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Id.

What tender maid but must a victim fall

All his malice served but to bring forth For one man's treat, but for another's ball! Pope. Infinite goodness, grace, and mercy shewn

You, Master Dean, frequent the great, On man by him seduced ; but on himself
Inform us,
will the emperor treat?

Swift.
Treble confusion, wrath, and vengeance poured.

Milton. TREBATIUS Testas (Caius), a writer of the

A lofty tower, and stroug on every side Augustan age, who was banished by Cæsar as a

With treble walls.

Dryden's Æneid. pariizan of Pompey, but was afterwards recon

His javelin sent, ciled to him. He was eminent for his integrity. The shield gave way; through treble plates it went He wrote on civil law, and some good poems, Of solid brass, of linnen trebly rolled. and other tracts.-Hor. 2 Sat.

Whoever annually runs out, as the debt doubles TREBELLIUS Pollio, a Latin historian, and trebles upon him, so doth his inability to pay it. who flourished about A. D. 305. He wrote the

Swift. Lives of the Roman Emperors ; the beginning of TRE'Ble, n. s. 1 Of uncertain etymology. A this work is lost; but part of the life of Valerian, Tre’bleness. S sharp sound : state of being the reigns of the two Gallieni, and the reigns of treble. the thirty tyrants, are extant.

The treble cutteth the air so sharp, as it returneth TREBIA, or TREBBIA, a river in the north of too swift to make the sound equal; and therefore a Italy, in the duchy of Parma, which rises among mean or tenor is the sweetest.

Bacon. the Appennines and falls into the Po above Pia The just proportion of the air percussed towards cenza. Though not large it is a rapid and im- the baseness or trebleness of tones is a great secret

Id. petuous stream. It gave name to the second in sounds.

The lute still trembles underneath thy nail : victory which signalised Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the scene of which is supposed to have The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar. Dryden.

At thy well-sharpened thumb, from shore to shore, been between the embouchure of the Trebia and

Treble, in music, the highest or most acute Piacenza. Its banks were the scene also of san- of the four parts in symphony, or that which is guinary fighting in June 1799, between the French heard the clearest and shrillest in a concert. under Macdonald and the Russians under Su

TREE, n. s. Sax. treo; Isl, trie ; Dan. tree. warrow, in which the latter were victorious.

A vegetable with woody stem and branches; any TREBIGH, or TURBIGH, a hamlet of England, in Cornwall

, four miles and a half W.S. W. thing branched out: treen is the old plural. of Collinglon.

Who can bid the tree unfix his earth-bound root ?

Shakspeare. TREBIGNE. See TscHERBENIDSCHE. TREBILIS, the ancient name of Tripoli. See Under the sand-bag he was seen ;

Well run greenhood, got between TRIPOLI.

Lowling low like a forester green, TREBISOND, an ancient city of Asia Minor He knows his tackle and his treen. Ben Jonson. on the coast of the Black Sea. It is mentioned Vain are their hopes who fancy to inherit, by Xenophon under the appellation of Trapezus, By trees of pedigrees, or fame or merit; as forming the termination of the retreat of the Though plodding heralds through each branch may 10,000, and is stated to have been then a populous colony of the Sinopians, situated in the Old captains and dictators of their race. Dryden. country of the Colchians. It continued a free Trees shoot up in one great stem, and at a good and independent city till it fell under the domi- distance from the earth spread into branches : thus

Locke. nion of the kings of Pontus. After the capture gooseberries are shrubs, and oaks are trees. of Constantinople by the Latins in 1203 Trebis Tree GERMANder, in botany. See Teucrium. ond became, under Alexis Comnenus, the seat Tree Moss, a species of lichen. of an empire extending from the mouth of the Tree of Life, or lignum vitæ, in botany. See Phasis to that of the Halys. It surrendered, GUAIACUM. however, to Mahomet II. The city is of an ob Tree.Primrose, in botany. See OENOTHERA. long shape, occupying a slope gently rising from Tree Trefoil. See Cytisus. the sea. On the east and west it is defended by Trees. All trees may be divided into two two deep ravines, connected by a ditch cut in classes, timber and fruit-trees; the first including the rock, and along the skirts of which run the all those trees which are used in machinery, ancient ramparts of the city, which are built of ship-building, &c., or, in general, for purposes stone, and in general very lofty. Trebisond is of utility; and the second comprehending those said to contain a population of 15,000 souls. trees valued only, or chiefly, for their fruit. It The trade considerable; the principal exports is not necessary to form a third class to include silk and cotton stuffs manufactured by the inha- trees used for fuel, as all timber is used for this bitants, fruit, and wine. The imports sugar, cof. purpose where it is abundant. For the botanical fee, and woollen cloths, from Constantinople;corn, classification of trees and plants in general, see salt, and iron, from the Crimea and Mingrelia.

BOTANY. TREBLE, adj., v. a. &Fr. triple ; Lat. tria Few experiments have been made to deterTRE'BLY, adv. [v. n. ) plus, triplex. Three- mine what the additions are which a tree receives fold; triple: to multiply by three: become annually in different periods of its age. Mr. threefold : thrice told.

Barker has drawn up a table to point out the She conceived, and treb'ling the due time,

growth of three kinds of trees, oaks, ashes, and Brought forth this monstrous mass. Spenser.

elms; which may be seen in the Philosophical Some I see,

Transactions for 1788. His conclusions are That twofold balls and treble sceptres carry.

these :

:- I find the growth of oak and ash to be Shakspeare. nearly the same. The common growth of an oak

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or an ash is about an inch in girth in a year ; a quantity of timber is to be felled, the statute some thriving ones will grow an inch and a half. requires it to be done then, for the advantage of Great trees grow more timber in a year than tanning. The ancients chiefly regarded the age small ones; for, if the annual growth be an inch, of the moon in felling their timber; their rule a coat of one-sixth of an inch is laid on all was to fell it in the wane, or four days after the around, and the timber added to the body every new moon, or sometimes in the last quarter. year is its length multiplied into the thickness Pliny advises it to be in the very instant of the of the coat and into the girth, and therefore the change; which happening to be in the last day thicker the tree is the more timber is added.' of the winter solstice, the timber, says he, will The following table shows the growth of seven be incorruptible. Timber should likewise be teen kinds of trees for three years. The trees cut when of a proper age ; for when it is either grew at Cavenham in Suffolk.

too young or too old it will not be so durable as July 1785. July 1786. July 1787. when cut at a proper age. It is said that oak No.

Ft. In. Ft. In. Ft. In. should not be cut under sixty years old, nor above 1. Oak

0 103

011)

- 1 of 200. Timber, however, should be cut in its 2. Larch

1 O}
1 3

prime, when almost fully grown, and before it 3. Scots fir

1 34 1 51 1 74 begins to decay; and this will be sooner or later 4. Spruce fir 05% 0 63 0 71 according to the dryness or moistness of the soil 5. Spanish chestnut 0 71

07

08

where the timber grows, as also according to the 6. Elm 2 73 2

2 11

bigness of the trees; for there are no fixed rules 7. Pinaster 2 31 2 41 2 7

in felling of timber: experience and judgment 8. Larch 1 51 1 6 1 7

must direct here as in most other cases. 9. Weymouth pine 05 0 6 0 73

The chevalier de Blenenberg of Prague, we 10. Acacia 1 2 1 53 16)

are told, has discovered a method of effectually 11. Beech

06 0 62 71 preserving trees in blossom from the fatal effects 12. Plane oceidental 0 61 0 74

Ö 87 of those frosts which sometimes in the spring 13. Lombardy poplar 1 2 2 31 destroy the most promising hopes of a plentiful 14. Black poplar

1 21 1 41 1 51 crop of fruit. His method is extremely simple. 15. Willow 2 9 3 2

He surrounds the trunk of the tree in blossom 16. Silver fir

0 7% 0 8%

0 91 with a wisp of straw or hemp. The end of this 17. Lime .. 1 8.3 1 101 2

he sinks, by means of a stone tied to it, in a

vessel of spring water, at a little distance from Heat is so essential to the growth of trees that as the tree. One vessel will conveniently serve two we go from the place within the polar circles where trees; or the cord may be lengthened so as to vegetation begins, and advance to the equator, surround several, before its end is plunged into we find the trees increase in size remarkably. the water. It is necessary that the vessel be Greenland, Iceland, and other places in the same placed in an open situation, and by no means latitude, yield no trees at all, and the shrubs shaded by the branches of the neighbouring which they produce are dwarfish; whereas, in trees, that the frost may produce all its effect on warm climates, they often grow to an immense the water, by means of the cord communicating size. The largest tree in Europe, mentioned by with it. This precaution is particularly necestravellers, is a chestnut on Mount Ætna. It is sary for those trees the flowers of which appear certain that trees acquire a very great size in nearly at the same time as the leaves; which volcanic countries. Besides the multitude of trees are peculiarly exposed to the ravages of fine groves in the neighbourhood of Albano in the frost. The proofs of its efficacy, which he Italy, there are many detached oaks twenty feet had an opportunity of observing in the spring of in circumference, and many elms of the same 1787, were remarkably striking.

Seven apricot size, especially in the romantic way to Estello, espaliers in his garden began to blossom in called the Galleria. In travelling by the side of March. Fearing that they would suffer from the the lake of Bolsenna the road leads us through late frosts, he surrounded them with cords as an immense number of oaks, spread upon beau- above directed. In effect, pretty sharp frosts tiful hills. Some yews have been found in took place six or eight nights; the apricot-trees Britain sixty feet round. Palms in Jamaica at- in the neighbouring gardens were all frozen, and tain the height of 200 feet; and some of the none of them produced any fruit, whilst each of pines in Norfolk Island are 280 feet high. the chevalier's produced fruit in abundance,

The goodness of timber not only depends on which came to the greatest perfection. the soil and situation in which it stands, but After trees are cut down, great attention is likewise on the season in which it is felled. In necessary in the seasoning of timber. Some this people disagree very much; some are for advise the planks of timber to be laid for a few having it felled as soon as its fruit is ripe, others days in some pool or running stream, in order in the spring, and many in the autumn. But, as to extract the sap, and afterwards to dry them the sap and moisture of timber is certainly the in the sun or air." By this, it is said, they will cause that it perishes much sooner than it other- be prevented from either chopping, casting, or wise would do, it seems evident that timber cleaving; but against shrinking there is no reshould be felled when there is the least sap in it, medy. Some again are for burying them in the viz. from the time that the leaves begin to fall till earth, others in a heat; and some for scorching the trees begin to bud. This work usually com and seasoning them in fire, especially piles, posts, mences about the end of April in England, be- &c., which are to stand in water or earth. The cause the bark then rises most freely; for, where Venetians first found out the method of season

ing by fire; which is done after this manner : many other things, as ropes, nets, and masts, They put the piece to be seasoned into a strong from putrefaction, either in water, air, or snow. and violent flame; in this they continually turn An experiment to determine the comparative it round by means of an engine, and take it out durability of different kinds of timber, when exwhen it is every where covered with a black coaly posed to the weather, was made by a nobleman crust; the internal part of the wood is thereby in Norfolk; of which an account is given by so hardened that neither earth nor water can Sir Thomas Beevor. This nobleman, in 1774, damage it for a long time afterwards. Dr. Plott ordered three posts, forming two sides of a quasays it is found, by long experience, that the drangle, to be fixed in the earth on a rising trunk or body of the trees, when barked in the ground in his park. Into these posts were morspring, and left standing naked all the summer tised planks an inch and a half thick, cut out of exposed to the sun and wind, are so dried and trees from thirty to forty-five years' growth. These, hardened, that the sappy part in a manner be- after standing ten years, were examined, and comes as firm and durable as the heart itself. found in the following state and condition: The This is confirmed by M. Buffon, who, in 1738, cedar was perfectly sound ; larch, the heart presented to the Royal Academy of Sciences at sound, but the sap quite decayed; spruce fir Paris a memoir, entitled An easy Method of sound; silver fir in decay; Scots fir much deIncreasing the Solidity, Strength, and Duration cayed ; pinlaster quite rotten; chestnut perfectly of Timber; for which purpose, he observes, 'no- sound ; abele sound; beech sound; walnut in thing more is necessary than to strip the tree en- decay ; sycamore much decayed; birch quite tirely of its bark during the season of the rising rotten. Sir Thomas Beevor justly remarks that of the sap, and to leave it to dry completely the trees ought to have been of the same age; before it be cut down.' By many experiments, and Mr. Arthur Young adds, they ought to have particularly described in that essay, it appears been cut out of the same plantation. that the tree should not be felled till the third The immense quantity of timber consumed of year after it has been stripped of the bark; that late years in ship-building and for other puro it is then perfectly dry, and the sap becomes poses has diminished in a very great degree the almost as strong as the rest of the timber, and quantity produced in this country. On this acstronger than the heart of any other oak tree count many gentlemen who wish well to their which has not been so stripped; and the whole country, alarmed with the fear of a scarcity, have of the timber stronger, heavier, and harder; from strongly recommended it to government to pay which he thinks it fair to conclude that it is also some attention to the cultivation and preservation more durable. • It would no longer,' he adds, of timber. The price of wood has risen in pro• be necessary, if this method were practised, tó portion to the demand and to its diminution. cut off the sap; the whole of the tree might be At the conquest woods were valued, not by the used as timber; one of forty years' growth would quantity of timber which they contained, but the serve all the purposes for which one of sixty years number of swine which the acorns could support. is now required; and this practice would have In 1608 oak in the forests was sold at 10s. per the double advantage of increasing the quantity, load, and fire-wood for 2s. per load. In 1663 or as well as the strength and solidity of the timber.' 1665, in navy contracts, from £2 to £2 15s.6d. After the planks of timber have been well sea- per load was given. In 1756 it rose to £4 5s. soned and fixed in their places, care is to be taken per load, and 3s. in addition, because no tops are to defend or preserve them; to which the smear- received. Plank four inch sold in 1796 for £7 ing them with linseed oil, tar, or the like olea- a load, three inch £4; which prices were the ginous matter, contributes much. The ancients, same in 1792. The expenditure of valuable particularly Hesiod and Virgil, advise the smoke timber is now so great as to give reason to fear drying of all instruments made of wood, by that the forests of this country will soon be enhanging them up in the chimneys where wood tirely dismantled unless something is done to fires are used. The Dutch preserve their gates, raise fresh supplies. The building of a seventy portcullices, draw bridges, sluices, &c., by coat- gun ship, it is said, would take forty acres of ing them over with a mixture of pitch and tar, timber. This calculation appears excessive, whereon they strew small pieces of cockle and but seems to be no exaggeration. According to other shells, beaten almost to powder, and mixed the prevailing opinion of experienced surveyors with sea-sand, which incrusts and arms them it will require a good soil and good management wonderfully against all assaults of wind and to produce forty trees on an acre, which, in 100 weather. When timber is felled before the sap years, may, at an average, be computed at two is perfectly at rest, it is very subject to worms; loads each. Reckoning, therefore, two loads at but, to prevent and cure this, Mr. Evelyn recom- £8 16s., one acre will be worth £350, and conmends the following remedy as the most ap- sequently forty acres will only be worth £14,200. proved : Put common sulphur into a cucurbit Now a seventy gun ship is generally supposed to with as much aquafortis as will cover it three cost £70,000; and, as ships do not last many fingers' deep; distil it to dryness, which is per- years, the navy continually require new ships, so formed by two or three rectifications. Lay the that the forests must be stripped in a century or sulphur that remains at bottom, being of a two, unless young trees are planted to supply blackish or sand. red color, on a marble, or put their place. No doubt we depend greatly on it in a glass, and it will dissolve into an oil; Russia, Sweden, Norway, and America, for supwith this oil anoint the timber which is infected plying us with timber; and while these countries with worms. This, he says, will not only pre- take our manufactures in exchange we have no vent worms, but preserve all kinds of woods, and reason to complain. Still, however, we ought

aot to neglect the cultivation of what is of so Ye powers, revenge your violated altars, much importance to our existence as a nation; That they who with unħallowed hands approach for it may often be impossible in time of war to May tremble.

Rowe. obtain timber from foreign countries.

TREMELLA, in botany, a genus of plants TRE'FOIL, n. s. Lat. trifolium. A plant. belonging to the class of cryptogamia, and natural

Hope, by the ancients, was drawn in the form of a order of algæ. It is a gelatinous membranous sweet and beautiful child standing upon tiptoes, and substance; the parts of the fructification scarcely a trefoil or three-leaved grass in her hand.

visible. There are eleven species, of which the

Peacham on Drawing. five following are indigenous :—1. T. hemisphæSome sow trefoil or rye-grass with their clover. rica, the sea tremella, is scattered among con

Mortimer.

servæ, fuci, &c. 2. T. lichenoides, the transTrefoil, in botany. See Trifolium. parent tremella, is erect, plane, the margin curled, Trefoil, Bean, a species of cyticus. lacinulated, and brown. It grows on heaths and Trefoil, Bird's Foot. See Lotus.

in woods, &c. 3. T. nostoc, the jelly rain treTrefoil, Marsh. See MENYANTHES. mella, is found in pastures and by the sides o. Trefoil, Moon, a species of medicago. gravel walks in gardens after rains; not uncomTrefoil, SHRUB. See PTELEA.

mon in spring, summer, and autumn.

It is a Trefoil, SHRUB, or Montpelier. See Lotus. membranaceous, pellucid, and gelatinous subTREFOIL, Svail. See Medicago.

stance, without

any

visible root; of a yellowish TREFOIL, STINKING BEAN. See ANAGYRIS. dull green color; assuming various forms, cither Trefoil, THORNY, a species of fagonia. round, angular, plaited, or folded together irreTREFOIL, TREE. See Cytisus.

gularly, like the intestines, an inch or two or TREGONY, a borough and market town in more in diameter; soft to the touch when moist; the hundred of Powder, distant 248 miles nearly but thin, membranaceous, and brittle when dry; W. S. W. from London, and seventy-five south- and of a black fuscous color. The ancient west from Exeter. It is an ancient town, situated alchemists called this vegetable the flowers of on the banks of the river Fal, and is supposed to heaven, and imagined that from it they could have been the first settlement on this branch of procure the universal menstruum; but all their the harbour, and the Cenio of the Romans, by researches ended in discovering that by distillawhom also the harbour was named Cenius. Some tion it yielded some phlegm, volatile salt, and small vestiges of Roman works may still be empyreumatic oil. 4. T. purpurea, the purple found. It sent two members to parliament in tremella, is globular, sessile, solitary, and smooth. the reign of Henry I., and, after long disuse, re. It grows on ditch banks about London. 5. T. covered its ancient privileges in 1559. The right verrucosa, the warty tremella, is tubercular, of election is vested in the townsmen who are solid, wrinkled, roundish, and resembling a potwallers, who may amount to about 300. It bladder; it is of a blackish yellow. It grows on appears that the town was anciently governed by stones in rivulets. a portreeve; but in 1620 James I. granted it a TREMELLIUS (Emanuel), a Jew born at charter of incorporation by the style of the Ferrara in 1510. He was a great master of the mayor, corporation, and eight capital burgesses,' Hebrew tongue; and was converted to Christithe senior of whom is a justice of the peace. The anity by the celebrated Peter Martyr. After houses are chiefly disposed in one long street. travelling to Germany and England he was made The old town was seated on the low ground at professor of Hebrew, first at Heidelberg, and then the bottom of the bill on which the present one at Sedan, where he died in 1580. He translated is built. The market-day is Saturday. Fairs the Hebrew Bible and Syriac Testament into are held here on Shrove-Tuesday, the 3d of May, Latin; in the former he was assisted by Junius, the 25th of July, the 1st of September, and the who also corrected the second edition, in 1587. 6th of November. Inhabitants 923.

TREMENDOUS, adj. Latin tremendus. TRE'ILLAGE, n. s. Fr. treillage. Defined Dreadful; horrible; astonishingly terrible. below.

There stands an altar where the priest celebrates Treillage is a contexture of pales to support espal- some mysteries sacred and tremendous. Tatler. liers, making a distinct inclosure of any part of a

In that portal should the chief appear, garden.

I'revour. Each hand tremendous with a brazen spear. TREM'BLE, v. n. ? Fr. trembler ; Lat.

Pope's Odyssey. TREM'BLINGLY, adv. I tremo. To shake as

TREMOLITE. This sub-species of straightwith fear or cold; shiver ; quake; quiver; totter: edged augite is divided into three kinds; the the adverb corresponding.

asbestous, common, and glassy. Winds make a noise unequally, and sometimes, 1. Asbestous tremolite.-Color grayish-white. when vehement, tremble at the height of their blast. Massive, and in fibrous concretions. Shining,

Bucon.

pearly. Fragments splintery. Translucent on When he heard the king he fell into such a trem

the edges. Rather easily frangible. Soft. Rabling that he could hardly speak.

Clarendon.

ther sectile. When struck gently, or rubbed in Sinai's grey top shall tremble.

Milton. Frighted Turnus trembled as he spoke.

the dark, it emits a pale reddish light; when

Dryden's Eneid. pounded and thrown on coals a greenish light. We cannot imagine a mass of water to have stood Before the blowpipe it melts into a white opaque upon the middle of the earth like one great drop, or

It occurs most frequently in granular a trembling jelly, and all the places about it dry. foliated limestone, or in dolomite. It is found

Burnet. in the former in Glentilt and Glenelg; in the Vol. XXII.

()

mass.

TRENULOU's, adj. } :

latter in Aberdeenshire and Icolmkill; and in Whig. He died in 1723; and his friend Gordon basalt in the castle rock of Edinburgh.

married his widow. 2. Common tremolite.-Color white. Massive, TRENCHANT, adj. Fr. trenchant. Cutting; in distinct prismatic concretions, and crystallised sharp. in a very oblique four-sided prism, truncated or He fiercely took his trenchant blade in hand, bevelled on the lateral edges; in an extremely With which he struck so furious and so fell, oblique four-sided prism, perfect or variously That nothing seemed the puissance could withstand. modified by bevelment or truncation. The late

Spenser. ral planes are longitudinally streaked. Vitreous Against a vanquished foe their swords or pearly Cleavage double oblique angular, of Were sharp and irenchant, not their words.

Hudibras. 124° 50' and 55° 50'. Fracture uneven or conchoidal. Translucent. As hard as hornblende.

TRENCH'ER, n. s. Fr. trenchoir. A piece Rather brittle. Specific gravity 2.9 to 3-2. It of wood on which meat is cut at table : hence melts with much difficulty and ébullition into an the table ; food.

No more opaque glass. Its constituents ate, silica 50; I'll scrape trencher, nor wash dish. magnesia 25, lime 18, carbonic acid and water

Shakspeare. Tempest. 5.- Laugier. It occurs with the preceding.

When we find our dogs, we set the dish or trencher 3. Glassy tremolite.-Color grayish, greenish, on the ground. More's Antidote against Atheism. yellowish, and reddish-white. Massive, in dis.

Their homely fare dispatched ; the hungry band tinct concretions, and frequently crystallised in Invade their trenchers next, and soon devour. long acicular crystals. Shining, between vitre

Dryden. ous and pearly. Translucent. As hard as horn Many a child may have the idea of a square blende. Very brittle. Specific gravity 2.863. It trencher, or round plate, before he has any idea of

Locke. is phosphurescent in a low degree. Infusible. Its infinite. constituents are, silica 355, lime 26.5, magnesia TRENCH'ERFLY, n. s. Trencher and fly. 16.5, water and carbonic acid 23.—Laugier. It One that haunts tables ; a parasite. occurs with the preceding.-Jameson.

He found all people came to him promiscuously, TREM'OR, n. s. Latin tremor, tremulus. and he tried which of them were friends, and which

L'Estrange. fearful; quivering:

TRENCH'ERMAN, n. s. Trencher and man. The tender tremulous Christian is easily distracted A cook. Obsolete. and amazed by them.:

Decay of Prety. Palladius assured him that he had already been He fell into an universal tremour of all his joints, more fed to his liking than he could be by the skilthat when going his legs trembled under him. fullest trenchermen of Media.

Sidney. Harvey. You had musty victuals, and he hath holp to eat Sometimes contrary tremours fall at one and the it: he's a very valiant trencherman ; he hath an exsame time upon different points in the bottom of the cellent stomach.

Shakspeare. eye.

Newton. By its styptick and stimulating quality it affects

TRENCH'ERMATE, n. s. Trencher and the nerves, occasioning tremuurs.

mate. A table companion; a parasite. Arbuthnot on Aliments. Because that judicious learning of the ancient sages As thus the effulgence tremulous I drink,

doth not in this case serve the turn, these trencher. The lambent lightnings shoot across the sky. mates frame to themselves a way more pleasant; a

Thomson. new method they have of turning things that are seTRENCH, v. a. & n. s. Fr. trencher, of Lat. rious into mockery, an art of contradiction by way of

Ylooker. trunco. To cut; cut into pits or ditches: a pit or ditch : applied particularly to these modes of TRENCK (Francis baron), a Prussian nobledefence in fortification.

man, who, by some trivial piece of imprudence, Safe in a ditch he bides,

had given such offence to Frederick the Great, With twenty trenched gashes on his head.

king of Prussia, that he was kept, by the iniquitous

Shakspeare. power of that despot, under a tedious, cruel, and The citizens of Corioli have issued forth,

solitary confinement for above forty years, without And given to Lartius and to Marcius battle :

ever being brought to trial or confronted with I saw our party to the trenehes driven,

his accusers. From this cruel imprisonment he And then I came away.

Id. Coriolanus.

at last effected his escape, and published a very Pioneers, with spades and pickaxe armed, Forerun the royal camp to trench a feld. Milton.

interesting memoir of his life, sufferings, and inWhen you have got your water up to the highest nocence. But, while this narrative interested the part of the land, make a small trench to carry some

feelings of every humane reader in Europe in of the water in, keeping it always upon a level.

favor of the author, he took refuge in France, exMortimer's Husbundry. pecting to enjoy that liberty and equality which Trench the ground, and make it ready for the the French democrates professed to hold out to spring.

Evelyn. all mankind. Instead of this, the revolutionary First draw thy faulchion, and on every side tribunal of the French republic proved more Trench the black earth a cubit long and wide. Pope.

savage than the despot of Prussia, and condemned TRENCHARD (John), a political writer, born to the guillotine a man whose life of protracted in Somersetshire in 1669. He studied the law, misfortụne ought to have pleaded in his favor, but never practised it. Being elected M. P. for even if he had been convicted of something Taunton, in his native county, he wrote several really criminal, of which there never was any political pamphlets, and, in conjunction with Mr. shadow of evidence. This unfortunate baron Gordon, Cato's Letters, and the Independent completed his career in August 1794.

scorn.

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