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Nor seemingly, but with keen dispatch

1,600,000. It has, like Hungary, its civil and Of real hunger, and concoctive heat

military divisions : the former consisting of three To transubstantiate ; what redounds, transpires large districts or provinces, called, from the early Through spirits with ease.


settlers, the lands of the Hungarians, the Saxons, TRANSUBSTANTIATION, in theology, is the and the Szeklers. The land of the Hungarians supposed conversion or change of the substance

was divided into counties, and the others into of the bread and wine, in the eucharist, into the districts, called in Latin Sedes. Joseph II. abobody and blood of Jesus Christ; which the Ro- lished this distinction, and introduced that of mish church suppose to be wrought by the con- the three circles of Hermanstadt, Fogaras, and secration of the priest. It is known to all our Clausenburg. The old division has been restored readers that this doctrine of transubstantiation since his death. The chief towns are Cronstadt, was one cause of the breach between the church Clausenburg (the capital), Hermanstadt, Maros of Rome and those various societies which call Vasarhely, Vasarhely, Udvarhely, and Schesthemselves reformed churches. The notion of a burg. real and substantial change of the bread and wine

The Carpathians surround Transylvania on the into the body and blood of our Lord is rejected east, the south, and partly on the north; and by every reformer as a change contradictory and the greatest part of it consists of alternate mounimpossible, and fraught with the most unscrip- tains and valleys. Many of these contain a tural, not to say idolatrous, consequences; and number of caverns, presenting a wide field of volumes have been written by protestants to ex- examination for the botanist and geologist, but pose the weakness of those arguments which have

are often of appalling height and steepness. The so often been urged in its support.

south presents hills of little elevation, intermixed TRANSUDE, v. n. ? Lat. trans and sudo. with plains, interrupted by marshes and small

TransUDA’TION, n.s. To pass through in va- lakes. These eminences are commonly covered por: the act of doing so.

with vineyards; the higher elevations with foPurulent fumes cannot be transmitted throughout rests; but almost all contain mines. The printhe body before the maturation of an aposthem, nor after, unless the humour break; because they cannot Samos, and the Alúta; and the Aranyos, the

cipal rivers of Transylvania are the Maros, the transude through the bag of an aposthem. Harvey on Consumption.

Lapos, the Sajo, and the two Kokels, of inferior The drops proceeded not from the transudation of size. Ah these have their source within the the liquors within the glass.

Boyle. country, and their direction is in general from TRANSVERSALIS, in anatomy, a name

east to west. The lakes, like those of Switzergiven to several muscles. See ANATOMY. land, Scotland, and other countries where the TRANSVERSE', adj. & v.a.


water is enclosed by mountains, are of great

transTRANSVER'SAL, adj.


depth. The climate of Transylvania is cold, alTRANSVER'SALLY, adv. in a cross di though in summer the valleys are hot, but subTRANSVERSE'LY, adv.

rection :

ject to sudden changes, and to great cold at change; overturn : transversal is running cross

night. On the whole, this province is healthy, wise: the adverb corresponding, and transversely In the mountains are found marble, jasper, por

though not unfrequently visited by the plague. with transverse.

Nothing can be believed to be religion by any phyry, slate, lime-stone, coal, sulphur, petropeople but what they think to be divine ; that is, leum, and rock salt. The number of salt works, sent immediately from God: and they can think great and small, is about 112; the quantity of nothing to be so that is in the power of man to alter salt produced from 30,000 to 40,000 tons a year.

Lesley. This country has also mines of iron, copper, There are divers subtile enquiries and demonstra- lead, silver, and even gold, though the quantity tions concerning the several proportions of swiftness wrought of any of these metals appears compaand distance in an arrow shoi vertically, horizontally, ratively small. That of iron is from 3000 to 4000 or transversally.


tons annually; but that of copper and lead is His violent touch

each below 200 tons. In the mountains are Fled and pursued transverse the resonant fugue.

dug up occasionally precious stones, such as to

Milton. At Stonehenge the stones lie transversely upon each pazes, chrysolites, garnets, opals, &c., and miother.


neral springs are frequent. In all the fibres of an animal there is a contractile This country was formerly covered with fopower; for, if a fibre be cut transversely, both the ends rests, and the culture of the principality bears shrink, and make the wound gape.

great marks of backwardness. The soil is in Arbuthnot on Aliments. general well adapted to improvement; but so TRANSVERSE denotes something that goes averse are the habits of a part of. the population across another from corner to corner : thus bends (the Hungarians and Szeklers) from tillage, and and bars in heraldry are transverse pieces or so antiquated in the practice, that many good bearings; the diagonals of a parallelogram or a tracts remain neglected, and the traveller prosquare are transverse lines.

ceeds mile after mile without meeting a habitaTRANSYLVANIA, an important province of tion or a tree. Wheat, oats, barley, and other the Austrian empire, bounded by Hungary north corn of our climate, succeed in Transylvania ; and west, and European Turkey east and south, but for maize or vines there is hardly sufficient lies between 22° 46° and 26° 3' of E. long. and heat. Orchards are not neglected; and potatoes between 45° 33' and 47° 37' of N. lat. Its form have of late been brought into cultivation; but is oblong : its territorial extent about 23,700 hay and all artificial grasses are unknown; the square miles; and population upwards of cattle having none but natural herbage. The



or transverse.

horses, though small, are spirited; the oxen are while others have a fixed residence, and are emreckoned equal to those of Hungary; and of ployed in tillage or in the rearing of cattle. The both these an annual export takes place. Buf- languages of Transylvania are chiefly German faloes are frequently used for labor. The sheep and Walachian ; the latter Latin with a mixture are numerous; and, in the last and present age, of German and Sclavonic: the Magyars speak attempts have been made to improve the wo), Hungarian : on the part of government the offiny the introduction of Merinos, as well as by cial language is Latin, but orders are issued also sending flocks to pass the winter in Walachia in Hungarian and German. and Moldavia. The mountains and forests The followers of the Greek church, comprising abound in game of all kinds ; in bears, wolves, the Walachians, Greeks, Bulgarians, and even eagles, and vultures; in the lower grounds, tor- Gypsies, are by far the most numerous. Next toises, lizards, and snakes appear.

come the Catholics, among whom are ranked the Woollens are wrought at particular places, Hungarians and most of the Szeklers. The Cathosuch as Cronstadt and Hermanstadt; and fabrics lics, the Protestants, and Unitarians, are the sects of cotton have been established: the blue stuff possessing political privileges; for the Greek used in the dress of women, and formerly brought and the other creeds are only tolerated. The from Turkey, is now made at home, and hats, of relative numbers are computed as follows:coarse quality, are manufactured; as to glass, Greek church

· 917,000 Transylvania is now no longer dependent on


. 340,000 Bohemia. The exports of the country are tim


190,000 ber, metals, and a few of the manufactures men


158,000 tioned: the imports, wool, cotton, skins, and a


45,000 variety of manufactured articles. Here are no


2,000 canals, and hardly any navigable rivers. A few great roads have been of late finished at the pub

Education has as yet made little progress; lic expense. The only merchants in the country but there has been established at Clausenburg are Greeks and Armenians.

an academy, on a plan somewhat similar to the The Szeklers occupy the mountains, and have German universities : the large or central schools been from time immemorial the guardians of the throughout the principality are only eight in frontiers : they bear a considerable resemblance number; the gymnasia or grammar schools only to the Highlanders of Scotland. Settlers from seven. Here, as in Hungary, there are village Germany were first introduced in the middle of schools appropriated to the different sects; and the twelfth century, having been brought origi- at the town of Balasfulva the Greeks have a nally from Flanders and the south of Germany, gymnasium, where the pupils are instructed at and heing subsequently reinforced by Protestant the public expense. The Greeks have also two emigrants from the Austrian states. The name central schools. Printing and book-selling are of Saxon is given to them merely because in a carried on here to a very limited extent; and the remote age all Germans were styled Saxons by whole country can boast only of three great pubtheir neighbours. They are in general careful lic libraries. and industrious. Their habitations are neater Transylvania bears the title of a grand princithan those of the rude tribes around them. The pality of the Austrian empire, and has an execulanguage they speak is a dialect of German. tive administration in the hands of the governor These three nations possess the chief political and twelve counsellors, forming conjunctly a privileges ; in particular that of sitting at the council of state, corresponding with the Aulic national diet. But in point of number they are chancery at Vienna. Subordinate to these are greatly surpassed by the descendants of the Wa. the district governors, corresponding to the prelachians, who form half the population of the fets in France, and in some measure to our lords principality. Like the Slowacs in Hungary, or lieutenant. Justice is administered by courts the Irish peasantry, the Walachian cottagers stationed permanently in particular towns : apfind, in the midst of filth and poverty, the means peals are allowed to the governor and council of of rearing families. They are employed chiefly state for the province. The military force conas common laborers, as shepherds, or as wag- sists of two regiments of foot, two of cavalry, goners. The arrival of their ancestors in this and one of Szekler hussars, exclusively of four country took place about four centuries ago. militia regiments on the frontier. The comExclusive of these are several minor tribes in mander-in-chief resides at Hermanstadt. The Transylvania ; Bulgarians, who are less ignorant revenue of the province, about £500,000, arises than the Walachians; Servians, whose arrival in from custom duties, on a per centage on the prothe principality dates from the fifteenth century, duce of the mines, the monopoly of salt, the deand who in religion are Lutherans or Calvinists; mesnes of the crown, and local imposts. and Poles, inhabiting the districts of Clausen- This principality was known to the Romans burg, whose forefathers settled there in the se- by the title of Dacia Consularis Mediterranea, venteenth century, being Unitarians, and obliged and conquered by Trajan, who settled a colony on that account to leave Poland. Here are also Bo- here. On the irruption of the northern hordes, hemian sectaries, chiefly Hernhutters or Anabap- it became subject successively to the Goths, the tists; Armenians, noted for their frugality and mer- Huns, the Alans, the Sclavi, the Avari, and ficantile habits ; Greeks, who are also merchants, nally to the Magyars. During some time it was but who live in a somewhat more liberal style. ruled by a prince of its own, but it fell under Last come the gypsies, part of whom are, as in the power of the kings of Hungary, and was goother countries, beggars and fortune tellers; verned by a deputy, having the title of prince, or waiwode, a title commonly translated palatine. TRAPEʻZIUM, n. s. Gr. τραπεζιον; Fr, In 1541 Transylvania was separated from Hun- trapese. A quadrilateral figure, whose four gary, and remained an independent province till sides are not equal, and none of its sides pa1699, when its last prince gave it up to Austria. rallel. The name of Transylvania is derived from the Two of the lateral trapezia are as broad.

Woodward. Hungarians, who called the woody country to the east of the Theyss, Silagy, or Sylvania, and TRAPEZUNTIUS (George), a learned authe territory to the east of these woods Terra ul- thor, born in Crete, about 1306. He was one tra Sylvas partes Transylvanæ, or Transylvanen- of those learned men, to whom we are indebted ses. Erdely, the name given to this country, in for the revival of science in Europe; by introcommon Hungarian, has the same signification. ducing the knowledge of the Greek language

TRAP, v. a. From TRAPPING. To adorn; into the West. He translated many of the Greek decorate.

authors into Latin; and was also author of seThe steed that bore him

veral works of his own. He died at Rome in Was trapped with polished steel, all shining bright,

1485. And covered with the achievements of the knight.

TRAPEZUS, a city of Pontus, with a har

Spenser. Lord Lucius presented to you four milk-white bour on the Euxine Sea, built by the people of

Sinope. It became famous under the emperors horses trapt in silver. Shakspeare. Timon of Athens. Steeds with scarlet trapped.


of the East, and was for some time their capital.

It is now called Trebisond. TRAP, n. s. & v. a. ?

Sax. trappe ;


TRAPP (Dr. Joseph), an English divine, born TRAPDOOR, n. s. S trape ; Ital. trappola. A

at Cherington in Gloucestershire, where his fasnare or ambush; stratagem; a play with ball ther was rector in 1579. He was the first perand stick : to ensnare; a door opening and shutt

son chosen to the professorship of poetry founding unexpectedly.

ed at Oxford by Dr. Birkhead; and published And lurking closely, in await now lay,

his lectures under the title of Prælectiones PoeIlow he might any in his trap betray. Spenser.

ticæ. He obtained the living of Christ-church My brain, more busy than the labouring spider, Weaves tedious snares to trap mine enemies.

in Newgate Street, and St. Leonard's FosterShukspeare.

lane, London; but his very high-church princiDie as thou shouldest, but do not die impatiently, ples obstructed his farther preferment. He puband like a fox catched in a trap.

Iished several occasional poems, a tragedy called

Taylor's Holy Living. Abramule, translated Milton's Paradise Lost into He seems a trap for charity to lay,

tin verse, and died in 1747. Also a PreAnd cons by night his lesson for the day. Dryden. servative against Unsettled notions, in several The trap springs, and catches the ape by the fingers. sermons.


Trapp, in mineralogy, the obsolete name of a Unruly boys learn to wrangle at trap, or rook at

species of silica. It was the lapis Lydius, or span-farthing

Locke on Education.

touchstone of the ancients. See MINERALOGY. The arteries which carry from the heart to the several parts have valves which open outward like trap- in the department of Orne, seated in a large

TRAPPE, a celebrated monastery of France, doors, and give the blood a free passage.

Ray. He that of feeble nerves and joints complains,

valley surrounded by mountains. The monks From nine-pins, coits, and from trup-ball abstains. were famed in the days of superstition for their

King. austerity ; and keeping a perpetual silence! TRAPA, in botany, water caltrops, a genus

TRAP'PINGS, n. s. Fr. drap, cloth.-Minof plants in the class tetrandria, and in the shieu. Ornaments appendant to a saddle; dress; order of monogynia ; ranking, according to the embellishments. natural method, in the order which Linnæus left These indeed seem, doubtful.

But I have that within which passeth shew ; TRAPANI, the ancient Drepanum, a well These but the trappings and the suits of woe. built town of Sicily, in the Val di Mazzara, si

Shakspeare tuated on a tongue of land projecting into the Caparisons and steeds, sea, and forming a large and commodious har- Bases and tinsel trappings, gorgeous knights bour. It is a place of importance, both as a na

At joust and tournament.

Milton. val, military, and commercial position. Its nu

The points of honour poets may produce,

Dryden. merous churches, convents, and other public Trappings of life, for ornament, not use. buildings, are in a style of considerable elegance.

He has fair words, rich trappings, and large proThe barbour is good, and was an object of im- mises ; but works only for his master. L'Estrange. portance at so remote a period as the first and TRASH, n. s. & v. a. ? Swed. trusa ; Isld. second Punic wars. It is capable of receiving Trashy, adj. S tros. Any thing vessels of 300 tons close to the quay. Trapani, worthless ; dross; dregs; a worthless person: possessed of these advantages, has long been one to crop; top; humble: trashy is vile; worthof the most commercial towns in Sicily. Its less. exports consist chiefly of salt, soda, coral, and

Lay hands upon these traitors and their trash. alabaster. Population 20,000.

Shakspeure. TRAPES, n. s. From TRAPE. An idle

Being once perfected how to grant suits, slatternly woman.

How to deny them ; whom t'advance, and whom From door to door I'd sooner whine and beg, To trash for overtopping:

Id. Tempest. Than marry such a trupes.

I suspect this trash
Gay's What d' Ye Call It. To be a party in ihis injury.

Id ello.

More than ten Hollensheds, or llalls, or Stows, ric 10,000 rupees: and koprah, or dried cocoaOf trivial household trash he knows; he knows nut kernels, 20,000 rupees per annum. Tobacco When the queen frowned or smiled. Donne. for the consumption of the province is generally

A judicious reader will discover in his closet that brought from Ceylon, the average quantity being trashy stuff, whose glittering deceived him in the ac

4000 bales, each of which costs the Travancor tion.


government sixty rupees, and is afterwards resold that instead of trash thou 'dst taken steel.


at 220 rupees per bale: 1500 candies of cotton Weak foolish man! will heaven reward us there

are also annually imported from Surat, upon With the same trash mad mortals wish for here? which the government levy a duty of forty-five

Pope. rupees per candy. The government receives TRAVAIL, v. n. & n. s.

from the purchase of cardamoms 100 rupees upon

Fr. travailler. To labor: toil; be in labor; suffer the pains of every candy, besides full reimbursement of all

expenses attending the original advance to the childbirth; to harass; tire; labor; toil; ex

cultivator, and the charges of transportation. In treme fatigue: the labor of childbirth.

the interior the Travancor duties are exacted on In the time of her travail, twins were in her. the transit of all articles, and the payment at one

Genesis xxxviii.

place scarcely ever exempts the trader from a reSuch impotent persons as are unable for strong petition at another, passes being unknown except travail, are yet able to drive cattle to and fro to their for some articles thai are already farmed. Among pasture.

Spenser. other commodities produced in the country, and As every thing of price, so this doth require tra

taxed by the government, are cassia huds, mace, tail.

Hooker, To procure easy travails of women, the intention. long nutmegs, wild saffron, narwally, coculus in is to bring down the child, but not too fast.

dicus, bees' wax, elephants' teeth, and sandal Bacon's Natural History.

wood. The sea customs of Travancor are farmAs if all these troubled had not been sufficient to ed, and realise on an average about one lack of travail the realm, a great division fell among the no- rupees per annum. bility.

Hayward. Besides those above stated, there are various A gleam of light turned thitherward in baste other sources of revenue to the Travancor goHis travelled steps.


vernment, such as taxes on Christian festivals, His heart is in continual labour : it travails with and upon nets and fishermen; but the most imthe obligation, and is in pangs till it be delivered.

portant is a capitation tax on all males from sixSouth's Sermons.

teen to sixty, with the exception of Nairs, MopTRAVANCOR, or TIRUVANCODU, a province lays, and artificers. This operates as a tax on at the south-western extremity of Hindostan, si- the soil, and compensates to the government the tuated between 8o and 10° N. lat. To the north light assessment on the grain produce. The it is bounded by the territories of the Cochin landholder is bound for all the cultivators on his Rajah; on the south and west by the sea; and estate, and each person is assessed three fanams. on the east it is separated from Tinnevelly by a The number paying has been estimated at 250,000 range of lofty hills covered with jungle. In persons. The sum total of all these exactions length it may be estimated at 140 miles by forty has been conjectured to amount to twenty lacks the average breadth. The face of the country in of rupees annually, which is exclusive of the wet this province, in the vicinity of the mountains, cultivation as mentioned above, and from the deexhibits a varied scene of hill and dale and wind- tail here presented some idea may be formed of ing streams. These waters flow from the hills, the fiscal regulations under a genuine Hindoo and preserve the valleys in perpetual verdure. government. Pepper, the great staple of TraThe grandeur of the scene is much enhanced by vancor, has fallen so greatly in value as to be althe lofty forests with which the mountains are most unsaleable; what formerly brought 220 covered, producing pepper, cardamonis, cassia, rupees per candy has gradually fallen to little frankincense, and other aromatic gums. In the above sixty rupees. The East India Company woods at the bottom of the hills are many ele- have in consequence commuted their subsidy, phants, buffaloes, and tigers of the largest size. which used to be paid in pepper, for one in Monkeys and apes are very numerous, and herd money. together in flocks. The agriculture and produc- The old subsidy amounted to . 381,456 tions well adapted to its more favorable cli- The new subsidy to

401,655 mate and superior soil, differ materially from the cultivation and crops of the Carnatic. Pepper,

Rupees 783,111 of which from 5000 to 10,000 candies may be The principal sea-ports in this province are produced annually, and valued at 485,000 ru- Anjengo, Coulan, Aibecca, and Coleshy. Strong pees. For this valuable article the Travancor currents run along the coast which frequently government only pay the cultivator thirty rupees carry ships, bound round Cape Comorin, a conper candy. Betel nut is also monopolised by 'siderable distance to the westward. Thé rajah's government, which makes advances to the culti- usual place of residence is Trivandapatam. vator and resells it at a great profit. Cocoa-nut TRAVEL, v. N., v. a. & n. s. Supposed trees are very numerous.

Traʼveller, n. s.

-originally the The timber forests of Travancor are in general


same with trafarmed, the revenue to government varying ac- vail: to make journeys by sea or land: written cording to circumstances. Among the other ar- by Hooker for travail ; pass; journey over; a ticles of monopoly are ginger, farmed for 25,000 journey ; act of passing from place to place; rupees per annum; coir, 30,000 rupees; turme- labor; toil; labor in childbirth (written for tide


vail): travels is used for an account of events or

He through the armed files for observations made in travelling: a traveller Darts his experienced eye, and soon traverse is a wayfarer, one who journeys : traveltainted, The whole battalion views their order due. Milton. harassed; fatigued with travel.

A just and lively picture of human nature in its

actions, passions, and traverses of fortune. Dryden. In the forest shall ye lodge, 0 ye travelling com- He sees no defect in himself, but is satisfied that panies of Dedanim.

Isaiah xxi. 13. he should have carried on his designs well enough, A little ease to these my torments give,

had it not been for unlucky traverses not in his Before I go where all in silence mourn,


Locke. From whose dark shores no travellers return.

My purpose is to traverse the nature, principles,

Sandys. and properties, of this detestable vice, ingratitude. Farewell, monsieur traveller ; look you lisp and

South, wear strange suits, and disable all the benefits of

The lion, smarting with the hunter's spear, your own country.

Slukspeare. Though deeply wounded, no way yet dismayed, Time travels in divers paces with divers persons : In sullen fury traverses the plain, I'll tell you who time ambles withal, who time trots To find the vent'rous foe.

Prior. withal.


What seas you traversed, and what fields you I have foundered nine score and odd posts ; and fought !

Pope, here, traveltainted as I am, have, in my pure and im

TRAVERSARI (Ambrose), a learned Italian maculate valour, taken Sir John Coleville.

Id. Henry IV.

monk, born at Camaldoni, near Florence, in If we labour to maintain truth and reason, let not

1386. He acted as interpreter between the any think that we travel about a matter not needful. Greeks and Italians. His translation of Diogenes

Hooker. Laertius, dedicated to Cosmo de Medicis, has Travel in the younger sort is a part of education ; been often printed. in the elder a part of experience. Bacon's Essays. Traverse, in navigation, implies a compound These travellers for cloaths, or for a meale,

course, or an assemblage of various courses, At all adventurers, any lye will tell. Chapman. .

lying at different angles with the meridian. See He wars with a retiring enemy,

With much more travail than with victory. Daniel.
Thither to arrive,

TRAVERSE, in gunnery, is the turning a piece
I travel this profound.

of ordnance about, as upon a centre, to make it

Milton. In my travels I had beeu near their setting out in point in any particular direction. Thessaly, and at the place of their landing in Car- TRAVERSE, in fortification, denotes a trench niola.

Browne's Travels. with a little parapet, sometimes two, one on each Love had cut him short,

side, to serve as a cover from the enemy, that Confined within the purlieus of his court.

might corne in flank. Three miles he went, nor farther could retreat,

TRAVERSE, in a wet foss, is a sort of gallery, His travels ended at his country-seat. Dryden. made by throwing saucissons, joists fascines,

Thy mother well deserves that short delight, stones, earth, &c., into the foss, opposite the The nauseous qualms of ten long months and travel place where the miner is to be put, in order to to requite.

Id. Virgil.

fill up the ditch, and make a passage over it. They are travellers newly arrived in a strange TRAVERSE also denotes a wall of earth, or country, we should therefore not mislead them.

stone, raised across a work, to stop the shot from

Locke. A man not enlightened by travel or reflexion, rolling along it. It also sometimes signifies any

retrenchment of line fortified with fascines, grows as fond of arbitrary power, to which he hath been used, as of barren countries, in which he has barrels, or bags of earth, or gabions. been born and bred.


TRAVERSE Board, in navigation, a thin cir

cular piece of board, marked with all the points TRAV'ERS, adv. 2

French travers. of the compass, and having eight holes bored in Trav'ERSE, adv., prep., Athwart; across (not each, and eight small pegs hanging from the adj., n. s., v. a. & v.n. Sused): traverse is

centre of the board. It is used to determine the cross-wise; athwart : through crosswise : lying different courses run by a ship during the period across any thing thus laid or built: any thing that of the watch, and to ascertain the distance of thwarts or crosses : as a verb active, to thwart; each course. oppose; cross; wander over; survey : to use in TRAVERSING, in fencing, is the change of fencing a particular opposing posture.

ground made by moving to right or left round He swears brave oaths, and breaks them bravely, the circle of defence. quite travers, athwart the heart of his lover.

Traversing Platform, in artillery, is a me

Shakspeare. thod of mounting guns, introduced some years To see thee fight, to see thee traverse, to see thee back for the defence of the coast, and generally here, to see thee there.

Id. Merry Wives. for all sea batteries, as affording greater facility Myself, and such

of traversing the gun, so as to follow, without As stept within the shadow of your power, loss of time, any quick moving object on the Have wandered with our traverst arms, and breathed Our sufferance vainly. ld. Timon of Athens.

water. In this system the gun is n.ounted on a Bring water from some hanging grounds in long

common garrison carriage; but instead of this furrows; and from those drawing it traverse to carriage being placed and working on a fixed spread.

Bacon. platform, as formerly, it works and recoils on a The ridges of the fallow field lay traverse.

moveable platform ; or, as it may be more pro

Hayward. perly termed, a rail-way moving round a cenThis treatise has, since the first conception thereof, tre in its front on rollers, the axes of which boen often traversed with other thoughts. Wotlon. produced would intersect in this centre of

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