighbouring town of Boeae. It probably occupied the site of the monastery of St. George, where there is a port. (Scylax, p. 17; Paus. iii. 22. § 11; Boblaye, Rechercku, 4c p. 99: Curtius, Peloponnetot, vol. ii. p 297.)

SIDE'KE (sijt/vtj). 1. A town of Mysia, on the river Granicus, which was destroyed by Croesus, and was never rebuilt, in consequence of a eurse pronounced on the site by the destroyer. (Strab. xiii. pp. 58?, 601.)

2. A town in Lycia, mentioned only by Steplianus B. («.».) on the authority of the Lydiaca of Xarithus.

3. A district on the coast of Pontus, about the mouth of the river Sidenus, which derived its name from the towu of Side, afterwards called Polemonium. The greater part of the district was formed by the deposits of the river (Strab. i. p. 52, ii. p. 126, xii. pp. 547, 548, 556; Plin. vi. 4.) [L. S.]

SIDE'NI (zistjcoi), a people of Arabia Felix, placed by Ptolemy between the Thamyditae on the north, and the Darrae on the south, on the Elanitic gulf (vi. 7. § 4). Mr. Forster identifies them with the Djeheyne tribe of Burckhardt, in the north of the lledjaz, extending along the coast from Jebel Uasiane (certainly identical with the Hippos Mons —both meaning Horse-mountain — of Ptolemy), to Yembo. "All the circumstances, of name, locality, and neighbourhood," he says,,l concur to prove their identity." {Arabia, vol. i. p. 126.) [G. W.]

SIDE'Nl (SiScivoi, Zf,S,voi, Zitnrol), a German tribe on the coast of the Baltic, between the mouth of the river Suebus and that of the Viadus. (Ptol. ii. 11. § 14.) It is possible that Sibini (2.eW) is only a corrupt form of the name of this same tribe. (Zeues, Die Deutschen, p. 154.) [L. S.]

SIDE'NUS, a small river of Pontus, having its sources in Mount Paryadres, and flowing through the district of Sidene into the Euxine; at its mouth was the town of Side or Polemonium (Plin. vi. 4), from which the river is now called Pouleman Choi. (Comp. Hamilton, Betearchee, i. p. 270.) [L. S.]

SIDEKIS, a river of Hyrcania, mentioned by Pliny (vi. 16. s. 18), which flowed into the Caspian sea. It cannot be now determined to which river he refers, but he states from it the Caspian sea was called the Hyrcanian. [V.]

SIDEUUS (2i57)poSr), according to Scylax (p. 39) a promontory and a port-town on the coast of Lycia. The same place seems to be meant in Stephanus B. («. v. Zibapous'), when he calls Sidarus a town and harbour. Col. Leake {Alia Minor, p. 189) has shown that the town of Siderus is in all probability no other than Olympus, on the south of Phaselis. [L.S.]

SIDICPNI (2ioWoi), a people of Central Italy bordering on the Samnites and Campinians. In lira time of the geographers they had disappeared as a people',' or become absorbed into the general appellation of Campanians (Strab. v. p. 237), but at an earlier period they appear as a wholly independent people. Their chief city was Teanuin, on the E. slope of the volcanic mountain group of Rocca Monfina: but they had at one time extended their power considerably further to the N. and up the valley of the Liris, as the territory of Fregellae is said to have been subject to them, before they were dispossessed of it by the Volscians (Liv. viii. 22). It is clear however that this extension of their limits was of short duration, or at all events had ceased before they first appear in history. Strata tells us expressly that they were an Oscan tribe (/. c), and this is confirmed by the coins of Teanuin still extant, which have Oscan inscriptions. They were therefore closely allied to the neighbouring tribes of the Campanians on the S. and the Aurunci and Ausones on the W. Hence Virgil associates the inhabitants of the Sidiciuian plains (" Sidicina aeqnora," A en. vii. 727) with the Auruncans and the inhabitants of Cales. The last city is assigned by Silius Italictis to the Sidicini, but this is opposed to all other authorities (Sil. Hal. .via. 511). The name of the Sidicini is first mentioned in history in B. c. 343, when they were attacked by the Samnites, who had • been long pressing upon their neighbours the Volscians. Unable to contend with these formidable assailants, the Sidicini had recourse to the Campanians, who sent an army to their assistance, but were easily defeated (Liv. vii. 29, 30), and being in their turn threatened by the whole power of the Samnites, invoked the assistance of Koine. During the war which followed (the First Samnite War), we lose sight altogether of the Sidicini, but by the treaty which put an end to it (in B. 0. 341) it was particularly stipulated that the Samnites should be at liberty to pursue their ambitious designs against that people (Id. viii. 1, 2). Thus abandoned by the Romans to their fate the Sidicini had recourse to the Latins (who were now openly shaking off their connection with Rome) and the Campanians: and the Samnites were u second time drawn off from

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