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their special attack on this petty people to oppose a L ore powerful coalition (74. 2,4, 5). It is clear that the Sidicini took part as allies of the Latins and Campanians in the war that followed: bat we have no Hccount of the terms they obtained in the general settlement of the peace in B. c. 338. It is certain, however, that they retained their independence, as immediately afterwards we find them engaging in a war on their own account with their neighbours the Auruncans. The Romans espoused the defence of the latter people, but before they were able to take the field, the Auruncans were compelled to abandon their ancient city, which was destroyed by the Sidicini, and withdrew to Suessa. (Lir. viii. 15.) The Ausonians of Cales bad on this occasion been induced to make common cause with the Sidicini, but their combined forces were easily defeated by the Roman consuls. Cales soon after fell into the hands of the Romans; but though the territory of the Sidicini was overrun by the consuls of B. c. 332, who established their winter-quarters there to watch the movements of the Samnites, their city of Teanum still held ont (lb. 16, 17). Nor do we know at what time it fell into the power of the Romans, or on what terms the Sidicini were ultimately received to submission. But it is probable that this took place before B. c. 297, when we are told that the consul Decius Mus advanced to attack the Samnites "per Sidicinum agrum " in a manner that certainly implies the district to have been at that time friendly, if not subject, to Rome (Liv. z. 14).

After this the name of the Sidicini never appears in history as that of a people, but their territory (the "Sidicinns ager") is mentioned during the Second Punic War, when it was traversed and ravaged by Hannibal on his march from Capua to Rome (Lir. xxvi. 9). The Sidicini seem to have gradually come to be regarded as a mere portion of the Campanian people, in common with the Ausonians of Cales and .the Auruncans of Suessa, and the name still occurs occasionally as a municipal designation equivalent to the Teaneusea (Liv. xxvi. 15; Cio. PhiL ii. 41). Stialw .speaks of them in his time as an extinct tribe of Oucan race: and under the Roman Empire the only trace of them preserved was in the epithet of Sidicinnm, which still continued to be applied to the city of Teamrm. (Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. HI. 5. s. 9; Prol. iii. 1. § 68; Sil. Ital. v. 551, xii. 524.) [teanum.] [E. H. B.]

SIDODO NE (ZiSMrri or 2i<riM» , Arrian. Ind. c. 37), a small place on the coast of Cannania, noticed by Arrian in Nearchuss voyage. Kempthorne thinks that it is represented by a small ■fishing village called Afogou; but Mttller suggests, what seeins more probable, that it is the present Dtmn. (Geogr. Graec. Minor.p. 359, ed. Mfiller, Paris, 1855.) [V.]

SIDOLOCUS or SIDOLEUCUS, in Gallia, is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus when he is speaking of Julian's march from Augustodunum to Auiissiodurum. Sidolocuin is supposed to be Saulieu [choka.] [G. L.]

SIDON (3 Siv: Eth. SiSwwot,), a very ancient and important maritime city of Phoenicia, which, according to Jo:<ephus, derived its origin and name fr.mi Sidon, the firstborn son of Canaan (Gen. x. 15: Joseph. Ant. i. 6. § 2), and is mentioned by Muses as the northern extremity of the Canaanitish settlements, as Gaza was the southernmost (Gen. x. 19); and in the blessing of Jacob it is said of ZebuluD "bit border shall be unto Sidon" (xlix.

13). At the time of the Eisodus of the children of Israel, it was already distinguished by the appellation of "the Great (Join, xi. 8; compare in LXX. ver. 2), and was in the extreme north border which was drawn from Mount Herman (called Mount Hor in Num. xxxiv. 7) on the east to Great Sidon, where it is mentioned in the border of the tribe of Asher, as also is " the strong city of Tyre." (Joih. xix. 28, 29.) It was one of several cities from which the Israelites did not dispoases the old inhabitants. (Judg. i. 31.)

As the origin of this ancient city, its history, and mannfketures, hare been noticed under PhoeNicia, it only remains in this place to speak of its geographical position and relations so far as they either serve to illustrate, or are illustrated by, iis history.

It is stated by Joseph us to have been a day's journey from the site of Dan, afterwards Paneas (Ant. v. 3. § 1). Strabo places it 400 stadia & of Berytus, 200 N. of Tyre, and describes it as situated on a fair haven of the continent. He does not attempt to settle the questions between the rival cities, but remarks that while Sidon is most celebrated by the poets (of whom Homer does not so much as name Tyre), the colonists in Africa and Spain, even beyond the Pillars of Hercules, showed more honour to Tyre (xri. 2. §§ 22, 24). Herodot us's account of the origin of the race has been given under Phoenicia [p. 607, b.], and is shown to be in accordance with that of other writers. Justin follows it, bnt gives a different etymology of the name: " Condita urbe, quant a piscium uberitate Sidona appellaverunt, nam piscem Phoenices Sidon vocant; " but this is an error corrected by Michaeha and Gesenius {Lex. t. v. who derive it from

"to hunt or snare "game, birds, fish, 4c., indifferently, so that the town must have derived ita name from the occupation of the inhabitants a* fishers, and not from the abundance of fish; and Sitter refers to the parallel case of Beth saida on t he sea of Tiberias. (Erdkmit, Syrien, vol. iv. p. 43.) Pliny, who mentions it as " artifex vitri Tbebarumque Boeotiarum parens," places " Sarepta et Omithon oppida " between it and Tyre (v. 19). It is reckoned xxx. x. F. from Berytus, xxir. from Tyre, in the Itinerary of Antoninus (p. 149). But the Itinerariuin Hicrosolymitanum reckons it xxriii. from Berytus, placing Heldua and Parphirion between (p. 584). Scylaa mentions the closed harbour of Sidon (Ai/ir/r KAdTor, p. 42, ed. Hudson), which is more fully described by a later writer, Achilles Tatius (cur. A. D. 500), who represents Sidon as situated on the Assyrian sea, itself the metropolis of the Phoenicians, whose citizens were the ancestors of tlio Thebans. A double harbour shelters the sea in a wide gulf; for where the bay is covered on the right hand side, a second mouth has been formed, through which the water again enters, opening into what tuny I* regarded as a harbour of the harbour. In this inner basin, the vessels could lie securely during the winter, while the outer one served for the summer. (Cited by Reland, Paha. p. 1012). This inner port Reland conjectures, with great probability, is the closed port of Scylax, and to be identified with the second harbour described by Strabo at Tyre, where he says there was one closed and another open harbour, called the Egyptian. The best account of the site is given by Pococke. "It was situated," he says, "on a rising ground, defended by the sea on the north and west. The present city is mostly on the north side of the hill. The old city seems to have extended further east, as may be judged from the foundations of a thick wall, that extends from the sea to the east; on the south it was probably bounded by a rivulet, the large bod of which might serve for a natural fosse; as another might which is on the north side, if the city extended so far, as some seem to think it did, and that it stretched to the east as far as the high hill, which is about three (matters of a mile from the present town. . . . On (he north side of the town, there are great ruins of a fine fort, the walls of which were built with very large stones, 12 feet in length, which is the thickness of the wall; and some are 11 feet broad, and 5 deep. The harbour is now choked up.... This harbour seems to be the minor port mentioned by Strabo (xvi, p, 756) for the winter; the outer one probably being to the north in the open sea between Sidon and Tyre (?), where the shipping rides in safety during the summer season." (Observations on Palestine, p. 86.) The sepulchral grots are cut in the rock at the foot of the hills ; and some of them are adorned with pilasters, and handsomely painted.

The territory of the Sidonians, originally cir. camscribed towards the north by the proximity of the hostile Gibbites, extended southwards to the tribe of Zebulon, and Mount Carmel; but was afterwards limited in this direction also by the growing power of their rivals the Tynans, ((titter, I c. p. 43. &c.)

[graphic]

COIN OF SIDON.

SIDO'XF.S (Sfiuvfs), a tribe in the extreme east of Germany, about the sources of the Vistula (Ptol. ii. 11. § 21), and no doubt the same which appears in Strabo (viL p. 306) under the name of Sisopk, as a branch of the Bastarnae. [L. S.]

SIDO'NIA. [pedosia.1

SIDUS (iiSaus, Si5owti4j Ha/iti, Hesych.: Eth. Xttairrun). a village in the Corinthia, on the Saronic gulf, between Crommyon and Schoenus. It was taken by the Lacedaemonians along with Crommyon in the Corinthian War, but was recovered by Iphicrates. (Xen. Hell. iv. 4. § 13, iv. 5. § 19.) It probably stood in the plain of Susdki. (Scylax; Sleph. B. I. v.; Plin. iv. 7. 8. 11; Boblaye, Recherche*, ifc. p. 35; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 397; Curtius, Pelopoimesos, vol. ii. p. 555.)

8IDUSSA (iiiovoaa), a small town of Ionia, belonging to the territory of Erythrae. (Thucyd. viii. 24; Steph. B. *. t>.) Pliny (v. 38) erroneously describes it as an island off the coast of Erythrae. It is probable that the place also bore the name of Sidus (2:5of's), as Stephanus B. («. v.) mentions a town of this name in the territory of Erythrae. [L. S.]

S1DYMA (HSvfia: Eth. SiJiaifuj), a town of Lycia, on the southern slope of Mount Cragns, to the north-west of the mouth of the Xanthus. (Plin. v. 28 j Steph. B. ». v.; Ptol. v. 3. § 5; Hierocles, p.

684; Cedremu, p. 344.) The ruins of this city, on a lofty height of Mount Cragns, have first been discovered and described by Sir C. Fellows, (Lycia, p. 151, foil.) Tbey are at the village of Tortoorcat Hissa, and consist chiefly of splendidly built tombs, abounding in Greek inscriptions. The town itself appears to have been very small, and the theatre, agora, and temples, are of diminutive size, but of I great beauty. [L. S.]

SIELEDIVA. [tapbohank.]

SIGA (Siy*. Ptol. iv. 2. § 2), a commercial town of Mauritania Caesariensis, seated near the mouth of a river of the same name in a large bay. The mouth of the river formed the port of the city, at a distance of 3 miles from it (Sigensis Portus, /tin. Ant. p. 13), opposite to the island of Acra, on the highroad, and near Cirta, the residence of Syphax. (Stxab. xvii. p. 829; Plin. v. 2. a, 1.) In Stiabo'a time it was in ruins, but must have been subsequently restored, since it is mentioned in the Itinerary (p. 12) as a Roman municipium. (Comp. Ptol. i c.; Mela, i. 5; Scylax, 51, 52.) According to Shaw (Travels, p. 12), who, however, did not visit the place, its ruins are still to be seen by the present Tactmbrit; others identify it with the Areschhid of the Arabs, at the mouth of the Tqfna, near Rasgm. [T. H. D.]

SIGA (ilya, Ptol. iv. 2. § 2), a river of Mauri. | tania Caesariensis, falling into a bay of the sea opposite to the island of Acra (now Caracoles), Scylax (p. 51) calls it Hyon. Probably the present Tafna, [T. H. D.J

SIGE'UM (Srytuv or T) Srytiis S*pa), a promontory in Troas, forming the north-western extremity of Asia Minor, at the entrance of the Hellespont, and opposite the town of Elaeus, in the Tbracian Chersonesus. Near it the naval camp of the Greeks was said to have been formed during the Trojan War. (Herod, v. 65, 94; Thucyd. viii. 101; Strab. xiii. pp. 595, 603; Pomp. Mela, i. 18; Plin. v. 33; Ptol. v. 2. § 3; Serv. ad A en. ii. 312.) Thia promontory is now called Yenisheri.

Near the promontory was situated the town of Sigeum, which is said to have been an Aeolian colony, founded under the guidance of Archaeaiiax of Mytilenc, who used the stones of ancient Troy in building this new place. But some years later the Athenians sent troops under Phrynon and expelled the Mytileneans; and this act of violence led to a war between the two cities, which lasted for a long time, and was conducted with varying success. Pittacns, the wise Mytilenean, is said to have slain Phrynon in single combat. The poet Alcaeus also was engaged in one of the actions. The dispute was at length referred to Periander, of Corinth, who decided in favour of the Athenians. (Strab. xiii. p. 599; Herod, v. 95; Steph, B. *. v.; Diog. Laert. i. 74.) Henceforth we find the Pisistratidae in possession of Sigeum, and Hippias, after being expelled from Athens, is known to have retired there with his family. (Herod, v. 65). The town of Sigeum was destroyed by the inhabitants of Ilium soon after the overthrow of the Persian empire, so that in Strain's time it no longer existed. (Strab. xiii. p. 600; Plin. v. 33.) A hill near Sigeum, forming a part of the promontory, was believed in antiquity to contain the remains of Achilles, which was looked upon with such veneration that gradually a small town seems to have risen around it, under the name of Achi Ileum [ Achillkum J. This tomb, which was visited by Alexander the Great, Julius

3 ■ 3

Caesar, and Germanicus, is still visible in the form of u mound or tumulus. [L. S.]

SIGMAN (Sly/uw), a river in Gallia. Ptolemy (ii. 7. § 2) places the month of the Sigman between the At oris (Adour) and the Garoime; and between the Sigman and the Garonne he places Curianum Promontorium. [curianum.] Marcianus (Peripl.'), who has the name Signatius, gives two distances between the month of the Adour and that of the Siginan, one of which is 500 and the other 450 stadia. We cannot trust either the latitudes of Ptolemy or the distances of Marcian along this coast There is no river between the Adour and the Garonne that we can suppose to have been marked down by the ancient coasting ships to the exclusion of the I-ieyre, which flows into the Bassin dArcachon. But Gosselin supposes the Sigman to be the Afimisan, which is about half-way between the Adour and the Bassin aVAreachon. [G. L.]

Sl'GNIA (2ryWa: Eth. Signinus: Seffni), an ancient city of Latium, situated on a lofty hill at the NW. angle of the Volscian mountains, looking down upon the valley of the Sacco. It is represented by ancient authors as a Roman colony founded by Tarquinius Superbus, at the same time with Circeii. (Liv. i. 55; Dionys. iv. 63.) No trace of it is found before this; its name does not figure among the cities of the Latin League or those of which the foundation was ascribed to Alba; and the story told by Dionysius (I. a), that it originated at first in a fortuitous settlement of some Roman troops encamped in the neighbourhood, which was afterwards enlarged and strengthened by Tarquin, certainly points to the fact of its being a new town, and not, like so many of the Roman colonies, a new settlement in a previously existing city. It passed, after the expnlsion of Tarquin, into the hands of the Roman Repnblic, as it was attacked in B. c. 497 by Sextus Tarquinius, who in vain endeavoured to make himself master of it (Dionys. v. 58). A few years later, it received a fresh colony, to recruit its exhausted population (Liv. ii. 21). From this time it appears to have continued a dependency of Rome, and never, so far as we learn, fell into the power of the Volscians, though that people held all the neighbouring mountain country. Signia must indeed, from its strong and commanding position, overlooking all the valley of the Trerus and the broad plain between it and Praeneste, have been a point of the utmost importance for the Romans and Latins, especially as securing their communications with their allies the Hemicans. In B. c. 340 the Signians shared in the general defection of the Latins (Liv. viii. 3); but we have no account of the part they took in the war that followed, or of the terms on which they were received to submission. We know only that Signia became again (as it had probably been before) a Colonia Latina, and is mentioned as such during the Second Pnnic War. On that occasion it was one of those which continued faithful to Rome at the most trying period of the war (Liv. xxvii. 10), and must therefore have been still in a flourishing condition. On account of its strong and secluded position we find it selected as one of the places where the Carthaginian hostages were deposited for safety (Id. xxxii. 2): but this is the last mention of it that occurs in history, except that the battle of Sacriportus is described by Plutarch as taking place near Signia (Plut. Still. 28). That decisive action was fought in the plain between Signia and Praeneste [sacriPortus]. It, however, certainly continued during

the later ages of the Republic and under the Empire to be a considerable municipal town. It received a fresh body of colonists under the Triumvirate, but it is doubtful whether it retained the rank of a Colonia. Pliny does not reckon it as such, and though it is termed " Colonia Signina " in some inscriptions, these are of doubtful authenticity. (St r ib. v. p. 237; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9; Sil. Ital. viii. 378; Lib. Colon, p. 237; Zumpt, de Col p. 338; Gruter, Inter, p. 490. 5, &c.)

Signia was chiefly noted under the Roman Empire for its wine, which, though harsh and astringent, was valued for its medical qualities, and seems to have been extensively used at Rome (Strab. v. p. 237; Plin. xiv. 6. s. 8; Athen. i. p. 27; Sil. Ital. L c; Martial, xiii. 116; Cels. de Med. iv. 5). Its territory produced also pears of a celebrated quality (Juv. xi. 73; Plin. xv. 15. s. 16; Colum. v. 10. § 18; Macrob. Sat ii. 15), as well as excellent vegetables, which were Bent in large quantities to Rome (Colum. x. 131). These last were grown on a hilt near the city, called by Columella Mons Lepinus, apparently one of the underfalls of the Volscian mountains; but there is no authority for applying the name (as modem writers hare frequently done) to the whole of that mass of mountains [lepiki-s Moss]. Signia also gave name to a particular kind of cement known as "opus Signinnm," and extensively employed both for pavements and reservoirs of water (Plin. xxxv. 12. s. 46; Colum. L 6. § 12, viii. 15. § 3; Vitruv. viii. 7. § 14).

The modern town of Seffni (a poor place, with about 3500 inhabitants) occupies a part only of the Bite of the ancient city. The latter embraced within the circuit of its walls the whole summit of the hill, which stands boldly out from the Volscian mountains, with which it is connected only by a narrow neck or isthmus. The line of the ancient walls maybe traced throughout its whole extent: they are constructed of large masses of stone (the hard limestone of which the hill itself consists), of polygonal or rudely squared form, and afford certainly one of the most remarkable specimens of the style of construction commonly known as Cyclopean or Pelasgic, of which striking instances are found also in other cities in this part of Latium. The city had in all five gates, two of which still retain their primitive construction; and one of these, known as the Porta Saracinesca, presents a remarkable instance of the rudest and most massive Cyclopean construction. The architrave is formed of single masses of stone not less than 12 feet in length, laid across from one impost to the other. This gate has been repeatedly figured*; another, less celebrated but scarcely less remarkable, is found on the SE. side of the town, and is constructed in a style precisely similar. The age of these walls and gates has been a subject of much controversy; on the one hand the rude and massive style of their construction, and the absence of all traces of the arch in the gateways, would seem to assign them to a remote and indefinite antiquity; on the other hand, the historical notices that we possess concerning Signia all tend to prove that it was not one of the most ancient cities of Latium, and that there could not have existed a city of such magnitude previous to the settlement of the Roman colony under Tarquin. (For the discussion of this question as well as for

* The annexed figure is taken from that given by Abeken (Mittef Ilalien, pi. 2).

the description of the remains themselves, see the Amali deW Institute Archeologico for 1829, pp. 78—87, 357—360; Classical Museum, vol. ii. pp. 167- 170; Abeken, Mitiel Itatien, p. 140, &c.) The only other remains within the circuit of the walls are a temple (now converted into the church of S. Pietro) of Roman date, and built of regularly squared blocks of tufo; and nearly adjoining it a circular reservoir for water, of considerable size and lined with the "opus Signinum." (Annali, L c. p. 82.) Several inscriptions of imperial date are also preserved ill the modern town. [E.H,B.]

[graphic]

GATE OF SIGNIA.

SIGRIATs'E (ri Zrypiarfi, Strab. aci. p. 525), a district of Media Atropatene, near the Caspian Gates. Ptolemy calls it Ztypiewiidi (vii. 2. § 6)." [V.]

SI'GRIUM CXiypiov), the westernmost promontory of the island of Lesbos, which now bears the name of Sigri (Strab. xiii. pp. 616, 618.) Stephanus B. (a. v.) calls Sigrium a harbour of Lesbos. [L. S.]

SIGULO'NES (TieyoiXuvts), a German tribe mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 11. § 11) as inhabiting the Cimbrian Chersonesus, to the north of the Saxones. but is otherwise unknown. [L. S.]

SIGYNNES (SiyiWes, Herod, v. 9; Slyvroi, Apoll. Rhod. iv. 320; Orph. Arg. 759; Styuwoi, Strab. xi. p. 520). The only name of any TransDanubian population, other than Scythian, known to Herodotus was that of the Sigynnes, whom he seems to have described as the Thracians described them to either himself or his informants. The Thracian notion of one of these Sigynnes was that he wore a Median dress, and considered himself a descendant of the Medes; though how this could be was more than Herodotus could say. "Anything, however, is possible in a long space of time." The horses of the Sigynnes were undersized — ponies, indeed, rather than horses. They were Batnosed and long-haired ; their coat being five fingers deep. They were too weak to carry a man on their back; but not too weak for harness. In chariots they were light and quick; and in the drawing of chariots the Sigynnes took great delight.

We must look on Sigynnes as a general and collective name for a large assemblage of populations; inasmucn as their country is said to extend as far westwards as the Heneti on the Adriatic. Say that it reached what was afterwards the frontier of Pan

nonia. On the north it must really have been bounded by some of the Scythian districts. In the language of the Ligyans above Massilia, the word Sigynna means a merchant, or retail-dealer, or carrier. In Cyprus they call spears by the name Sigynna. The resemblance of this word to the name Zigeun—Gipsy has often been noticed. Word for word, it may be the same. It may also have been applied to the gipsies with the meaning it lias in Ligyan. It does not, however, follow that the Sigynnes were gipsies. [R. G. L.]

SIHOR (2uip). 1. The torrent more commonly known as " the River of Egypt," the southern boundary of the Promised Land, identified by the LXX. with Rhinocorura, the modern Wady-elArish. [rhixocorura.] (Joshua, xiii. 3; 1 Chron. xiii. 5; Jeremiah, ii. 18.) In the first cited passage, the LXX. read T7js SutiK-fyrou rrjs fcari irpoVaiw AiyvTrrou; in the second, Airo dp'wy AlyfarTov, and only in the last is a proper name retained, and there it is changed to V-nSiv. St. Jerome (Onomast. s. v.), following Eusebius, describes it as before Egypt, and speaks of a village of the name between Aelia and Eleutheropolis, which it is difficult to imagine that they could have identified with the Sihor above named. St. Jerome says that he has said more on the subject "in libris Hebraicorum quaestionum," but the passage is not to be found there. In his 11 Epitaphium Paulae" he writes, 11 veniam ad Aegypti fiumen Sior, qui interpretatur turbidus" (p. 677); but he here probably means the Kile, which is sometimes supposed to be called Sihor, as in the passage of Jeremiah above referred to. The village named by Eusebius and St, Jerome doubtless marked the site of the city of the tribe of Judah, situated in the mountains, and written Zior in the authorised version, but in the ori,

giiisl (Joshua, xv. 54), and in the LXX. Hup, (al. SapalB).

2. Sihor or Sunnnt Libnath (LXX. Siir nal AaSaead), perhaps to be taken as two names, as by the LXX., Eusebius, and St. Jerome, who name "Sior in tribu Aser," without the addition of Libnath. It is mentioned only in the border of Asher. (Joshua, xix. 26.) The various conjectures concerning the place or places are stated by Bonfrerius (Comment, in loc), but none are satisfactory, and the site or sites have still to be recovered. [G. W.]

SILA (v 5(Ao: Sila) was the name given in ancient times to a part of the Apennines in the S. of Bruttium, which were clothed with dense forests, and furnished abundance of pitch, as well as timber for ship-building. Strabo tells us it was 700 stadia (70 geog. miles) in length, and places its commencement in the neighbourhood of Locri. (Strab. vi. p. 261.) It is evident, therefore, that he, as well as. Pliny (iii. 5. s. 10), who notices it in connection with Rhegium and Leucopetra, assigned the name to the southernmost group of the Apennines (the range of Aspromonte), S. of the isthmus which separates the Terinaean and Scylletic gulfs. At the present day the name of Sila is given only to the detached and outlying mountain group N. of that isthmus, and E. of Cosenza (Consentia.) It is probable that the name, which evidently means only " the forest," and is connected with the Latin silva, and the Greek Satj, was originally applied in a more general sense to all the forest-covered mountains of this part of Calabria, though now restricted to the group in question. [E. H. B.]

SILACE'NAE, a place in Lower Pannonia, on the sooth of Lake Peiao. (It Ant. p. 233, where it appears in the ablat. form Silacenis). Its exact site is unknown. [L. S.]

SILANA, a town in the N\lf- °f Thessaly, near the frontiers of Athamania, mentioned along with Gompbi and Tricca by Livy. Leake conjectures that it occopied the site of Polidna, near which are several squared blocks of ancient workmanship. (Liv. xxxvi. J3; Leake, Northern Greece, yol. iv. p. 529.)

SI'LARUS (SfAapor, Ptol, ; ZiAopfr, Strab.: Sefe), a considerable riyer of Southern Italy, flowing into the gulf of Posidonia, and forming the boundary between Campania and Lucania. It rises in the mountains near Teora, on the confines of the Hirpini, and not far from the sources of the Aufidus; thence flows for some distance in a southerly direction till it receives the waters of the Tanager (Tanagro'), a considerable stream, which joins it from the SE.; it then turns to the SYV. and pursues that direction to the sea, which it enters about 5 miles to the N. of the city of Paestum. About 5 miles from its mouth it receives another important tributary in the Calor (Colore), which joins it from the S. Between the Calor and Tanager, on the S. bank of the Silarns rises the mountain group of Mount Alburnus, mentioned by Virgil in connection with that river. The "luci Silari" of the same author are evidently the same with the extensive woods which still clothe the valley of the Sele from its confluence with the Tanagro to within a few miles of the sea. (Yirg. Georg. iii. 146.) The Silarus was in the days of Strata and Pliny the recognised boundary between Campania (including under that name the land of the Picentini) and Lucania; but this applies only to its course near its mouth, as Eburi (Eboli), though situated to the N. of it, is included by Pliny among the towns of Lucania. (Strab. v. p. 251, vi. p. 252; Plin. iii. 5. ss. 9, 10, U.S. 15; Ptol. iii. 1. § 8; Mel. ii. 4. § 9; Tab. Petit..; Dionys. Per. 361.) A peculiarity of its waters, mentioned by several ancient writers, is that they had the power of petrifying sticks, leaves, and other substances immersed in them. (Strab. v. p. 251; Plin. ii. 103. s. 106; Sil. Ital. viii. 582.)

The name is written by Lucan and Columella Siler, and the same form is found in Vibius Sequester, indicating an approach to the modern name of Sele. (Lucan, ii. 426 ; Colnm. x. 136; Vib. Seq. p. 18.) [E.H.B.]

SILAS (SiXiit, Arrian, hid. c 6; Strab. xv. p. 703; Diod. ii. 37), a river of the Upper Punjab, the story of which, as told by ancient writers, is clearly fabulous. According to Arrian and others, the water of this river was so light that nothing could swim in it. Lassen, who has examined this story with his usual acuteness, has shown from the Mahabhdrata that there was a stream in the northern part of India called the Sila, the water of which was endowed with a highly petrifying power, from which circumstance the river obtained its signification, Sila meaning in Sanscrit a stone. (Zeilschr. f. Kunde dee Morgenlands, ii. p. 63.) It may be remarked that the name occurs differently written. Thus Diodorus writes SlKKav Woto/iov; Antigonus DlAav Koiirnv. (Sfirab. c 161.) Pliny evidently refers to the same story, but calls the river Side in his quotation from Ctesias (xxxi. 2. .. 18). [V.]

STLBIUM (2(\eW: Etk. Silbianus), a small

town of Pbrygia, on the east of Apamea ana1 Celaenae, and beyond the source of the Maeander (Ptol. v. 2. § 25; Plin. v. 29). In the By tan tine writers it is sometimes mentioned under corrupt forms of its name, such as Silbia (Hierocl p. 667), Sublas (Cinnamus, vi. 15), or Sublium and Syblaea (Orient Christ, p. 809). This place, which was the see of a bishop, belonged to the conventus of Apamea. Modern travellers seek its site in the neighbourhood of Sandulcli. (Kiepert, in Franz's FOnf Inschriften, p. 87.) [L. S.]

SILI or SIM1 (ZUot or 2ipof, Strab. rvi. p. 772), a tribe of Aethiopians, who used the horns of the oryx, a species of gazelle, as weapons. Some have considered them to be the same as the AlStowtt Sifwt of Agatharcbides, p. 42. (Comp. Diodor. iii.

8. ) [T. H. D.] SILICENSK FLUMEN, a river in Hispania

Baetica, in the neighbourhood of Corduba, probably the Guadajoz, or one of its tributaries. (Hirt. B. A. 57.) [T. H.D.]

SILINDIUM (SiAirSiw), a small town of Truas at the foot of Mount Ida, is mentioned only by Stephanos B. (>. p.) on the authority of Demetrius of Scepsis. [L. S-]

SILINGAE (2iA(r>TM), a tribe of Germany, on the south of the Semnones, between the western slopes of Mons Asciburgius and the river Albis. (Ptol. ii. 11. § 18.) It is generally supposed that this name is the one from which the modern Silesia or Schlesien is formed. (Latham, Tacit. Germ. p. 138; Palacky, Gesch. von Bohmen, vol. i. p. 68.) [L. S.]

SILIS (Sefe), a small river of Venetia, in the N. of Italy, which rises in the mountains above Trtviso (Tarvisium), and flows into the lagunes at Altinum (Attino). It is still called the Sele. (Plin. iii. 18. s. 22.) [E.H.B.]

SILLA(S/AXo,Isid. Charax,§2,ed. Mullcr, 1855), a river of Apolloniatis, a district of Assyria, which, according to Isidores, flows through the centre of the town of Artemita. [artemita.] There can be little doubt that this is the river now called the Diyaleh. It is also, in all probability, the same as that called by Steph. B. (s. v. 'Awa/wo) the Delas. Forbiger imagines that the Diabus of Ammianus (xxiii. 6), the Durus of Zosimus (iii. 25), and the Gorges of Ptolemy (iv. 1. § 7), refer to the same river. It is, however, more likely that the first of these streams is the same as that elsewhere called the Zahatus. [V.]

SILO or SHILOH (inXiiu: Eth. ^AvWrns), a town of Palestine, in the tribe of Ephraim, in the mountain region according to Joseph us (.4 nr. v. 1), where the ark and the tabernacle were first established by Joshua on the settlement of the land by the tribes of Israel. There also were assembled the natiunal convocations for the division of the land and the transaction of other public business affecting the whole Union. (Joshua, xviii. 1, 10, xix. 51, xxi. 2, xxiL

9. ) There Samuel ministered before the Lord in the days of Eli the high-priest (1 Sam. i.—iii.). There was the seat of the Divine worship until the disastrous battle of Aphek, from which period the decline of Shiloh must be dated (ch. iv.) until its desolation became proverbial in Israel. (Psalm lxxviii. 60 ; Jeremiah, vii. 12, XXvL 6, 9.) Its situation is very particularly described in the book of Judges (xxi. 19), as " on the north side of Bethel, on the east side of the highway that goetb up from Bethel to Sbechem, and on the south of Lebonah.*

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