صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

prove the victory he had gained over the enemy; vent all disputes about the command of the by the help of which they fell so furiously on army, it was agreed that each state should have them, that they quickly broke and totally defeated it in its own territories. But Epaminondas set the shattered remains of Alexander's army. off in full march at the head of his Bæotian Hereupon he was forced to sue for peace, and io troops, with some Eubæan auxiliaries, and a accept it on such conditions as the conquerors body of stout Thessalian horse; and was joined thought fit to impose. He was at length de- by the Messenians, Argives, and several other spatched in his bed by his wife Thebe, assisted nations, as soon as he had entered Peloponnesus. by her brothers, about seven years after his The confederate army against him had ordered defeat. His body was afterwards dragged along their rendezvous at Mantinea, the place which the streets, trodden under foot, and left a prey they concluded would be first attacked, as being to the dogs. All this while the Thebans were the chief seat of those who had revolted from watching to improve every commotion that hap- the Thebans. But, whilst they were securing pened, every success they met with, to the for- themselves on that side, Epaminondas, who warding of their then favorite project, of increas- wisely considered how far this confederacy and ing their power, and to give laws to Greece. expedition must have drained Sparta of its main Their late success in Thessaly, and the rupture strength, broke up privately from Nemæa, where between the Arcadians and Mantineans at the he had lain for some time encamped, and marchsame time, about some consecrated money which ed all that night to surprise that important capithe former had taken out of the temple of Olym- tal; but, his project being discovered, the vigipia to pay their troops employed against the lant king took care to disconcert it; so that, Eleans, and which the latter called a downright though the Theban general made several vigorous sacrilege, besides other discords in the other assaults on that city, he was so stoutly repulsed, states of Greece, gave fresh encouragement to and the Spartans behaved with such intrepid Thebes to set up for arbitress in those disputes; valor, that he was forced to retire and turn his and so much the more, as those who had em arms against Mantinea, which he judged to be bezzled the sacred money, and wanted rather to quite defenceless; and indeed it was not only embroil matters than to have them brought to drained of its troops, but likewise of its inhabitlight, sent that republic word that the Arcanians ants, who took that opportunity to gather in were just upon the point of revolting to the their harvest, and were scattered all over the Spartans, and advised them to come and put an country ; so that he would not have met with immediate stop to it. At the same time they any difficulty in gaining the town, had not the despatched some private directions to a Theban Athenian auxiliaries come unexpectedly to its officer at Tegea, to apprehend several of their relief, and given hin a fresh repulse. These own people as disturbers of the peace. This two last defeats greatly exasperated the Theban was accordingly done, and several eminent per- general ; and what added to his difficulties was, sons were confined as prisoners of state; they that the time allotted him for his expedition was were soon after discharged, and loud complaints almost expired. He was moreover got far into were made against such arbitrary and unjust the enemy's country, and saw how narrowly they proceedings. The officer was accused before watched all his motions, and how well prepared the Theban senate for having intermeddled in they were to oppose him. Under all these diftitheir affairs, and endeavoured to interrupt the culties, he considered that he must immediately good correspondence between the two states. resolve upon a decisive battle. In this engageIt was even insisted on, by some of the Tegeans, ment Epaminondas made the wisest disposition that he should be indicted and proceeded against of his troops, attacked and fought with the most by his principals ; whilst the more moderate, intrepid courage and conduct, and bad opened who foresaw the consequences that were likely himself a way through the Spartan phalanxes, to attend such appeals, and that it would infal- thrown them into the utmost confusion, and male libly bring the Thebans upon them, loudly pro- a terrible slaughter of them, insomuch that the tested against their marching into their territories, 'field of battle was covered with their wounded and did all they could to prevent it. The and slain; when in the heat of the fight, having Thebans, however, were become too powerful ventured too far, to give them a total overthrow, and ambitious to miss so fair an opportunity of the enemy rallied again, pouring three volleys of getting once more footing in Peloponnesus; darts at him, some of which he drew out and and Epaminondas was so far from making a returned to them, till at length, being covered secret of their design that he told the Arcadian with wounds, and weakened with the loss of deputies, in justification of it, that as it was on blood, he received a mortal wound from a javetheir account that the Thebans engaged in the lin, and was with great difficulty rescued from war, they had acted treacherously with them in the enemy by his brave Thebans, and brought making peace with Athens without their consent. alive, though speechless, into his tent. As soon This speech alarmed them greatly; so that even as he had recovered himself, he asked his friends those who were best affected to the Thebans what was become of his shield ; and, being told disliked it; and all who had the welfare of Pe- that it was safe, he beckoned to have it brought loponnesus at heart agreed with the Mantine- to him. He next enquired which side had gained ans, that there was no time to be lost to use all the victory; and, being answered the Thebans, proper means to prevent the impending storm. he replied, then all is well; and, upon observAthens and Sparta were accordingly applied to, ing some of his friends bewailing his untimely and were easily prevailed upon to assist the death, and his leaving no children, he answered, Mantineans against the Thebans; and, to pre- Yes; I have left two fair daughters, the victory

of Leuctra, and this of Mantinea, to perpetuate The eastern side is distinguished by the temples my memory. Soon after this, upon drawing the of Carnac and Luxor, the western by the Memjavelin out of his body, he expired.

nonium, or palace of Memnon, and by the seThebes, until its total destruction by Alexander. pulchres of the kings. The largest of these -The consequence of this great general's fall, temples, and of any in Egypt, is that at Carac. and of this bloody fight, in which neither side Diodorus describes it as thirteen stadia, or about could boast any great advantage over the other a mile and a half in circumference, which agrees but a great loss of men on both sides, insomuch sufficiently with the observation of Denon, that that Xenophon makes it a drawn battle, was, it may be walked round in half an hour. Notthat both parties agreed on a cessation of arms, withstanding its immensity, however, Denon and parted, as it were by consent, to take care prefers to it, in point of grandeur of execution, of their wounded and slain. The Thebans in- those of Edfu and Tentyra. He supposes it to deed thus far gained the greater share of glory, have been constructed at that earlier period, that they renewed the fight, and, after a most when architectural grandeur was supposed to desperate contest, gained the victory over those consist chiefly in magnitude. The obelisks, and Spartans that opposed them, and rescued the some of the ornaments upon the exterior gates, body of their dying general out of their hands. present a chasteness and elegance which appear However, an effectual end was put to this bloody to him to indicate a later origin. Mr. llamilwar, and a general peace agreed on by all but ton, however, appears to estimate this temple Sparta; who refused it only because the Messe- more highly, and to consider it as upon the nians were included in it. But as to the The whole the most wonderful of the Egyptian edibans, they had no great reason to boast of this fices. It has twelve principal entrances, each of dear bought victory, since their power and glory which is composed of several colossal gateways began to decline from that very time; so that it or moles, besides other buildings attached to might be truly said that it rose and set with them, in themselves larger than most other temtheir great general. On the death of Epaminon- ples. The sides of some of these moles are das, the Thebans relapsed into their former state equal to the bases of many of the pyramids, and of inactivity and indolence; and at last having are built like them, sloping inwards, each layer ventured to oppose Alexander the Great, their of stone projecting a little beyond the one which city was taken, and the inhabitants slaughtered is above. One of the gateways is entirely of for several hours, after which the buildings were granite, adorned with the most finished hierodestroyed. See MACEDON. Thebes was rebuilt glyphics. On each side of many of them have by Cassander, but never afterwards made any been colossal statues of basalt, breccia, and graconsiderable figure among the states of Greece. nite, from twenty to thirty feet high, some in an About the year 146 B.C. it fell under the power erect, others in a sitting position. Avenues of of the Romans, under which it continued till the sphinxes lead in several directions to the enextinction of their empire by the Turks.

trances, and one of them is continued the whole The glory of Thebes belongs to a period way across the plain to Luxor. The body of prior to the commencement of authentic his- the temple (which is preceded by a large court, iory. In proportion as Egypt was modernised, at whose sides are colonades of thirty columns her capital was transferred nearer to the Medi- in length, and through the middle of which are terranean; a change connected with the conve two rows of columns fifty feet high) consists nience of trade and subsistence, and perhaps first of a prodigious hall or portico, the roof of with changes in the physical structure of the which is supported by 134 columns, some valley of the Nile. At the time of the Persian twenty-six, others thirty-four feet in circumferinvasion, Memphis, a little above Cairo, had sup- ence; four beautiful obelisks then mark the enplanted Thebes. The Ptolemies transported trance to the shrine, which consists of three the seat of empire to Alexandria. In the reign apartments, built entirely of granite. The prinof Ptolemy Philopater, Thebes revolted, and cipal room, which is in the centre, is twenty feet being taken, after a siege of three years, was so long, sixteen wide, and thirteen high. Three plundered and ransacked, that ever after it was blocks of granite form the roof, which is painted scarcely considered an Egyptian city. Yet, with clusters of gilt stars on a blue ground, and under the name of Diospolis, such magnificent the walls are covered with painted sculptures. descriptions of its monuments were given by Beyond this are other porticoes and galleries, Strabo and Diodorus, as caused the fidelity of continued to another entrance, distant 2000 feet those writers to be called in question, till the from that at the western extremity of the tem-' observations of modern travellers confirmed ple. The sculptures, of which the most intertheir accounts. Thebes, in the earlier periods of esting are those on the northern wall of the the Christian era, was the residence of two bi- temple, not only display considerable skill, but shops : at present its site presents only a few throw light on the art and system of war in these scattered villages, consisting of miserable cot remote ages. An Egyptian conqueror, with the tages, built in the courts of the temples. The hawk flying over his head, and his standard ancient structures, however, still remain, in a marked by the ring and cross, the Egyptian type state of wonderful preservation, extending for of divine power, is seen trampling over heaps seven or eight miles along the banks of the river. of slaughtered enemies. The fugitives are vari

Almost the whole of this space is covered ously either flying, calling aloud for quarter, or with magnificent portals, obelisks decorated" receiving their death wounds. Close to the with the most beautiful sculpture, forests of scene is a party of captives, with the same columns, and long avenues of statues. dresses they wore in the battle, but with their


hair and beards suffered to grow, as a mark of an arrow. There is uncommon life and spirit servitude, and employed in felling trees in the in the attitude of the horses, which are in full midst of a wood. *This action takes place amid gallop, with feathers waving over their heads. mountains and precipices, which are represented Crowds of dead and dying, extended or falling with more boldness than ingenuity. Another in various attitudes, are seen under the wheels piece represents a battle on the plain, where the of the car, and under the hoofs and bellies of force, consisting of chariots and cavalry, is the horses. On the enemy's side appears every equally put to flight by the hero. These battles thing that can characterise a host flying in conrepresent sud a variety of wounds and situa- fusion; terror is expressed to the life in their tions, and the representation is so excellent, both countenance and attitudes. The dying horses in regard to the disposition of the whole, and are admirable, whether they appear fainting from the expression of particular parts, that it is sup- loss of blood, or rearing up and plunging in the posed Homer either did or might have borrowed excess of torture. Part of the fugitives seek from them many of those varied images and safety by plunging into the river, in which are ideas, which form the ornament of his poems. mingled horses, chariots, arms, and men, floatIn other representations, the chief is presenting ing or sunk, all expressed in the most faithful to his deities, captives and other trophies of his

The hero is represented as carried by victory. The deities most frequently represented his impetuosity beyond the main body of his are Osiris Ammon, who seems to be the same own army, and surrounded by enemies, who with Jupiter ; Priapus, sometimes called Men- sink beneath his valor. The Egyptians use the des; Isis, with the head of a lioness; and bow and arrow, still the most common arms in Hermes, crowned with the crescent and dark Nubia; while the enemy are provided with disk of the moon. Two of the porticoes appear spears and javelins. In a compartment at the to have consisted of columnar statues in the extremity of the west wing of the gateway, the character of Hermes, thirty-eight in number, conqueror appears, after the victory, seated on and the least of them thirty feet high. The nu his throne, while eleven of the principal capmerous gateways which form the principal orna- tive chieftains are lashed together in a row, with ments of the Theban temples are supposed to a rope about their necks, on the point of being be the remains of the hundred gates commemo led to execution. The captive monarch himself rated by Homer. If the military rendezvous is fastened to a car, the horses of which are only were in the courts of the temples, as may very restrained by the attendant, till the monarch well be supposed, they might easily send out shall mount and drag behind him, in ruthless the number of horsemen and chariots described triumph, the illustrious victim. Several other by the poet. There are still nearly fifty of these examples are afforded of that barbarous use of gateways remaining, in a greater or less state of victory which prevailed in those early ages. In preservation, each from 100 to 400 feet in length, all these representations, such spirit is exhi. eighty feet high, and forty feet deep.

bited, that had the artist been better acquainted About a mile and a quarter above Carnac are with perspective, he might have rivalled the the village and temple of Luxor, the entrance most splendid productions of classic or modern to which probably surpasses every thing else art. The above gateway leads to a ruined porthat Egypt presents. In front are the two finest tico, of very large dimensions : from this a obelisks in the world, formed of rose colored double row of seven columns, with capitals regranite, and rising, as Denon supposes, after presenting the lotus, leads into a court 160 feet allowing for the portion buried in the ground, long and 140 wide, terminated on each side by to the height of 100 feet. They are composed a row of columns, beyond which is another poreach of a single block from the quarries of Ele- tico of thirty-two columns, and then the adytum, phantine, and are between seven and eight feet or interior apartments of the building. Part of square at the base. Behind the obelisks are two it has here been converted into a Greek church, colossal statues of the same granite, which, as appears by the plaster and Christian paintthough buried in the ground to the chest, mea- ings on the walls, and by circular niches and sure twenty-one and twenty-two feet thence to doorways that are built up. There are many the top of their mitres. The propylon or gate- plausible reasons for the conjecture that the way itself is of the greatest magnificence, 200 sculptures in this temple, tomb, or palace, relate feet in length, and the top of it fifty-seven feet to the birth, reign, and death, of some one of above the present level of the soil

. But the the monarchs of Egypt. These, with a small object which above all attracts the attention of temple at Medmout, which presents nothing rethe intelligent spectator consists in the sculp- markable, are the principal monuments of Thebes tures which cover the east wing of the northern on the eastern side of the river. front. They contain a representation on a great On the western, the mountains here approach scale, of a victory gained by one of the ancient very close to the Nile, and the edifices are built kings of Egypt over his Asiatic enemies. The along their foot, and sometimes within their remoment chosen for the representation, is that in

At El Gournou, the canals, which diwhich the troops of the enemy fly back in con rected and carried off the overflowings of the fusion to their fortified station, which the victo- Nile, are now so out of repair, that the inharious Egyptians are on the point of entering. bitants seek their abode in the caves of the The number of human figures introduced neighbouring hills. About midway between amounts to 1500, of whom 500 are on foot, and this village and that of Medinet Abu is the edi1000 in chariots. The conqueror is represented fice called the Memnonium, being commonly of colossal size, in the attitude of discharging supposed the palace of Memnon, one of the Vol. XXII.



early sovereigns of Egypt. Norden has deli- dest gestures, by which the latter were disgraced. neated it with great care, and considers it emi- The bulk of the representations, however, connently calculated to give an idea of the grandeur sists still of battles and victories, with displays of Egyptian architecture. The capitals of the of the most shocking cruelty towards the capcolumns consisted of large blocks of stone, co tives. vered with hieroglyphics, and encrusted with Besides these two magnificent edifices, there the most lively colors. This sort of painting are several others of less importance on this side has neither shade nor degradation. The figures of the river. The temple at El Ebek, the most are encrusted like the cyphers on the dial plates northern of all, is remarkable as being conof watches, with this difference, that they cannot structed on a very different plan from that of the be detached. This incrustated matter appears other Egyptian temples. It has a single row of to be more durable than fresco or Mosaic work; columns in front, and the rest of the building and it is surprising what brilliancy is still re is distributed into a variety of comparatively tained by the gold, ultra marine, and other small apartments. About a mile westward from colors. These indeed appear to be better pre- the Memnonium, high among the wilds of the served here than in the temples of Carnac and desert, is a small temple of Ísis, the paintings Luxor, and enable the spectator to distinguish and sculptures on which are exceedingly well the red color and the blue harness of the horses, preserved. From this circumstance, and from the blue, green, red, and white of the Egyptian some peculiarities in its architecture, it has been and Bactrian garments, and of the cars of the conjectured to be of later date than some of the Egyptians and their adversaries, as well as the others. Nothing can exceed the dreary barrenfainter blue of the water into which the fugi- ness of the scene in which it is placed. In the tives have fallen. The sculptures here represent interior of the mountains which rise behind the same subjects as at Luxor, and one wing of these monuments, on the western bank of the the gateway is a complete counterpart of the Nile, are found the tombs of the kings of Thebes. representation there. Another exhibits, in the Strabo enumerates forty, of which Mr. Hamilton most lively manner, the surprise and sack of a found only ten accessible, but the site of town. The victorious troops are entering the several others could be easily determined, the houses, laying their hands on the money bags, entrances of which had been choked up by the opening the wine skins, and eagerly swallowing loose stones that had fallen down from the slopes their contents. War chariots and other carriages of the mountain. M. Belzoni, however, conseem to block up the streets; some of the vic- ceives that no number approaching to forty tors are contending for the plunder, others throw- could be found in this place. Entering one of ing the helpless inhabitants over the walls. The these tombs by a plain door, covered with a few prisoners are treated in the same barbarous slight hieroglyphics, the traveller is astonished manner, and the captive monarch appears fas- to find himself in a long gallery, twelve feet tened to the conqueror's chariot, for the purpose wide and twenty feet high, adorned with sculpof being dragged, like Hector, round the walls. ture, covered with stucco and paintings. The hieOthers represent mystical and religious cere- roglyphical figures are innumerable, elegantly monies.

formed, and richly colored. The passage terAt some distance from the Memnonium is the minates in a spacious and lofty apartment, in temple of Medinet Abu, inferior only in size the centre of which is the sarcophagus, in which and massiveness to that at Carnac, being fully the king's body was deposited. The decorations equal to it in the richness and variety of its of these sepulchral chambers are uncommonly sculptures. One outward enclosure, or brick elegant, and are covered with fine white stucco. wall, encloses three distinct though connected The ceilings are finished with yellow figures buildings, the principal of which is that usually upon a blue ground, in a style of excellence called the Temple. The great gateway is 150 which would not disgrace the most sumptuous feet long, and sixty feet high, and conducts into modern palace; and the colors, unless in a very a court which is about 120 feet square. On each few instances, retain all their original brilliancy. side of it runs a colonnade, from the first gate- The sarcophagi are composed of red or gray way to the next, of equal size and richness. The granite, circular at one end, and square at the colonnade on one side consists of eight pilas- other: they are all empty, and the lids removea ters, to each of which is affixed a statue of or broken. The innumerable hieroglyphics Hermes, with a mitre. The other colonnade with which the walls are covered relate to rtconsists of as many coluinns, each richly sculp- ligious mysteries, and are of very difficult intertured. The soffites and walls of these colon- pretation. In front of the entrance is always nades are crowded with mystical sculptures, the the representation of a globe, in which is a forms and colors of which are well preserved. figure of Osiris Ammon. All sorts of birds The king, who is generally presenting offerings and other animals, human figures with wings, to Isis, Osiris, or Priapus, is in some instances and rows of painted forms of mummies, are standing alone, dressed in the most magnificent largely introduced. In one of the tombs, Osiris, garment, and seemingly honored with the joint seated on a high throne, appears to judge the dead. characteristics of Isis and Osiris. Other parts In others are seen rows of captives, many of represent the initiation of the prince into the them with their heads cut off, or their throats sacred mysteries. Elsewhere appears a proces- cut; while others are lashed to posts, preparasion in honor of Priapus, perhaps the original tory to being beheaded. In one of these is of the Dionysiaca of the Greeks, but which does found the representation of the Harpers, first not exhibit those Bacchanalian dances, or immo- given, though in a flattering manner, in Bruce's

Travels. Bruce, however, has the credit of as the termination; but a breach in the opposite having first drawn the attention of the public to wall showed that there was still a passage; and, the merits of Egyptian sculpture and painting. by beams laid across the pit, they succeeded in

The sepulchral monuments of the private in- penetrating: A series of 'apartments were now habitants of Thebes, though they do not display found, all decorated with painting and sculpture, the same pomp as those of the kings, are more representing the same subjects as the other instructive, by the picture which they give of tombs, but presenting examples of superior the manners and economical pursuits of the splendor and skill. The plates in M. Belzoni's ancient Egyptians. They are excavated in the work afford the best specimens yet conveyed to solid rock, chiefly along the sides of the moun- Europe of Egyptian art. It is evidently rude in tains; and many of them appear to have served many of its features. There is no light and as habitations, though now deserted. In some shade, so that every object appears as a flat surof those paintings, feasts are represented. Here face; and, when a man's legs are in contact, they the company sit on chairs, closely resembling appear as one. There is no variety or blending those of Europe, and the wood of which is of tints, only four or five simple colors are prepainted of a mahogany color. Each guest has a sented, always of the same degree of intensity. lotus flower or nosegay in one hand, and the more The drawing also is often inaccurate. The distinguished are seated in pairs, on small sofas, beauty consists in the brilliancy of the simple distinct from the rest. The servants bring dishes colors, and in the expression of the heads. But from a table which is placed in the middle. In the most remarkable object of all consisted of a some parts an agricultural scene is introduced: sarcophagus of the finest alabaster, or rather araghere men are sometimes represented as yoked to onite, nine feet five. inches long, and three feet the plough, drawing with their bands thrown five inches wide. Its thickness is only two back on their shoulders. In reaping, the men inches, and it is transparent when a light is placed cut off the ears, the boys and girls pick them in the inside. It is minutely sculptured, within from the ground in small baskets, which the wo and without, with several hundred figures, which men carry away. At the corner of the field, one do not exceed iwo inches in height, and appear of the laborers is taking care of the water jars, to represent the whole of the funeral procession and cooling the water with a large leaf. In one and ceremonies relating to the deceased. While we see a farm-yard and the stock of a rich land writing this, we find it stated that this sarcophaproprietor and breeder of cattle; while, in a gus has been successfully removed and is conneighbouring compartment, bull-fights are pre- veying to Britain. Some of the processions are sented. In the same grotto is an Egyptian hunt, marked by the appearance of Jewish, Ethiopian, where the proprietor of the estate rides in a car and Persian captives. The Jews are distindrawn by two horses, exactly resembling the guished by their physiognomy and complexion, war-chariots, and is armed with bow and arrows, the Ethiopians by their color and ornaments, and while his servants attend on foot. The moun- the Persians by their dress. This confirms the tains of the desert before him are crowded with discovery made by Mr. Young, from the hieroostriches, stags, wolves, leopards, and porcupines. glyphics, that the drawings in this tomb contain Fishing and fowling scenes are also described; the names of Nichao and Psammuthis his son in the latter of which decoy birds appear to have (usually called Necho and Psammeticus). The been used. One of these tombs contains the former of these is well known to have conquered picture of an ornamented farm. Here the pro- Jerusalem and Babylon, while the latter made prictor appears to hare laid out his grounds with war against the Ethiopians. We may therefore considerable taste. There appears a well stocked conclude, that in this remarkable tomb we have vineyard, below which the vintners are treading the ceinetery of these two powerful monarchs. the wine-press; regular avenues of sycamores; Among the wonders of Thebes its statues a large piece of water which surrounds the park; must not be forgotten. The chief attention. a smaller one with aquatic plants ; and a rushy seems to have been drawn to those attached to the bank, typified by the lotus, to supply the lord Memnonium. The largest of these is one which with water-fowl and fish; the whole commanded has been broken off at the waist, and the upper by a very neat summer-house.

part laid prostrate on the back. It measures Such was our knowledge of these tombs, pre- six feet ten inches over the front, and sixty-two vious to the researches of M. Belzoni. This in or sixty-three feet round the shoulders. The genious gentleman succeeded in opening several face is entirely obliterated, and indeed the labor of the tombs, wbich had been hitherto inacces- and exertion that must have been employed in sible. They were found, therefore, in a more com its destruction are most astonishing. Two other plete state of preservation, and with mummies in colossal statues, about fifty feet high, are also the sarcophagi, as well as dispersed through the seated on the plain. 'Antiquaries have eagerly chambers. But his most important discovery con contested which of these was the vocal statue of sisted in opening one much more extensive and Memnon reported by so many of the ancients as more splendid than any that had been hitherto seen. emitting a musical sound at sunrise, or when Its situation was so unpromising that only the struck. Norden was at the pains to give a blow, resolute determination of M. Belzoni, founded but could hear nothing except the ordinary upon symptoms which appeared to him promis- noise produced by concussion upon granite. It ing, could induce the laborers to undertake it. appears to us evident that the whole was a A magnificent entrance was discovered; but it trick, an opinion which Strabo, who heard the soon led to a deep pit, which obstructed farther sound, unequivocally avows, though he did not advance, and was evidently intended to appear ascertain the nature of the deception. The at

« السابقةمتابعة »