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TREND, v. n. It seems a corruption of tend. predecessors Martin V. and John XXIII., the To tend; lie in any particular direction. pope sent them a brief to adjourn, dissolve, or
The scouts to several parts divide their way, iranslate, the council according to the exigency To learn the natives names, their towns, explore of the case. The coasts and trendings of the crooked shore.
In the second session the French prelates reDryden.
nowed the application made in the former about TRENT, a city of the Tyrol, Austria, on the the addition of the words Universam ecclesiam Adige, not far from the borders of Italy.. It representans.' This gave rise to a debate which stands in a delightful valley among the Alps, terminated in a resolution that ecumenical should but its climate is subject to great extremes. only be added to the title already given to the Though surrounded with walls, it is not capable council by the pope! Twenty-eight members of sustaining a siege. Its population is about only attended this session, including the archbi10,000, employed partly in the manufacture of shop of Armagh. The rule laid down by them silk, partly in the culture of vines and tobacco. is curious enough, considering that it was for the The public buildings are the residence, or, as it regulation of an episcopal assembly claiming to is termed, the palace of the archbishop: the cathe- be legitimately convened under the guidance of dral is a Gothic structure not remarkable for its the Holy Spirit. In delivering his opinion no size or beauty; but its organ, as well as that of one ought to vociferate with indecent language, the other principal church, St. Maria Maggiore, or to create confusion by tumult; no one conis admired. The Romans, who conquered it tend with false, vain, or obstinate contention; so from the Galli Cenomani, called it Tridentum. that the hearers be not offended, nor the discriThe bishopric was included among the secula- mination of a correct judgment be perverted by risations of 1802, given at first to the grand perturbation of mind.' duke of Tuscany, and afterwards to Bavaria, but In the third session the council decreed that a restored, after 1815, to Austria. It is eighty-five confession of faith should be prepared. There miles south of Inspruck.
being so few present at the passing of this order, TRENT, Council of. This reckons, among they decreed that their future decisions should Roman Catholic divines, as the eighteenth or be sanctioned by the fullest attendance possible, last general council, and sat, including interrup- in order that matters of such high importance cions, eighteen years. Its decisions are implicitly should not be hurried over in their meetings. received as the standard of faith, morals, and In the fourth session forty-eight bishops and discipline, in the Catholic church. It confirms, five cardinals proceeded to establish tradition on under an anathema, the canons of preceding the same footing with the canonical Scriptures. councils, and defines, with greater precision, Their words are ' pari pietate ac reverentiâ suswhatever had been left only generally affirmed, cipit et veneratur. And they pronounced the or indistinctly defined. From the rank and im- Latin Vulgate, including the Apocrypha, free portance of this council we offer the following from error, while, at the very moment, they oranalysis of its proceedings, as well calculated to dered a more correct edition to be prepared. gratify the curiosity of the reader at a time when The fifth and sixth sessions were chiefly spent reference to its canons is become both necessary in extracting from Luther's and Zuinglius's writand interesting. It must be remembered that ings (from those of the former principally) cerwhile the ecclesiastics of the church of Rome tain propositions touching the canonicity of are sworn to maintain generally whatever has Scripture, justification, imputed righteousness, been delivered, defined, and declared by the original sin, predestination, merit of congruity, sacred canons and ecumenical councils, yet are and the number of the sacraments, which they they specially (præcipuè) bound to observe what condemned in consecutive order. On these points has been so done by the council of Trent (usque grave debates arose, but such as are uninteresting ad extremum vitæ spiritum) to the last gasp of at the present time. Other doctrinal questions life.
came next under discussion, and would have The council first assembled A. D. 1545, and been quietly carried with the pope's full concurcontinued, with interruptions, caused by suspen- rence, but the imperial no less than the Spanish sion, removal to Bononia, &c., to the end of the bishops were not content to stop there. They year 1563; thus completing a period of eighteen earnestly pressed the removal of old grievances, years, during which it was under the direction of and that the church should be reformed in its Paul III., Julius III., and Pius IV.; twenty-five head and members; measures which constituted bishops, headed by the papal legates, and some the chief grounds for assembling the council of ecclesiastics of inferior rank, principally Italians. Constance in the early part of the preceding
At its opening session, after due regard had century. The papal prelates, acting under the been paid to the solemnities of religion, one of express orders of Paul, as obstinately resisted the first points agitated related to the title of the any attempt at change. This led him to encoucouncil, when it was agreed to call it a General rage a report which had been industriously spread Council of the Church. The first session pre- by his physicians of a purple fever having broken sents nothing else worthy of obserration. Pend- out in Trent; as it afforded him a pretext for ing its existence, the papal legates received their transferring the council to Bologna, a town in secret instructions from Rome to attend exclu- the papal states, and consequently beyond tha sively to points of doctrine, and not to touch on reach of the emperor's influence. On the ad. the subject of reform until these were disposed of; journment taking place, the imperialists and but, lest the rights or prerogatives of the holy Spaniards remained in Trent remonstrating loudsee should be endangered, in imitation of his ly against it, and alleging that the removal of the
council was a virtual suspension of its functions, they were willing to comply, provided they had if not a total dissolution. But, as remonstrance a bona fide guarantee for their safety, and that, was vain, they contented themselves with making as the imperial safe conduct did not appear sufarrangements for their future proceedings, with- ficient, one resembling that drawn up at the out performing any synodal act whatever; at the council of Basil should be procured; they further same time assuming a title • Sancta synodus in required that both the past and future decrees quocunque sit loco' declaratory of their compe- of the council should be regulated agreeably to tence to deliberate on the affairs of the church. the holy Scriptures. To a requisition of this The legates, at the head of their own party, but nature the council gave assent, so far as related with loftier pretensions, styled themselves, to the safe conduct; but totally objected to any * Sancta synodus Bononiensis !'
other than an unconditional submission on their Seventh and eighth sessions. As the time of part. And when they drew up a passport, it was the seventh and eighth sessions had been wasted in such vague and indefinite language that the in going through the necessary forms for trans- emperor insisted on more unequivocal words ferring the council to Bologna, so the ninth ses- being adopted. Care, however, was taken to sion was spent in giving it confirmation after it attach to the safe conduct a clause which, by lihad assembled there.
miting it to the existing occasion, showed the The tenth session, which reckons as the second council to be too much influenced by feelings, at Bologna, scarcely deserves that name. How- such as those that consigned Huss and Jerome ever, during the residence in that town of the of Prague to the stake. Some puerile discusfew bishops in the papal interest, some very im- sions now ensued about impanation, transubstanportant occurrences took place. The promise tiation, the worship of the host, and the like; exacted by the emperor from the protestant during which the fathers liberally imputed abprinces at the second session to subinit to the surdities and contradictions to each other. The council may be reckoned as one. Although this twelfth session closed with a discussion on the was a false step on their part, yet it fortunately questions relating to the withholding the cup produced no bad consequence to their cause. from the laily, and the communion of children. Another was the struggle which took place be- But nothing was then definitively settled on these tween the pope and the emperor about the resto- points; lest, as the emperor said, it should offend ration of the council to Trent. A third was the the Protestants and prevent the appearance of protest of the emperor against the council of their deputies. Bologna, and against the illegality of its transla In the thirteenth session the council lays down tion from Trent. And, lastly, the imperial edict the doctrine of transubstantiation so authoritaat the second diet of Augsburg, under the title of tively, that the person who presumes to deny that the Interim, providing a code of ecclesiastical the body and blood, together with the soul and laws until the long-wished for decision of a divinity of Christ, are actually –(“ verè, realiter, council could be obtained. Opposition was et substantialiter) present in the Eucharist, inmade to the establishment of this edict, which, curs the anathema of the church. It farther deto the disgrace of the existing pope and council, clares ó that the whole substance of the bread is defined the faith of the emperor's German sub- changed into the substance of Christ's body, and jects agreeably to his will and pleasure. Julius the whole substance of the wine into the substance III., immediately after his elevation to the pope- of his blood. Another anathema is pronounced dom, being pressed by the emperor to bring against those who deny this total change of both back the council to Trent, issued his bull for that species. Other anathemas were levelled at the purpose. Nothing more can be said of the re- deniers of either containing the whole body of sumed meeting at Trent than that it was opened Christ, or that his body did not remain after comwith the accustomed forms. The bishops pre- munion; or that the Eucharist only wrought forsent did not much exceed sixty, which was the giveness of sins; or that the host should not regreatest number that had yet attended. But this ceive the worship of Latriæ and be carried about gave Julius little uneasiness, being too great a in procession; or that it should not be carried 10 votary of pleasure to feel any concern about the the sick; or that Christ is not really (corporaliaffairs of either church or council.
ter) eaten. Twelve anathemas in all were the The eleventh and twelfth sessions were trified sanction given to the maintenance of this doctrine. away with obtaining the assent of the bishops, of The Protestants commented severely onthe palwhom there were sixty-four only in attendance, a pable contradictions which presented themselves small increase since the tenth session, to the re in the language of the first, second, and fourth, opening of the council at Trent. The seizure of articles,-observing that, while the council deParma, by Henry II. of France, gave rise to a clared the impossibility of suitably expressing the quarrel between him and the pope, during which manner of Christ's real presence in the sacrament, Henry not only did not send his prelates to the it pronounced that manner to be convenienter, procouncil, but ordered those who were at Rome to priè, et aptissimè, called transubstantiation! The return home. Although neither would yield, council reserved some points connected with the the firmness of the king caused the pope to lower corporeal presence and ihe doctrine of penance for his tone and to moderate his language. In the future consideration; and, suo matu granted the mean time, the emperor was urgent with the plenary safe conduct to all who appeared before Protestants, that they should appear, by their them. Ambassadors from some of the Protesrepresentatives, at Trent. With the fate of Huss tant princes appeared at this session with confesbefore their eyes they could not but feel alarmed sions of faith; but, having refused to present them at the proposal. They, however, intimated that in the name of the pope, the matter was referred
to Rome for advice. In the answer returned to bers. The presentation of a remonstrance to the the legates they were directed not to give up council, by the French ambassadors, was the only the etiquette of presentation, as to do so would business transacted in it. be to compromise the papal dignity; otherwise The twentieth session. The points relating to to get rid of their present difficulties by breaking communion in both kinds, and the communion off all intercourse with the opposite party. The of children, which were left undecided at a former Protestant divines consequently persevered in session, were now brought forward before eightytheir refusal to attend the council; the reserved eight bishops. The debate concluded, as might clause of granting security, as much as is in its be expected, with a resolution, that he who compower, having filled them with doubt and dis- municated in one kind derived as much benefit trust in the sincerity of its professions.
as he who received in both. With the progress The doctrines of penance and extreme unction of affairs at Trent the pope was now not at all were decreed in the fourteenth session, as was pleased; while his foreign relations kept him in some modification of episcopal jurisdiction, constant perplexity. The ambassadors of the which now bore somewhat of a reforming aspect. French and German princes now went hand in The presiding legate exerted all his intluence to hand in their demand of the restoration of the prevent the decree on these heads from being cup to the laity, and in repeating their protestaprinted, or circulated, but in vain, as Germany tions against the dispensations granted for nongot hold of the MSS., and the press soon sup- residence by the pope. This conduct of the plied it with subject matter for censorial criticism. ambassadors, and the report which had got At this time the Protestants made fresh applica- abroad, that the French required divine service tion for a safe conduct which should satisfy their to be performed in their native tongue, that scruples; and although the proposal was at first priests should marry, and that images should be indignantly rejected, and indeed finally resulted removed from places of public worship, were a in nothing, it elicited a document far more ample source of fresh trouble to the papal party. But and explanatory than any former one. The when they heard the council called the pope's Protestants, as might be expected, felt increased council, and not that of the universal church, and disgust at what was going on; while de Ranchin, saw a hostile spirit manifesting itself towards a popish writer, declares that good Romanists them, they began to think of withdrawing from abhorred it. The pope pressed his legates to Trent altogether. Some of the bolder spirits dissolve the council with all possible despatch, kept up the debate on the use of the cup; and but added, that even its suspension would be a with it the session closed. relief to him; his relief he now experienced During the twenty-first session the controversy at first for two, but afterwards continued for ten about residence was revived, with no better sucyears.
cess than before. The pope being alarmed, lest a There were but few prelates present at the six- prime source of his revenue should be cut off, teenth session; yet with these few was Paul obliged, were the power of granting dispensations for after much trifling and delay, to reassemble thé non-residence withdrawn from him, directed the council. No attempt was made at reform dur- legates to soothe the opposition as much as possiing this session; wliile the death of Julius put ble; to discuss every subject fully and freely, off the hopes of any thing of the kind taking place but by all means to suppress the question about to a future day. Marcellus II., having occupied residence; and above all to endeavour to break the papal chair only for a few days, left it vacant up the council. On the question of half comfor Paul IV., who next succeeded. One of munion, they came to a decision : "That although Paul's earliest acts was to strengthen his own our Redeenier instituted the sacrament in two interest, by adding several new members to the kinds, and gave it to his apostles; that it must, college of cardinals. At the opening of the se- nevertheless, be allowed that the whole and entire venteenth session, being the first of the third Christ, and a true sacrament is received even convocation at Trent, the indices expurgatorii, under one kind only.' Therefore, that the faithful came first under the review of the council. It are not bound, as by a divine ordinance to receive was then alleged that the reigning emperors, the eucharist under both kinds. During the disduring the first four general councils, prohibited cussions both before, and at this session, great lithe heretical works of their time to be read; that berty was taken with the pope’s authority. Some of Martin V. condemned Wickliffe's works; that the leading bishops were even for subjecting him Leo prohibited Luther's writings; and why, to that of the council. But the legates, with contherefore, should not the Tridentine fathers, with summate skill, shielded him from such a degrathese precedents before their eyes, imitate their dation. Some minor regulations about the union example?
and division of parishes, &c., were made; but Were it not to direct the reader's attention to the session closed without the slightest attempo the frivolous occupations in which the Triden- at reform. tine fathers could engage during some of the The twenty-second session. Before this ses. sessions, the intervening ones, from the four- sion commenced, a congregation was formed, by teenth to the twenty-first, might be passed over which subjects, afterwards to be submitted to in this sketch. The most prominent feature of the council, were entertained. The first prothe eighteenth was the disputation which took posed was the doctrine of the mass. place at it, between the Portuguese and Hunga Nine canons were decreed, with an anathema rian ambassadors about precedence! The nine- to each, establishing the necessity of a perpetual teenth session commenced with a furious contest sacrifice, and setting forth, that the sacrifice of between the pope and the council, which after- the mass was propitiatory; 'not only for the wards settled into a disunion amongst its mem sins of the living, but also for those who are de
ceased in Christ, and are not yet fully purged.'* the chief bishop, who, as Christ's vicar, was au
The remainder of the twenty-second session thorized to regulate it according to his pleasure. exhibited the violence of party, beyond any for- This doctrine found in the Jesuit Lainez particuiner example, on the subject of the divine right larly a warm supporter. But the pope and his of residence. After the question was brought partisans wearied into a compliance with their forward again and again, it ultimately gave way wishes those who held out longest against them; to a symptom of reform, which now manifested such as the cardinal of Lorraine, and those itself. The French bishops endeavoured to re French bishops who remained with him at Trent. vive the decree of the council of Constance, and The balance of 40,000 crowns due to the French 10 reject the authority of the pope; while Lai- monarch, and paid him by the pope at this critinez, the general of the Jesuits, as obstinately de- cal period, contributed not a little, it has been fended it. Pius perceiving that the storm was thought, to this result. gathering thick, and lowering over his head, Some difference of opinion having arisen on feigned a desire to comply with the general the article of purgatory, it was ultimately refeeling. He published reforming decrees; but moved by the decision, that since the mass they of course left untouched the power and taught, that that sacrifice was expiatory for the privileges of the holy see. The French bishops, dead, not yet fully purged of their sins,' the dochowever, continued importunale ; they memo- trine of purgatory was sufficiently settled. In rialed both pope and council for a redress of the same decree, the holy bodies of martyrs and grievances under thirty-four heads; including saints were held up as objects of respect, and celibacy of the clergy, divine service in the vul- the images of Christ, and the virgin Mary, of gar tongue, and half communion; if they failed honor and veneration. Indulgences, the traffic in their object, it was now to be ascribed to the in which was one of the prime causes of the Refirmness of the pontiff. He had the merit on this formation, were bandled with even less caution, occasion, at least, of acting with manly candor, in the fathers having maintained that the church boldly and publicly rejecting their petition. He always possessed and exercised the power to did so, he said, on the ground, that, if concession confer them. As a few days only remained to were once made, reformation would begin. dispose of other important points, which called
Twenty-third and twenty-fourth sessions. In for serious deliberation, such as related to fasts the first of these, holy orders were decreed to be and meats, the Index Expurgatorius, the Missal, a sacrament. A decree of reformation, consist- Breviary, Ceremonial, and the composition of a ing of several articles, was likewise passed on Catechism ; they were referred to the pope, with the subject of residence; but even that did not a request that he would supply the wants and reach the root of the evil, as the questions relat- wishes of the universal church in these matters. ing to the institution of bishops, and the autho- In the last chapter, which professed to be on rity of the pope, were omitted. After decreeing general reformation, duels were prohibited under marriage to be one of the seven sacraments, the 'a severe penalty. council employed itself, in its twenty-fourth ses One observation alone remains to be made, in sion, on frivolous questions relating to clandes- conclusion, that neither was the church (in catine marriages, and the reformation of monaste- pite, vel in membris) reformed, nor justice done ries and nunneries: the duties of canonries, to the Protestants. The German Protestant chapters, &c. The council was now precipitating divines, it is true, appeared manfully at Trent. fast to its termination, being composed princi- They appealed to the ambassadors, and prepally of the Spanish and Italian bishops, after sented the legates with their Confession of Faith. the retreat of the German and French ones, the But they were dismissed in silence, and their latter of whom returned at the end of the last Confession, instead of being read to the counsession. The pope having fallen sick, a resolu- cil, was thrown aside; and yet this is doing justion was come to by the council to require his tice to the Protestants ! Can this be what is immediate confirmation of its decrees.
called, by a Romish bishop of the present day, The twenty-fifth or last session. The con a dispassionate examination of the Protestant cluding session of the council was full of tumult cause by the council of Trent? and discord, occasioned by the desire of the TREN’TALS, n. s. Fr. trente. Callican bishops to make the episcopacy inde Trentals or trigintals were a number of masses, to pendent of the pope. They again maintained the tale of thirty, said on the same account, accordthat it was established by divine right; while the ing to a certain order instituted by Saint Gregory. legates contended that it was an emanation from
TRENTON, a town of the United States, the Before the sacrifice of the mass passed into a capital of New Jersey, in Hunterdon county, is decree, one Ataide, a Portuguese bishop, contended situated on the east bank of the Delaware, oppothat the arguments from Scripture in support of this site the falls. It has city privileges, and contains doctrine were inconclusive, it being vain to seek in a handsome state-house, a jail, two banks, an Scripture what Scripture did not contain ; and, con- academy, two large cotton manufactories, and sequently, that those who built on any other founfour houses of public worship, one for Episcodation than tradition, built a castle in the air, and palians, one for Presbyterians, one for Methostrengthened the cause of the heretics! The observation, it would appear, was not thrown away, as the Tri- dists, and one for Friends; and between the city dentine fathers abstained from making any appeal to and Lamberton, which joins it on the south, Scripture ; but contented themselves with declaring there are two other houses of worship, one for the mass to be a doctrine which accorded with apos. Roman Catholics and one for Baptists. The wlic tradition-justa apostolorum traditionem. city, together with Lamberton, contains at pre
sent about 600 houses, a number of which are Each virtue kept its proper bound, elegant: the river is navigable as far as this place Nor trespassed on the other's ground. Prior. for sloops; but above the falls it is not navigable TRESS'ES, n. S. Without a singular. Fr. except for boats, which carry from 500 to 1000 Tress’ed, adj. Stresse ; Ital. treccia. A knot bushels of wheat. At the foot of the falls there or curl of hair: knotted or curled. is a covered bridge across the river. Population Nor this nor that so much doth make me mourn, 3003. Ten miles south-west of Princeton, thirty But for the lad, whom long I loved so dear, north-east of Philadelphia, and sixty south-west Now loves a lass that all his love doth scora, of New York.
He, plunged in pain, his tressed locks doth tear. TREPAN', n. s. & v. a. A snare; a strata
Hung be the heavens with black, yield day to gem by which any one is ensnared : to ensnare.
night! Skinner says that some English ships in queen
Comets, importing change of times and states, Elizabeth's reign being invited, with great show
Brandish your crystal tresses in the sky! of friendship, into Trapani, a part of Sicily, were
.Shakspeare. there detained, and thence the word originated.
Her swelling breast But what a thoughtless animal is man,
Naked met his, under the flowing gold How very active in his own trepan! Roscommon. Of her loose tresses hid.
Milton. Can there be any thing of friendship in snares,
Fair tresses man's imperial race ensnare, hooks, and trepans ? South. And beauty draws us with a single hair.
Pope. Those are but trepanned who are called to govern, TRESTLE-TREES, in ship-building, two being invested with authority, but bercaved of which is nothing else but to mock and betray them strong bars of timber fixed horizontally on the into a splendid and magisterial way of being ridicu- opposite sides of the lower mast head, to support
the frame of the top. and the weight of the top lous.
mast. See Mast. Trepa'n, n. s. 2
Tret, in commerce, is commonly four pounds, TREPRINE'. $ ment by which chirurgeons
in every 104 lbs, weight. cut round pieces out of the skull : trephine is a
TREVERIS, Treviris, or Augusta Trevirosmall trepan managed by one hand. A putrid matter howed forth her nostrils, of the rum, in ancient geography, a town of Gallia
Belgica, the capital of the Treveri; now called same smell with that in trepanning the bone.
TREVES, or Triers, perhaps the most anberty to try both upon a skull.
Id. cient, and one of the most celebrated, cities in Few recovered of those that were trepanned. Gerinany, the capital formerly of an electorate
Arbuthnot. and archbishopric, now of a Prussian government TREPIDA'TION, n. s. Lat. trepidatio. The in the province of the Lower Rhine. Its situastate of trembling, quivering, or terror.
tion is picturesque, in the centre of a large valley The bow tortureth the string continually, and lying along the Moselle, and open to the northholdeth it in a continual trepidation.
west and south-east, but confined on the other Bacon's Natural History. sides by two gentle eminences covered with vines. Moving of the earth brings harms and fears, The length of the town is nearly a mile and a Men reckon what it did and meant;
half; but as in this space there is a number of But trepidation of the spheres,
gardens the population is under 12,000. The Though greater far, is innocent.
streets are tolerably wide. The chief buildings His first action of note was in the battle of Le
are the elector's palace, now turned into barpanto ; where the success of that great day, in such racks, and the church of Notre Dame, built about trepidation of the state, made every man meritorious. the year 1240, and affording a fine specimen of
Gothic architecture. Another church, that of St. They pass the planets seven,
pass the fixed, And that crystalline sphere whose balance weighs
Simeon, is said to occupy the site of the building The trepidation talked, and that first moved. Milton. used by the Gauls for their public meetings, and TRESʻPASS, v. n. & n. s. ) Fr. trespasser.
by the Romans for a capitol or town-house. Tres'PASSER, n. s. | To transgress; of
The cathedral is remarkable only for its altars, fend : the noun substantives corresponding.
its marble gallery, and the uncommon size of the If they shall confess their trespass, which they stones with which it is built. The environs of
the town abound with gardens, and present prostrespassed against me, I will remember my covenant.
Leviticus xxvi. 43. pects not unworthy of a comparison with SwitYour purposed low correction
zerland. Is such, as basest and the meanest wretches
The Romans found a town on this site, and For pilferings, and most common trespass,
the inhabitants, whom they called Treviri, someAre punished with. Shakspeare. King Lear. what more improved than their rude neighbours.
If I come upon another's ground without his li- Under the name of Augusta Trevirorum it becence, or the licence of the law, I am a trespasser, came one of their chief stations, and the capital for which the owner may have an action of trespass of Gallia Belgica. After Constantine it was the against me.
residence of the prefect of all the Gauls, until the Will God incense his ire For such a petty trespass ?
repeated inroads of the Germans necessitated the They not only contradict the general design and removal of the seat of administration to Arles. particular expresses of the gospel, but trespass against It was frequently a royal residence under the all logick.
Norris. Franks, was subsequently received into the Ger'I'heir morals and economy
man empire, and continued during many centuMost perfectly they made agree :
ries under an ecclesiastical government. It re