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motion; so that this platform, with the carriage ed traversing platforms than by one on the old and gun upon it, may be traversed with consi- construction: the latter completely occupies a derable ease in any direction. The length of the space of sixteen feet in length by five in breadth; skids, or rail-way, on which the upper carriage whereas all the skids of Sir W. Congreve's three recoils is sixteen feet, and the hinder part is platforms, are above the men's heads, so that somewhat higher than the front, so that by runn. they may pass freely to and fro in all directions ing up hill the recoil is reduced, and the facility under them, having every where six feet six of running the gun out again much increased. inches headway ; nor is there any part of these
The late Sir William Congreve brought for- platforms that takes up any of the space of the ward an improvement upon the traversing plat- area, except two perpendicular legs of eight form, by which the upper carriage is dispensed inches square to each platform, on which the rear with ; the necessary height for firing over the of the platforms is supported. To these advanparapet being given by the lower carriage, or, as tages are to be added the greater facility, as above it is called, the platform itself. In this construc- explained, of working the gun, and also that the tion the gun recoils on trucks which work upon muzzle is by these means thrown forward beyond its trunnions, and which are allowed to turn as the parapet, which gives a power of greater dethe gun runs out, but are palled by a strong catch pression, and prevents the possibility of accident concealed in the trunnion, which prevents their to the parapet from the explosion of the gun turning when the gun recoils; the elevation be- when depressed. ing regulated by a small cast iron cradle also at- There is another most important inprovement tached to the trunnions. This construction not in the practice of fortification, which Sir Wilonly very much reduces the expense of the tra- liam's traversing platform has given rise to, and versing platform, by saving the upper carriage, which was first matured with the assistance of but gives much greater ease in working the gun; captain Lefebure of the engineers, and brought for by palling the trucks the recoil is diminished, before the committee of that corps upwards of and by getting rid of the weight of the upper two years since : it is the inversion of the emcarriage the men have little more to move than brasures of casemated defences, that is to say, the the gun, instead of having in addition to it a presenting of the small aperture of the embrasure heavy carriage also to run out. There is also a to the enemy instead of the large one. Thus, in very important advantage attending this improve- an embrasure of this description, which Sir Wm. ment, namely, the reduction of vulnerable space Congreve has constructed, he can fight a twentyfor the enemy's shot to strike; for not only is the four pounder through an aperture only one foot length of the skids or platform itself reduced, six inches wide, and one foot ten inches high, but all the surface of the upper carriage is en- preserving all the thickness of masonry entire, tirely done away with, at the same time that, by the and allowing the piece a field or scope of 30° diminution of the general weight, it is evident with the ordinary power of elevation and depresthat it requires less labor to traverse the platform sion; to obtain all which on the common prinas well as to fight the gun. This system of mount- ciple requires an exterior aperture of six feet high ing guns, by putting the trucks upon the trunnions, and six feet wide. Now the whole of this deand placing those trucks immediately on the skids pends on the extraordinary compactness of the of the traversing platform, has been offered by Sir platform and its piece of ordnance, as mounted William Congreve as being particularly well by putting trucks on the trunnions of the gun, adapted to the arming of the Martello Towers, or on the trunnion polt of the carronade, and to which have been deemed too small for the num- the greatly increased facility of working either, ber of guns originally intended, namely, one especially the latter, which the trucks afford; for long gun and two short ones. The diameter of by these means the gun or carronade, instead of the interior of the top of these towers is twenty- being obliged, as in the common mode, to be six feet : it occurred to Sir William Congreve worked in the body of the casemate, is here acthat his method of putting the trucks upon the tually worked in the thickness of the wall itself; trunnions of the gun brings the gun so near to so that in the carronade, as well as in the gun, the the skids of the platform, that a platform so con- muzzle is actually protruded through the embrastructed might be laid upon the upper surface of sure and is fired in free space : whence result the parapet of a martello tower, without expos- all the following important comparative advaning more or even so much surface as at present, tages : where the platform is kept within the parapet; The common embrasure acts as a widely exfor the muzzle of the gun would be no higher in tended funnel to lead the enemy's shot into the one case than in the other. On this principle, body of the casemate, and is particularly objectherefore, Sir William Congreve proposed to take tionable on this account as to grape shot, and four feet all round the tower for the ends of his presents a large line of edge to be chipped and platform to work upon, which would at once virtu- ruined by the enemy's shot. In the inverted ally make a tower of twenty-six feet in diameter embrasure the shot, whether round or grape, equal to one of thirty-four feet ; that is to say, it must strike a space of eighteen inches by two, actually gives the area of a circle of thirty-four and twenty inches to enter ; a very small quanfeet diameter for the guns to work in, instead of tity of grape shot therefore can take effect, and a one of only twenty-six feet; and thus would af- proportionably less line of edge is presented to ford abundant area for the three guns originally be destroyed by round shot. intended. But this is not all; for by this plan In the common embrasure the explosion of there is ally less of the space in the area firing the gun takes place within the arch, from within the parapet occupied by the three inprov- which not only is the masonry constantly shaken by firing a few rounds, but the noise and smoke that of the long gun can be with the common rebound into the body of the casemate greatly to carriage. 6thly, This carriage allows of very the annoyance of the men. In the inverted em- greatly more training than a common carriage, brasure, the muzzle when fired being projected owing to the comparative difference of breadth into free space, no accident or jar can possibly and to its working on a fixed centre; thus it may happen to the masonry from the explosion : nor be traversed 90°. This is a most iinportant point does the smoke or the report return into the gained; and yet, 7thly, it does not require, to give casemate as above.
this power of training, a port so wide as the comAnother advantage is, that such an em rasure mon port by nine inches of a side, which is obmay be close to the bottom of the ditch without viously of great consequence both to the strength danger of being stormed, and that in fact it re- of the ship and the security of the men at the quires no prevention against such attack, as when guns against musquetry and grape shot.
8thly, the gun is in its place a man cannot possibly The span of this carriage is so much less than force himself in. Nor does there in fact appear that of the common carriage that four of them, any drawback to these obvious advantages ; for if required, might be put in the space of three the loading and firing goes on with the same ra- common carriages, leaving the same interpidity or even greater than in the common mode; vals, yet it cannot be overset as it works on a the gun or carronade necessarily recoiling, when fixed centre. 9thly, This carriage may be housfired, far enough to be loaded with perfect ease, ed fore and aft so as not to take up more than and allowing, by the application of the trucks as two feet from the breadth of the deck, or in bad already explained, of being run out again with even weather it may be secured athwart ship without greater facility than by any other construction occupying more room than the common carriage. hitherto devised; insomuch that the heavier the It is however capable of better security, and may nature of ordnance the greater is the compara- be housed so as to take off all strain whatever tive advantage.
from the side of the ship, and to prevent the posSir William Congreve has applied this same sibility of its stirring, as it allows of direct lashprinciple of gun and carronade carriage very suc- ings to ring bolts on the dech, which the comcessfully to naval purposes, several ships having mon carriage will not any how admit of, and already been armed on his plan. The following must therefore always have some motion in a are the advantages proposed by it on ship board. gale of wind. Lastly, Notwithstanding all these 1st, Sir William Congreve has contrived, in the points, which would appear to be the result of a application of the principles of his traversing complicated machine, the construction of this carplatform to the sea service, to give all the ad- riage is so simple that it is actually easier repaired vantages of quick pointing, and of the diminu. at sea than a common carriage, and is even less tion of labor in a space not exceeding that occu- perishable: in fine, it requires nothing but compied by the common gun carriage, insomuch that mon square scantling and the work of any ship the heavy guns in a line-of-battle ship will not carpenter. Sir William Congreve has published an require more than half the ordinary number of account of this important improvement in mountmen to fight them, without taking up more room ing heavy artillery, with a series of plates explanathan is now required for the common carriage. tory of the different modes of construction and 2dly, A gun mounted on this principle will recoil advantages, and we understand that he has a pamuch more smoothly, and without jumping as tent for the invention. the common gun carriage does when fired ; not TRAVESTRY, in literature, a name given to a only because it is confined to the port sill and humorous translation of any author. cannot rise, but because the plane on which it TRAVIS (George), M. A. a learned English recoils is so much nearer the axis of the piece; divine, born at Royton, in Lancashire; educated for, as Sir William Congreve has demonstrated, at Manchester, and St. John's College, Camthe jumping of the common carriage is owing to bridge. He became vicar of Eastham, rector of the height of the gun above the plane of the Hanley in Cheshire, and archdeacon of Chester. deck on which it recoils ; this height acting as a He wrote Letters to Mr. Gibbon, in which he lever to tip the carriage over backwards when the defended the authenticity of the controverted gun is fired, and so producing a double motion passage in 1 John v. 7. Ile died in 1797. in the recoil, first raising the fore trucks and then TRAUMATIC, adj. Gr. Tpavpatikos.
Vul. the hind ones off the deck; all which he proves nerary; useful to wounds. to be obviated by putting the trucks on which I deterged and disposed the ulcer to incarn, and the gun recoils on its own trunnions, and thereby to do so I put the patient into a traumatick decoction. getting rid of the lever which produces the mis
Wiseman's Surgery. chief. 3dly, The actual weight of the sea ser- TRAUNVIERTEL (i. e. quarter of the vice gun carriage is reduced by this mode of Traun), a district of Upper Austria, along the mounting ship guns. 4thly, The new carriage Traun, and extending from the Danube to the presents considerably less vulnerable surface borders of Styria. It has a territorial extent of than the common carriage, and consequently less 1955 square miles, with 170,000 inhabitants. is to be feared from splinters; nor has the new The northern part is level and fertile, but the carriage the same liability to rot the decks, as the south full of lofty mountains. This part of the air circulates freely underneath it, instead of its Traun abounds with salt and other mines. In causing a continual dampness as is the case with 1809 the western part of this district was ceded the present carriage; seamen will feel the force to Bararia, but was restored to Austria ir. 1815. of this property. 5thly, By this construction the TRAY, n. s. Swedish tray. A shallow wooden muzzle of a short gun may be run out as far as vessel in which meat or fish is carried.
No more her care shall fill the hollow truy,
What distance between the treading or coupling, To fat the guzzling hogs with floods of whey. Gay. and the laying of the egg ? Bacon's Natural History, TRAZ oz Montes, a large province of the
The quaint mazes in the wanton green,
Milton. north-east of Portugal, extending in a form For want of tread, are undistinguishable.
Ye that stately tread, or lowly creep. nearly square, having to the south the course of
Whether it is not made out of the germe, or treathe Douro, to the north Spanish Galicia. Its dle of the egg, seemeth of lesser doubt. territorial extent is about 5500 square miles,
Broune's l'ulgar Errours. equal to four of our average counties; its popu- The dancer on the rope, with doubtful tread. lation, much more thinly spread, hardly exceeds Gets wherewithal to clothe and buy him bread. 350,000.
Dryden. TREACH'EROUS, adj. French tricherie. They bill, they tread; Alcyone, compressed, TREACH'EROUSLY, adv. Faithless; perfidi- Seven days sits brooding on her floating nest. TREACH'ERY, n. s.
onis; guilty of de- The farther the fore-end of the treaille reaches out TREA'CHETOR, n. S. TREA'CHOUR.
ing: the adverb sweep of the fore-end of the treudle be, and conseand noun substantive corresponding: treachetor quently the more revolutions are made at one tread.
Moron's Mechanical Exercises. or treachour, is an obsolete synonyine of traitor.
He died obedient to severest law; He bad the lion to be remitted
Forbid to tread the promised land he saw.
Prior. Unto his seat, and those same treacherous vile
At each end of the egg is a treudle, formerly Be punished for their presumptuous guile. Spenser.
thought to be the cock's sperm.
Derham. Good Claudius with him in battle fought,
Where'er you tread, the blushing flowers shall rise. In which the king was by a treachetour
Pope. Disguised slain.
Tread the stuff out on the door to prevent stinking. Thou hast slain
Swift. The flower of Europe for his chivalry, And treacherously hast thou vanquished him.
TREA'SON, n. s. French trahison. An of
Shakspeare. TREA'SONABLE, adj. fence committed against I treated, trusted you, and thought you mine ; TREA'Sonous. S the dignity and majesty When in requital of my best endeavours,
of a commonwealth : see below: the adjective You treacherously practised to undo me,
corresponding. Seduced my only child and stole her. Otway.
Athaliah cried, Treason, treason. They bid him strike, to appease the ghost
2 Kings, xi, 14. Of his poor father treacherously lost.
He made the overture of thy treasons to us.
Him by proofs as clear as founts in July
I know to be corrupt and treasonous. TREA'CLE, n.. 8. Fr. triacle ; Belg. triuckle.
Id. Henry VIII. A medicine made up of many ingredients: a This being a treason against God, by a commerce syrup.
with his enemy.
Holyday. The physician that has observed the medicinal Most men's heads had been intoxicated with virtues of treacle, without knowing the nature of each imaginations of plots and treasonable practices. of the sixty odd ingredients, may cure many patients
Clarendon. with it.
Boyle. Were it a draught for Juno when she banquets, Treacle water has much of an acid in it. Floyer. I would not taste thy trea sonous offer. Milion. TREAD, v. n., v. 4., & ? Pret, trod; part.
Man disobeying, Treat'er, n. š. [n. s. pass. trodden. Saxon Disloyal breaks his fealty, and sins TREAD'LE.
'rredan ; Belg. tre- Against the high supremacy of heaven : den; Gothic trudan. To set the foot; trample;
To expiate his treason hath nought left. Id. walk in form or state; copulate, as birds : as liamentary security is dangerous, illegal, and per
A credit to run ten millions in debt without para verb active, to walk on, press, or beat under- haps treasonable.
Suift. foot; crush; put in action by the foot : a lread is a footing; step with the foot; way: treader, by the law, to denote not only offences against
Treason, a general appellation, made use of he who treads : ireadle, part of a machine on which the feet act; the sperm of a cock.
the king and government, but also that accamuThou shalt tread upon their high places.
lation of guilt which arises whenever a superior Deut. xxxiii. 29.
reposes a confidence in a subject or inferior, beThou
tween whom and himself there subsists a natural, Must, as a foreign recreant, be led
a civil, or even a spiritual relation; and the inWith manacles along our street, or else
ferior so abuses that confidence, so forgets the Triumphantly tread on thy country's ruin,
obligations of duty, subjection, and allegiance, And bear the palm. Shakspeure. Coriolanus. as to destroy the life of any such superior or lord.
If the streets were paved with thine eyes, Hence treason is of two kinds, high and petty. Her feet were much too dainty for such tread.
Treason High, or Treason PARAMOUNT
Shukspeare. (which is equivalent to the crimen læsæ majestaWhen shepherds pipe on oaten straws ;
tis of the Romans), is an offence committed When turtles tread.
Id. Would I had never trod this English earth,
against the security of the king or kingdom, Or felt the flatteries that grow upon it!
whether by imagination, word, or deed. The Full of briars is this working world.
stat. 25 Edw. III. c. 2, defines what offences - They are but burs, if we walk not in the trodden should be held to be treason; and it comprepatbs, our very petticoats will catch them.
hends all kinds of high treason under seven Id. As you like it. branches. •1. When a man doth compass or imagine the death of our lord the king, of our succession in the house of Hanover. For this lady his queen, or of their eldest son and heir,' purpose, after the act of settlement was made, it the stat. requires that the accused ‘be thereof was enacted by stat. 13 and 14 W. III. c. 3, upon sufficient proof attainted of some open act that the pretended prince of Wales, assuming by men of his own condition.' Thus, to provide the title of king James III., should be attainted weapons or ammunition for the purpose of kills of high treason; and it was made high treason ing the king, is held to be a palpable overt act for any of the king's subjects to hold corresponof treason in imagining his death. To conspire dence with him or any person employed by him, to imprison the king by force, and move towards or to remit money for his use. And, by 17 it by assembling company, is an overt act of Geo. II. c. 39, it is enacted, that if any of the compassing the king's deaih. It seems clearly sons of the pretender shall land or attempt to to be agreed that by the common law and the land in this kingdom, or be found in the kingstal. of Edw. III. words spoken amount only dom or any of its dominions, he shall be adto a high misdemeanor, and no treason. If the judged alta nted of high treason ; and correswords be set down in writing, it argues more de- ponding with them, or remitting money to their liberate intention; and it has been held that use, is made high treason. By 1 Ann. stat. 2, writing is an overt act of treason. But, even in c. 17, the offence of hindering the next in sucthis case, the bare words are not the ireason, but cession from succeeding to the crown, is high the deliberate act of writing them. 2. ' If a man treason; and, by 6 Ann. c. 7, if any person shali do violate the king's companion, or the king's maliciously, advisedly, and directly, hy writing eldest daughter unmarried, or the wife of the or printing, maintain that any other person hath king's eldest son and heir.' By the king's com- any right to the crown of this realm, otherwise panion is meant his wife ; and by violation is than according to the act of settlement, or that understood carnal knowledge, as well without the kings of this realm with the authority of parforce as with it. 3. The third species of treason liament are not able to make laws to bind the is, “if a man do levy war against our lord the crown and its descent; such person shall be king in his realm.' And this may be done by guilty of high treason. The punishment of high taking arms, not only to dethrone the king, but treason in general is very solemn and terrible. under pretence to reform religion, or the laws, 1. That the offender be drawn to the gallows, or to remove evil counsellors, or other grievances and not be carried or walk; though usually (by whether real or pretended. 4. “If a man be ad- connivance, at length ripened by humanity inio herent to the king's enemies in his realm, giving to law) a sledge or hurdle is allowed, to preserve them aid and comfort in the realm or elsewhere.' the offender from the torment of being dragged he is also declared guilty of high treason. 5. on the ground or pavement. 2. That he be • If a man counterfeit the king's great or privy hanged by the neck, and then cut down alive. seal,' this is also high treason. But if a man 3. That his entrails be taken out, and burned takes wax bearing the impression of the great while he is yet alive. 4. That his head be cut seal off from one patent and fixes it to another, off. 5. That his body be divided into four parts. this is held to be only an abuse of the seal, and 6. That his head and quarters be at the king's not a counterfeiting of it. 6. 'If a man counter- disposal. The king may, and often doth, disfeit the king's money; and if a man bring false charge all the punishment except beheading, money into the realm counterfeit to the money especially where any of noble blood are attainted. of England, knowing the money to be false, to But where beheading is no part of the judginent, merchandise and make payment withal.' But as in murder or other felonies, it hath been said gold and silver money only are held to be within that the king cannot change the judgment. In this statute. It is held that uttering counterfeit the case of coining, the punishment is milder for money without importing it, is not within the male offenders ; being only to be drawn and statute. 7. If a man slay the chancellor, trea- hanged by the neck till dead. But, in treasons surer, or the king's justices of the one bench or of every kind, the punishment of women is the the other, justices in eyre, or justices of assize, same, being different, and perhaps more terrible and all other justices assigned to hear and de- than that of men. Their sentence, until of late termine, being in their places doing their years, was to be drawn to the gallows, and there office.' But this statute extends only to the to be burned alive. This barbarous punishment, actual killing of them; and not to wounding or a to the disgrace of the law of England, was acbare attempt to kill them. The barons of the tually inflicted upon a poor woman, at London, so exchequer, as such, are not within the protection late as the year 1786. The woman fainted when of this act ; but the lord keeper or commissioners led to the place of suffering. This circunstance of the great seal now seem to be within it, hy virtue excited the humanity of Martin, esq. M. P. of the stats. 5 Eliz. c. 18, and 1 W. and M. c. to bring in a bill for its abolition, which passed 21. The new treasons, created since the stat. 1 both houses during the winter sessions in 1788, M. c. 1, and not comprehended under the de- See ATTAINDER, FORFEITURE, and CORRUPTION scription of stat. 25 Edw. III., may be comprised of Blood. under three heads. The first species relates to Treason, Petty, or Petit, according to the Papists; the second to falsifying the coin or stat. 25 Edw. III. c. 2, may happen three ways: other royal signatures, as falsely forging the sign by a servant killing his master, a wife her husmanual, privy signet, or privy seal, which shall band, or an ecclesiastical person (either secular be deemed high treason.—1 M. stat. ii. c. 6. or regular) his superior, to whom he owes faith The third new species of high treason is such as and obedience. Whatever has been said with was created for the security of the Protestant respect to wilful murder is also applicable to the
crime of petit treason, which is no other than power, with the comptroller and other officers of
CREA'SUREHOUSE, n. $. Latin thesaurus. the exchequer; by some called the lower exche-
Wealth hoarded; quer. The officers of his majesty's treasury, or
treasurehouse, one of whom is chancellor, two joint secretaries, the place of this deposit : treasurer, a depositary private secretary to the first lord, two chamberof treasure: treasureship, his office or dignity: lains, an auditor, four tellers, a clerk of the pells, treasury, a place devoted to the storing or regu. ushers of the receipt, a tally-cutter, &c. See lating treasures: used for the treasure itself by CHANCELLOR, TELLER, &c. Shakspeare.
TREAT, v. a., v. n. & n. s. Fr. traiter ; Lat. Let there be any grief or disease incident to the
tracto. To negosoul of men, for which there is not in this treasure- TREAT'ISE, n. s.
ciate; settle; dishouse a present comfortable remedy to be found.
on; maHooker. TREAT'Y.
nage; entertain :
the verb neuter and noun substantive correspond:
discourse; tract: treatment, usage : treaty, ne-
gociation; act of treating ; supplication; petiTell me once more, what tiile dost thou bear ?
tion; compact made. This is my treasurer, let him speak
The king treated with them. 2 Mac, xiii. 22.
A virtuous mind should rather wish to depart this
world with a kind of treatable dissolution, than be Before the invention of laws, private affections in suddenly cut off in a moment ; rather to be taken
Hooker. supreme rulers made their own fancies both their than snatched away. Treasurers and hangmen, weighing in this balance
The time has been, my fell of hair good and evil.
Would at a dismal treatise rouze, and stir
As life were in 't. He used his laws as well for collecting of treasure,
Shakspeare. as for correcting of manners.
And palter in the shift of lowness.
Of love they treat till the' evening star appeared.
The heats or the colds of seasons are less treatable
than with us. caying, and never sinking much in value.
Temple. No, my remembrance treasures honest thoughts,
To treut the peace, a hundred senators And holds not things like thee ; I scorn thy friend
Shall be commissioned.
Dryden's Æneid. ship.
This is the ceremony of my fate : Treasurer, Lord High, of Great Britain,
A parting treat, and I'm to die in state. Dryden.
Scarce an humour or character which they have or first commissioner of the treasury, when in not used; all comes wasted to us : and, were they commission, has under his charge and govern- to entertain this age, they could not now make such ment all the king's revenue which is kept in the plenteous treatment.
Id. exchequer. Hs holds his place during the king's Absence, what the poets call death in love, has pleasure ; being instituted by the delivery of a given occasion to beautiful complaints in those auwhite staff to him. He has the check of all the thors who have treated of this passion in verse. officers employed in collecting the customs and
Addison's Spectator. royal revenues; and in his gift and disposition Lets fall the guiltless weapon from his hand,
Echion then are all the offices of the customs in the several And with the rest a peaceful treaty makes. Id. Ovid. ports of the kingdom ; escheators in every county
If we do not please, at least we treut. Prior. are nominated by him; he also makes leases of
He pretends a great concern for his country, and the lands belonging to the crown. TREASURER OF THE Household is an officer
insight into matters ; now such professions, when
recommended by a treat, dispose an audience to hear who, in the absence of the lord steward, has