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tention of travellers has also been strongly at to the intent the thief may escape; which is an tracted by a colossal head of black granite, offence punishable by fine and imprisonment, &c. found lying on the ground close to the Mem THEIR, pron. Sax. deora of them. Of nonium. Norden particularly admires its charm- them : the pronoun possessive, from they : theirs ing simplicity, and Hamilton considers it as is used in construction when any thing comes certainly the most beautiful and perfect piece of between the possessive and substantive. Egyptian sculpture. This head, through the ex Prayer we always have in our power to bestow, and ertions of Messrs. Salt and Belzoni, has been con they never in theirs to refuse.

Hooker. veyed to Europe, and is now to be found in the The round world should have shook British Museum.

Lions into civil streets, and citizens into their dens. THECLA, a noble and learned lady of Alex

Shukspeare. andria, in Egypt, who in the fourth century, the Egyptians did to theirs.

They gave the same names to their own idols which

Raleigh. transcribed the whole of the Bible in the Greek

Nothing but the name of zeal appears language, from the original Septuagint copy, then 'Twixt our best actions and the worst of theirs. preserved in the Alexandrian Library; and this

Denham. ancient copy is still preserved, and constitutes The penalty to thy transgression due, the celebrated Alexandrian MS., so often ap- And due to theirs, which out of thine will grow. pealed to by commentators. It was presented

Milton. io king Charles I. by Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch Vain are our neighbours' hopes, and vain their of Constantinople, in 1628. See SCRIPTURE, cares; sect. VIII.

The fault is more their language's than theirs. THEFT, n. s. From thief. The act of steal.


Which established law of theirs seems too strict at ing; the thing stolen.

first, because it excludes all secret intrigues. If the theft be certainly found in his hand alive,

Dryden. whether ox, ass, or sheep, he shall restore double. For the Italians, Dante had begun to file 'their

Exodus xxii. 4. language in verse before Boccace, who likewise reTheft is an unlawful felonious taking away of ceived no little help from his master Petrarch ; but another man's goods against the owner's knowledge the reformation of their prose was wholly owing to or will,

Cowel. Boccace. His thefts were too open ; his filching was like an And, reading, wish like theirs our fate and fame. unskilful singer, he kept not time.

Pope. Shakspeare. Merry Wives of Windsor.

THEISM (from Ocos, God). The doctrine, or Deceit in trade, a secret theft: extortion, an im- belief, that there is but one God. This word is pudent theft.

Holyday. The thefts upon the public can be looked into and from the Latin, the former from the Greek. See

synonymous with deism, the latter being derived punished.


DEISM. Theft, in English law, or simple larceny, THEISS, or Tisza, a river of Hungary, which is the felloniously taking and carrying away of rises from two springs in the county of Marthe personal goods of another. By the Jewish marosch, on the north-east frontier of the kingdom. law it was only punished with a pecuniary fine, The two streams called the Black and the White and satisfaction to the party injured ; and in the Theiss soon unite, and, after flowing above 100 civil law, till some very late constitutions, we miles in a western direction, it turns to the never find the punishment capital. The laws of south, and either touches or divides ten distinci Draco at Athens punished it with death; but counties or districts, before flowing into the his laws were said to be written with blood; and Danube at Salankamen, below Titul. In this Solon afterwards changed the penalty to a pecu- long course, above 500 miles, it receives a great niary mulct. And so the Attic laws in general number of rivers. continued ; except that once, in a time of dearth, THEIST (from Gr. Oxos, God). One who it was made capital to break into a garden and believes in the eternal existence of one God. A steal figs; but this law, and the informers against word synonymous with Deist. See Drist. All the offence, grew so odious, that from them all Christians, Jews, and even Mahometans, are malicious informers were styled sycophants; a Theists, or Deists, though all Theists are not name which we have much perverted from its Christians. original meaning. The punishment of theft THELIGONUM, in botany, a genus of plants throughout the greatest part of Europe is capital. belonging to the class of monecia, and order The Anglo-Saxon laws nominally punished theft of polyandria ; natural order fifty-third, scabrida: with death, if above the value of 12d.: but the MALE CAL. bifid : cor. none : the stamina are criminal was permitted to redeem his life by a generally twelve : FEMALE CAL. also bifid : cor. pecuniary ransom; as, among their ancestors the none: only one pistil : CAPs. coriaceous, unilo. Germans, by a stated number of cattle. But, in cular, and monospermous. There is only one the ninth year of Henry I., this power of redemp- species, viz. T. cynocrambe, which is indigenous tion was taken away, and all persons guilty of in the South of Europe. larceny above the value of 12d. were directed to THELLUSSON (Peter Isaac), a native of be hanged; which law continues in force to this Geneva, who settled for many years as a merday. See Law.

chant in London, where he accumulated an imTHEFT-BOTE (from the Saxon theof, i. e. a mense fortune, which, at his death in 1798, he thief, and bote, compensatis), the receiving of a left by will to be disposed of as follows :man's goods again from a thief, after stolen, or Above £100,000 to his widow and children, and uther amends not to prosecute the felon, and all the rest to accumulate till a certain period,



when, if none of his descendants shall then be in THEMISTOCLES, the renowned Athenian life, the whole is to be devoted to the Sinking admiral, general, and patriot, who gained the Fund, to pay off the national debt, and to be en- battle of Salamis against the Persians. Being tirely at the disposal of the British parliament. banished his country, by his ungrateful fellow It is estimated that, within 120 years, there will citizens, he fled to Artaxerxes king of Persia; be none of his posterity in life, and the sum will but, to avoid taking up arms against his country, then have accumulated to £140,000,000 sterling. he slew himself, 464 B. C. See Attica. His descendants applied to the Court of Chan THEN, adv. Goth. than; Sax. Šan; Belg. cery to get this will set aside, but without suc den. At that time; afterward; immediately after ;

at another time; in that case; therefore. THEME, n. s. Fr. theme ; Greek Jepa. A

When I tell him he hates flatterers, subject on which one speaks or writes; an origi- He says he does; being then most flattered. nal root or word; a short essay.

Shakspeare. When a soldier was the theme, my name

If an herb be cut off from the roots in winter, and Was cot far off.

then the earth be trodden down hard, the roots will Shakspeare. Cymbeline. O! could I flow like thee, and make thy stream

become very big in summer.

Bacon's Natural History. My great example, as it is my theme :

If God's immediate speaking and writing arguTbough deep, yet clear ; though gentle, yet not eth precepts, thus spoken or written, to be perpetu

ally moral; then his not writing of precepts argueth Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full.

them to be temporary.

White. Denham. Forcing the empty wits of children to compose

Whiles then the apostle moves us to unity, and

moves us also to an endeavour to it, he bestows themes, verses, and orations.

Milton. Whatever Dear Eurota's happy stream,

upon us as well a discovery as an exhortation, With laurels crowned, had been Apollo's theme.

shewing us not only the end, but also the means.

Holyday. Roscommon. Though Tyber's streams immortal Roine behold,

The then bishop of London, Dr. Laud, attended Though foamin; Hermus swells with tides of gold,

on his majesty through that whole journey.

Clarendon, From heaven itself though seven-fold Nilus flows,

If then his providence And harvests on a hundred realms bestows;

Out of our evil seek to bring forth good. Milton. These now no more shall be the muse's themes,

Till then who knew Lost in my fame, as in the sea their streams. Pope.

The force of those dire arms.

Id. Every object of our idea is called a theme, whether Now then be all thy weighty cares away, it be a being or not being.


Thy jealousies and fears; and, while you may, Let scholars daily reduce the words to their origi. To peace and soft repose give all the day. Dryden. nal or theme, to the first case of nouns, or first tense of verbs.


Had fate so pleased I had been eldest born,

And then without a crime the crown had worn. Id. THEMIS, in the mythology, the goddess of Thee, then a boy, with my arms I laid. Id. justice, but different from Astræa; she was a One while the master is not aware of what is done, daughter of Cælus and Terra, and, according to and then in other cases it may fall out to be his own the poets, was compelled to marry Jupiter, by act,

L'Estrange. whom she became mother of the Parcæ or Fates,

If all this be so, then man has a natural freedom.

Locke. and of Dice, Eunomia, Irene, &c. Her oracle was famous in Attica in the age of Deucalion, THENAR, or Tenar, in anatomy, the muscle who consulted her after the deluge, and was di- that draws the thumb from the fingers, called rected how to repeople the world. She is repre- also abductor brevis pollicis. See ABDUCTOR, sented with a pair of scales in one hand, and a

and ANATOMY. sword in the other.—Lempriere.

THENATH. See TAANATH-SAILOH. THEmis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Troy, THENCE, adv. Contracted, according who married Capys, and became mother of An Thence ́FORTH, to Minsheu, from there chises, the father of Æneas.-Apollod. iii. c. 12.

THENCEFOR'WARD. hence. From that place THEMISON, a celebrated physician of Laodi- or time; for that reason : thenceforth is from that cea, a disciple of Asclepiades, he founded the time: thenceforward, onward from that time: Methodic sect, with a view to the more easily from thence,' is a barbarism, but too well supteaching and practising the art of medicine. ported. See MEDICINE. Themison gave the first account And into what hous that ye entre dwille ghe there, of diacodium, which was prepared of the juice and go ye not out fro thence.

Wiclif. Luk 9. and decoction of poppy-heads and honey. He There shall be no more thence an infant of days. invented a purging medicine called heira.

Isaiah lxv. THEMIŠTIUS, an ancient Greek orator and Thenceforth this land was tributary made philosopher, a native of Paphlagonia, who flou. T' ambitious Rome.

Spenser. rished in the fourth century. He had great in

From thence ; from him, whose daughter terest and favor with the emperors in his time, His tears proclaimed his parting with her; thence and, though a heathen, was of a very tolerating

We have crossed.


Fast by the oracle of God; I thence spirit. He taught for many years at Constanti

Invoke thy aid.

Milton. nople, of which city he was made prefect by Not to sit idle with so great a gift Julian and Theodosius; and lived to be very old. Useless, and thence ridiculous, about him. More than thirty of his orations are still' extant,

Id. Agonistes. besides commentaries on several parts of Aris There plant eyes, all mist from thence totle's works.

Purge and disperse.


Wrath shall be no more

The compositions of this poet are distinguished Thenceforth, but in thy presence joy entire.


among the ancients by the name of Idylliums, Avert

in order to express their smallness and variety : His holy eyes ; resolving from thenceforth

they would now be called Miscellanies, or Poems To leave them to their own polluted ways.


on several occasions. The works of this poet When he comes to the Lord's table, every communicant professes to repent, and promises to lead a

were first published in folio by Aldus Manutius

at Venice in 1495.

kettlewell. new life thence forward.

But the best edition was Surat he took, and thence preventing fame,

published in 1770, in 2 vols. 4to, by Mr. Thomas

Warton. By quick and painful marches thither came.


THEODATUS, or THEODOTUS, the third king Men grow acquainted with these self-evident truths of the Ostrogoths in Italy, was raised to the upon their being proposed; but whosoever does so, throne by his aunt Amalasuntha, who married finds in himself that be then begins to know a pro- him, but whom the villain ungratefully murdered. position which he knew not before, and which from See ITALY. thenceforth he never questions.


THEODOLITE, a mathematical instrument THEOBALD (Lewis), the son of an attorney for taking heights and distances. See GEOMETRY. at Sittingbourn in Kent, was a well known writer THEODORE, king of Corsica, baron Nieuand critic in the early part of the eighteenth hoff in the county of La Marc in Westphalia. century. He engaged in a paper called the Cen- He had his education in the French service, and sor, published in Mist's Journal, wherein, by afterwards went to Spain; but, being of an undelivering his opinions with too little reserve settled disposition, he quitted Spain, and travelled concerning some eminent wits, he exposed him- into Italy, England, and Holland, in search of self to their resentment. Upon the publication some new adventure. He at last fixed his atof Pope's Homer, he praised it in terms of ex- tention on Corsica, and formed the scheme of travagant admiration, yet afterwards thought rendering himself sovereign of that island. proper to abuse it as earnestly; for which Pope He went to Tunis, where he fell upon means to at first made him the hero of his Dunciad, though procure some money and arms; and then went he afterwards laid him aside for another. Mr. to Leghorn, whence he wrote a letter to the Theobald not only exposed himself to the lashes Corsican chiefs Giafferi and Paoli, offering conof Pope, but waged war with Mr. Dennis, who siderable assistance to the nation if they would treated him more roughly, though with less satire. elect him as their sovereign. This letter was conHe nevertheless published an edition of Shaks- signed to Count Dominico Rivarola, who acted peare, in which he corrected, with great pains and as Corsican plenipotentiary in Tuscany; and he ingenuity, many faults that had crept into that gave for answer, that, if Theodore brought the poet's writings. This edition is still in great es assistance he promised to the Corsicans, they teem, being in general preferred to those pub- would very willingly make him king. Upon this lished by Pope, Warburion, and Hanmer. Ile he, without loss of time, set sail, and landed at also wrote some plays, and translated others Tavagna in spring 1736. He had a few attendants from the ancients.

with him; and his manners were so engaging, THEOBROMA, in botany, a genus of plants and his offers so plausible, that he was proclaimed belonging to the class of polyadelphia, and order king of Corsica before Count Rivarola's despatches of pentandria; arıd in the natural system ranging arrived to inform the chiefs of the terms upon under the thirty-seventh order, columniferæ. which he had agreed. Theodore instantly assumed The calyx is triphyllous; the petals, which are every mark of royal dignity. The Genoese were five in number, are vaulted and two-horned; the not a little confounded with this unexpected adnectarium is pentaphyllous and regular; the sta venturer. They published a violent manifesto mina grow from the nectarium, each having five against Theodore, treating him with great conantheræ. There are three species, viz. 1. T. an tempt; but at the same time showing they were gusta. 2. T. cacao, or chocolate tree. This tree alarmed at his appearance. Theodore replied delights in shady places and deep valleys. It in a manifesto, with all the calmness and dignity is seldom above twenty feet high. The leaves of a monarch; but after being about eight months are oblong, large, and pointed. The flowers in Corsica, perceiving that the people began to spring from the trunk and large branches; they cool in their affections towards him, he assembled are small and pale red. The pods are oval and his chiefs, and declared he would keep them no pointed. The seeds or nuts are numerous, and longer in a state of uncertainty, being determined curiously stowed in a white pithy substance. to seek in person the support he had so long exSee Chocolate. 3. T. guazuma.

pected. He settled an administration during THEOʻCRACY, n. S. Fr. theocratie; Greek his absence, recommended unity in the strongest Jeos and vparew. Government immediately su terins, and left the island with reciprocal assuperintended by God.

rances of fidelity and affection. He went to HolThe government is neither human nor angelical, land, where he was so successful as to obtain credit but peculiarly theocratical.

from several rich merchants, particularly Jews, Burnet's Theory of the Earth. who trusted him with cannon and other warlike The characters of the reign of Christ are chiefly stores to a great value, under the charge of a sujustice, peace, and divine presence or conduct, which

percargo. With these he returned to Corsica in is called theocracy.

1739; but by this time the French, as auxiliaries THEOCRITUS, the father of pastoral poetry, to the Genoese, had become so powerful in the was born at Syracuse in Sicily, and flourished island, that, though Theodore threw in his supply under Hiero, who began his reign about B. C. 265. of warlike stores, he did not incline to venture


his person, the Genoese having set a high price known. Theodosius chiefly cultivated that part on his head. He therefore again departed; and, of geometry which relates to the doctrine of the after many unavailing attempts to recover the sphere, concerning which he published three crown, at length retired to England, where books, of which a good English translation was he was reduced so low as to be several years made by Dr. Barrow. before his death a prisoner for debt in the King's THEODOSIUS I., called the Great, was a native Bench. At length, to the honor of some gentle- of Spain. The valor he had shown, and the iren of rank, a charitable contribution was set on great services he had done the einpire, made foot for him in 1753, by which he was released Gratian, attacked by the Goths and Germans, to from prison : but the remainder of his life was admit him as a partner in the government. He spent in extreme poverty. Theodore died 11th received the purple in A. D. 379, aged forty-three. December 1756, and was buried in St. Anne's See ConstanTINOPLE. church yard Westminister. He left a son, the THEODOTUS, a native of Byzantium, who late colonel Frederick, who was an accomplished flourished in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, and gentleman.

at first professed Christianity, but, during the THEODORET, a bishop of St. Cyricus in persecution under that emperor, renounced it, and Syria, in the fourth century, and one of the set up a new heresy, called Theodotian, or Theomost learned fathers of the church, was born dosian. See THEODOSIANS. He was a tanner A. D. 386, and was the disciple of Theodorus by profession. of Mopsuestes and St. John Chrysostom. Having THEOGNIS, an ancient Greek poet of Mereceived holy orders, he was with difficulty per- gara in Achaia, who flourished about the fiftysuaded to accept of the bishopric of St. Cyricus, ninth Olympiad, 144 B. C. We have a work about A. D. 420. He displayed great frugality in of his extant, concerning a summary of precepts the expenses of his table, dress, and furniture, but and reflections, usually to be found in the colspent considerable sums in improving and adorn- lections of the Greek minor poets. ing the city of Cyricus. Yet his zeal was not con THEOGONY, from oeos, God, and youn, fined to his own church; he went to preach at An- genitura, seed or offspring. Hesiod gives us the tioch and the neighbouring towns, where he be- ancient theogony, in a poem under that title. came admired for his eloquence and learning, and Among the most ancient writers, Dr. Burnet obhad the happiness to convert multitudes of people. serves, that theogony and cosmogony signified He wrote in favor of John of Antioch and the the same thing. In effect, the generation of the Nestorians, against Cyril's Twelve Anathemas; gods of the ancient Persians, fire, water, and he afterwards attacked the opinions of Nestorius, earth, is apparently no other than that of the and was deposed in the synod held by the Eu- primary elements. See POLYTHEISM. tychians at Ephesus; but was again restored by THEOʻLOGY, n. s. Fr. theologie ; Gr. the general council of Chalcedon, in which he THEOLO GIAN, Seo oyla. Divinity: was present, in 451. It is thought that he died


a theologian, theolosoon after; though others say that he lived till TueoLoGʻICALLY, adv. I gist, or theologue is A. D. 457. There are still extant Theodoret's Theol'OGIST, n. s. a professor of or one excellent Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, and The'OLOGUE.

skilled in divinity : on several other books of the Holy Scriptures. theological pertaining to divinity: the adverb 2. His Ecclesiastical History, from the time of corresponding. Arius to Theodosius the Younger. 3. History The whole drift of the scripture of God, what is of the Anchorites. 4. Epistles. 5. Discourses it but only to teach theology? Theology, what is it on Providence. 6. A treatise entitled De Curandis but the science of things divine ?

Hooker. Græcorum Affectibus; and other works. The

The cardinals of Rome, which are theologues, beşt edition is that of Sirmond, in Greek and friars, and school-men, call all temporal business, of Latin, in 4 vols. folio.

wars, embassages, shirrery, which is under sheriffries.

Bacon's Essays. THEODORICK, the first and greatest monarch of the Ostrogoths in Italy. He had many virtues, ligion by defending oppressions.

Some theologians defile places erected only for re

Hayward. shaded with some vices. He defeated Clovis

She was most dear to the king in regard of her king of France, and Odoacer king of Italy, A. D. knowledge in languages, in theology, and in philoso526. See FRANCE, Goths, and Italy.


Id. THEODORICK, or THIERRI, king of Metz; the Although some pens have only symbolized the eldest son of Clovis. See FRANCE.

same from the mystery of its colours, yet are there THEODORUS, bishop of Mopsuestes, a city other affections might admit of theological allusions.

Browne. in Cilicia, a learned prelate of the fifth century. He wrote a Commentary on the Psalms, another The oldest writers of theology were of this mind.

Tillotson. On the Twelve minor Prophets ; which, with some other fragments, are extant. He died A. D.

A theologue more by need than genial bent ;

Interest in all his actions was discerned. Dryden. 428. But his works were condemned in the

It is no more an order, according to popish theolofifth general council, as favoring Nestorianism gists, than the prima tonsura, they allowing only (see NESTORIANS) and Socinianism.

seven ecclesiastical theologists. Ayliffe's Parergon. THEODOSIUS, a celebrated matheinatician, They generally are extracts of theological and who flourished in the times of Cicero and Pom- moral sentences, drawn from ecclesiastical and other pey, but the time and place of his death are un authors.



man race.

THEOLOGY, or divinity, has been defined that of every man who has any notion of the relation science which treats of the being and attributes between effects and their causes, and whose cuof God, his relations to us, the dispensations of riosity has ever been excited by the phenomena his providence, his will with respect to our of nature. This great and important truth the actions, and his purposes with respect to our Scriptures no where undertake to demonstrate ; end. The word was first used to denote the sys- but they open with the sublimest and strongest tems of those poets and philosophers who wrote of mode of confirming it, i. e. by ascribing the enthe genealogy and exploits of the gods of Greece. tire work of creation to the one Only God; and Hence Orpheus, Museus, Hesiod, Pherecydes, it may be proved by arguments much more simand Pythagoras, were called theologians; as was ple than are the first principles of any other Plato, on account of his speculations on the same science. subject. It was afterwards adopted by the We see that the human race, and every other earliest writers of the Christian church, who species of animals, is at present propagated by styled the author of the apocalypse, by way of the co-operation of two parents; but has this eminence, ô Deodoyos, the divine.

process continued from eternity? A moment's INTRODUCTION.—The Pagan systems are treat- reflection will convince us that it has not. Let ed of under POLYTHEISM ; and that of the Maho- us take any one man alive, and, to avoid pe:metans under Alcoran, and MAHOMETANISM: plexity, let us suppose his father and mother the only theology of which we have to treat at dead, and himself the only person at present present is Christian theology, which compre. existing: how came he into the world ? It will hends that which is commonly called natural, be said he was produced mechanically or chemiand that which is revealed in the Scriptures of cally by the conjunction of Iis parents, and that the Old and New Testaments. These taken to- his parents were produced in the same manner gether, and they ought never to be separated, by theirs. Let this then be supposed; it must compose a body of science so important, that, in surely be granted that when this man was born, comparison with it, all other sciences sink into an addition was made to the series of the huinsignificance.

But a series which can be enlarged Christian theology, we have said, is divided may likewise be diminished; and, by tracing it into two great parts, natural and revealed; the backwards, we must at some period, however former comprehending that which may be known remote, reach its beginning. There must thereof God from the creation of the world, even his fore have been a first pair of the human race, eternal power and Godhead; the latter, that who were not propagated by the conjunction which is discovered to man only in the Bible. of parents. How did these come into the world? Concerning the extent of natural theology many

Anaximander tells us that the first men and opinions have been formed; but into these dis- all animals were bred in warm moisture, enputes we mear, not to enter. It is undeniable closed in crustaceous skins like crab-fish or lobihat there are some of the principles of theology sters; and that when they arrived at a proper which may be called natural; for, though it is age their shelly prisons growing dry, broke, probable that the parents of mankind received and made way for their liberty. Empedocles all their theological knowledge by supernatural that our mother earth at first brought forth vast means, it is still obvious that some parts of that numbers of legs, and arms, and heads, &c., knowledge must have been capable of a proof which, approaching each other, arranging thempurely rational, otherwise not a single religious selves properly, and being cemented together, truth could have been conveyed through the suc- started up at once full grown men. Another ceeding generations of the human race but by of these philosophers relates that there first the immediate inspiration of each individual. grew up a sort of wombs, which, having their We indeed admit many propositions as certainly roots in the earth, attracted thence a kind of true upon the sole authority of the Jewish and milk for the nourishment of the fætus, which in Christian Scriptures; but it is self-evident that process of time broke through the membranes we could not do either the one or the other, were and shifted for itself; whilst the Egyptian fathers we not convinced by natural means that God of this hopeful school content d themselves with exists, that he is a Being of goodness, justice, simply affirming that animals, like vegetables, and power, and that he inspired with divine wis- sprung at first from the bosom of the earth. dom the penmen of these sacred volumes. Surely these sages, or their followers, should

have been able to tell us why the earth has not PART I.

in any climate this prolific power of putting

forth vegetable men or the parts of men at preOF NATURAL THEOLOGY.

If this universal parent be eternal and Sect. I.–Of The Being AND ATTRIBUTES OF the smallesť change in any of its qualities : if it

self-existent, it must be incapable of decay or God.

be not eternal, we shall be obliged to find a The existence of God is the foundation of all cause for its existence, or at least for its form religion, and the first principle of the science and all its powers. But such a cause may have which is the subject of this article. It is like- produced the first human pair, and undoubtedly wise a principle which must command the assent did produce them, without making them spring


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